Many know what hemorrhoids are, but consider ita disease, though unpleasant, but not very serious. And this is one of the main mistakes that often leads to the fact that the disease becomes neglected, requiring complex surgical intervention. About what this disease is and how to treat hemorrhoids, let's find out more.
Causes of hemorrhoids
What is hemorrhoids? This disease is associated with an increase in blood vessels and tissues of the rectum. There is formation of so-called hemorrhoids, their prolapse through the anus. In this case, there may be bleeding, pain, discomfort during defecation. This disease is very common today, but in all it is in different stages. It can even be ignored, especially at the initial stage, with internal, but not external hemorrhoids. The reasons for which such an unpleasant disease appears can be very different. Among the basic it is necessary to note:
- malnutrition, lack of fiber in the diet;
- Constant constipation, which increases the pressure in the rectum;
- hereditary factors;
- in women it can be childbirth, often hemorrhoids appear during pregnancy;
- prolonged sitting on the toilet;
- a sedentary, inactive way of life (usually such a disease affects office staff);
- excessive physical exertion;
- abuse of alcoholic beverages, spicy food.
Symptoms of hemorrhoids and treatment at different stages
To treat hemorrhoids, you need to determine first with its symptoms. The course of the disease can be divided into several separate stages:
- chronic hemorrhoids are divided into 4 stages: 1 - bloody discharge of bright scarlet color, 2 - prolapse of nodes, 3 - prolapse of nodes, requiring the intervention of a doctor, 4 - loss, requiring surgical intervention, the formation of thrombi;
- acute hemorrhoids is divided into 3 stages: 1 - the formation of nodes without inflammatory processes and pain, 2 - the emergence of inflammatory processes, 3 - inflammation around the hemorrhoids.
To accurately determine the stage and formdisease, it is necessary to undergo examination, after which the doctor will prescribe the appropriate treatment. It can be taking medications at home, a warm bath. In difficult cases, treatment in a hospital is necessary. Homeopathic treatment Homeopathy is an alternative treatment that often brings quick and substantial relief. Unlike traditional medicine methods, there are practically no contraindications, procedures can be performed at home with confidence in their effect. But self-medication can not be done, it is necessary to consult a homeopath physician who will prescribe medications. To get rid of the itch, you can use Capsicum Annum. In any case, the selection of such a drug should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor, based on the symptoms and general condition of the patient. If treatment is carried out at home, then a consultation with a proctologist is also required in advance. Just buying drugs without doctor's advice is impossible, because hemorrhoids - a serious disease, the consequences of such an independent treatment can be unpredictable. Treatment of chronic form In stage 1-2The chronic form of hemorrhoids can be treated with invasive methods. This is cryotherapy, photocoagulation, ligation using rings from latex, sclerotherapy. But these methods are contraindicated in such situations:
- presence of anal fissures;
- presence of thrombosis nodes;
- the presence of acute paraproctitis, inflammatory processes in the perineum and in the anal canal.
The treatment itself is as follows:
- Sclerotherapy is a method ofwhich sclerosing agent is introduced into the site in an amount up to 2 mm. This substance causes gluing, flattening of the vessels, that is, it brings considerable relief. At the same time, you can only work with 2 nodes, otherwise a strong pain syndrome will develop. Repeated intervention can be carried out only after 2 weeks;
- The use of latex rings suggests theiroverlapping in the area of the node to shut off its power. After this, the nodes together with the rings are removed (when the tissues die). It happens about a week after surgery. In some cases it is recommended that the operation be repeated;
- photocoagulation is a procedure in whichthe time of which an optical fiber is inserted into the anus. Under the influence of thermal energy, the nodes of the node are glued together. The tip should be brought to each node from 2 to 6 times;
- cryotherapy is one of the safest procedures. In this case, the node simply freezes, after its thawing tissue dies off, a small wound remains. There is such an intervention under local anesthesia, a lot of time is not required for this.
Some procedures, for example minimally invasive,General anesthesia is not required, but it all depends on the complexity of the disease. For cryotherapy or laser intervention, epidural anesthesia may be required. Such a method of treatment can not be called a panacea, since they do not eliminate the main cause of hemorrhoids, but only reduce the pain syndrome, remove the knot. Treatment of thrombosed form If thrombosedhemorrhoids with pain, then for treatment are possible different options. When the site is enlarged only a little, the doctor will recommend warm baths, some laxatives. But if the pain is quite strong, and the site is large, then often the procedure for removing the blood clot is prescribed. This procedure is performed only in hospital settings, although it usually does not take much time. Do not try to do it yourself, because not only the strong development of the disease, but also the infection, the penetration of infection into other organs is possible! The blood clot is removed using local anesthesia, but the patient does not feel anything. A piece of bandage is inserted into the knot, which allows to stop bleeding, prevents the further formation of a thrombus. On the outer surface of the site, a dressing is also applied, which can be removed 6-12 hours after the operation. Often a doctor prescribes a sessile bath with warm water. Painful sensations after such a procedure disappear, but if there is still a feeling of discomfort, then patients are prescribed acetaminophen, ibuprofen, which have an analgesic effect. When the hemorrhoidal nodes fall, that is, prolapse, it is necessary to intervene with the doctor, nothing can be done independently. For the most part, such an intervention ends in the fact that the doctor carefully adjusts the fallen part, pressing it with his finger. But there are cases when the node is uncontrollable or drops out after the procedure. In this case, only surgical intervention is possible, which can greatly alleviate the condition. If the dropped node remains in place, that is, in the pinched anus, then necrosis may develop. The tissue ceases to receive the blood necessary for nutrition, gradually dies. This leads to such an unpleasant situation as infection of hemorrhoids, infection with blood flow to other organs. This not only negatively affects the general state of health, but can also cause dangerous diseases. In this case, surgical intervention, treatment in a hospital is necessary.
When is surgical treatment performed?
Hemorrhoids can sometimes be treated onlysurgical method. It is recommended for 3-4 degrees of the disease. Surgical intervention is the excision of hemorrhoids with subsequent stitching of feeding vessels. Postoperative period, which the patient should spend in a hospital under supervision, is approximately 7-9 days, depending on the general condition and complexity of the intervention. The period of incapacity for work after performing such an operation is 14 days. The first time after surgery, there may be pain in the abdomen, some discomfort in the anus, suppuration of postoperative scars. In addition, it should be noted that in a remote period, such phenomena as relapses, impaired anus enlargement, weakening of its expanding function can be observed. To minimize such consequences, it is necessary to follow all the doctor's recommendations for the postoperative period, adhere to the correct diet. In order for the treatment to be effective, it is necessary to follow certain special recommendations after surgery:
- take seated baths with warm water 3 times a day, after each bowel movement (especially if the diet contains leafy vegetables, a large amount of liquid);
- when pain occurs, it is necessary to use only those drugs that the supervising doctor prescribed;
- laxative can be used only with the permission of the doctor;
- if symptoms such as bleeding, intensifying pain, fever, vomiting, abdominal pain occur, you should immediately contact an observing physician.
Prevention of hemorrhoids
Today there are not 100% reliablemeans for the prevention of such a disease as hemorrhoids. With the help of special diets can prevent the occurrence, but completely eliminate the problem can not be. It is possible to reduce the risk of corners, but for this it is necessary to fulfill the following conditions:
- at sedentary work it is necessary to rise every hour for about 15 minutes, to make any active actions;
- for drivers staying behind the wheel is recommended no more than 3 hours in a row, it is necessary to get out of the car if possible, to perform an easy warm-up;
- in the office and at home, it is recommended that soft and deep chairs be replaced with ordinary hard chairs;
- observe a diet with a high content of cereals, liquiddishes. Try to include in the diet food that does not cause constipation or diarrhea, as this often causes the prolapse of nodes in the anal region;
- reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages, spicy, spicy foods, which causes irritation in the anal area, increases blood flow;
- After defecation it is recommended not to use hard toilet paper, but to wash with cold water;
- for pregnant women it is recommended to carry out daily walks on foot, perform gymnastic exercises.
Hemorrhoids are a rather unpleasant disease,which requires treatment, it can not be thrown. Used for this are a variety of methods, including folk, which you can do at home. When the forms are started, surgical intervention is recommended, after which all the doctor's recommendations must be followed.