menstruation cycle Such a complex mechanism as the menstrual cycle, inIdeal should work like a clock, but glitches are quite common. That is why for today the failure of the menstrual cycle is one of the most common gynecological abnormalities. To be able to perform reproductive function, a woman should monitor the regularity of the menstrual cycle and pay attention to any deviations from the norm. If at some point a failure occurs in the functioning of the body, there is always a reason. At the heart of the menstrual cycle is a system of complex biochemical reactions, it involves the central nervous system (cerebral cortex, subcortical centers), the organs of the endocrine system (adrenal glands, thyroid gland), sexual organs. All of them are to some extent responsible for the regulation of the cycle. Malfunction of the menstrual cycle is not considered a separate disease, it is a sign that there was a violation in the work of internal organs.

Norm and deviations

The cycle time is counted from the firstday of menstruation to the beginning of the next. The normal duration of the menstrual cycle is from 21 (according to some data from 26) to 36 days. Menstruation lasts from 3 to 7 days. "Standard" is considered to be a 28-day cycle. Do not panic because of a situation delay or a reduction in the monthly cycle: in this case, 5-7 days (and according to some data up to 10 days) are a variant of the norm. On the violation of the menstrual cycle can be said in the case when the monthly are constantly delayed by more than 10 days or the cycle was reduced by 5-7 days. When failures become systemic, this is an indication for action. An exception is the category of women who have a very long menstrual cycle in the norm. Such physiological characteristics are genetically determined. As a rule, it turns out that such cases were already observed in the family of such women. Menstrual cycle disorders are also not a bloody discharge in a small volume during ovulation (14 days before menstruation). The most pronounced form of disorders of the menstrual cycle is amenorrhea - a complete absence of menstruation for six months or more. In the first three months of taking a hormonal contraceptive or after taking an emergency contraceptive, intermenstrual bleeding may appear. If the discharge appears again, it is worthwhile to see a doctor, this may be a symptom of a serious illness (eg, uterine fibroids). Smoking is one of the causes of menstruation

Causes of disorders associated with various diseases

The birth of healthy children is very important for everyone.women. Rare, meager or, conversely, frequent, plentiful, irregular menstruation can cause difficulties with conception and pregnancy, therefore it is very important to pay attention to problems in the body in time. As for the regulation of the monthly cycle, certain authorities are responsible, the cause of the failures should be sought precisely in the violations of their interaction. Disorders from the cerebral cortex and subcortical centers (pituitary, hypothalamus):

  • chronic psycho-emotional stress, frequent exorbitant stresses and stressful situations, lack of sleep;
  • change of time zones and climatic zones;
  • regular wakefulness in the early hours (at this time there is an active allocation of hormones-regulators of the monthly cycle);
  • tumor-like formations;
  • viral neuroinfections.

Failure hormonal cycle can occur whenviolations in the work of endocrine organs and target tissues, hormones should be allocated and perceived in a normal amount. Disorders of the endocrine system:

  • genetic diseases, hormonal failures and pathologies of the ovaries (polycystosis, hypoplasia);
  • functional (accumulation of estrogen and progesterone deficiency);
  • inflammatory diseases of the uterus and appendages.

Other provoking factors:

  • the cause of disorders of the menstrual cycle can be diseases of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, etc .;
  • infectious and non-infectious diseases of internal organs and systems;
  • one of the most frequent causes of malfunctions - infection of the pelvic organs (it is necessary to be examined and identify the pathogen, to conduct anti-inflammatory treatment);
  • for a normal cycle in a healthy woman shouldmaintain the necessary body weight in relation to height and age, since a very low mass or rapid loss of it (15-20% of the original weight) can contribute to the development of violations in the menstrual cycle, and in men with anorexia menstruation is absent;
  • weakening of immunity has a negative impact onthe general state of the body, can affect the monthly cycle, so you need to eat correctly and balanced, take the necessary amount of vitamins, micro- and macro elements, play sports and minimize the intake of harmful substances;
  • uncontrolled use of certain types of medications (especially antidepressants, hormonal drugs, slimming drugs) may adversely affect the monthly cycle;
  • Harmful also intoxication of the body, including smoking, taking drugs, alcohol abuse;
  • To provoke malfunctions of a monthly cycle the ingress of various toxic substances, including a radiation irradiation can get to an organism.

Violation of the work of organs can cause a violation of the cycle

Age disorders of the menstrual cycle

Irregular cycle is possible in girls during1-1,5 years after the first menstruation, in women after childbirth. It can also indicate the onset of the climacteric period. The first menstruation occurs, as a rule, in 12-14 years. The regular monthly cycle should be determined in the period of formation, that is, within 1-1,5 years from the first monthly. Irregular periods are not considered a deviation at the age of 45-55 years. During this period, the decline in ovarian activity begins, the production of estrogens (the main "female" hormones) begins to decrease. Menstruation gradually become irregular and rare, and then disappear at all, which indicates the onset of menopause (menopause). The average age of menopause in women living in temperate climates is 50 years. In the 35-40 years, an "early menopause" (ovarian malnutrition syndrome) may occur. The causes of this condition are different, and the impact on its development may have autoimmune disorders, diseases, medicines, environmental factors. Most specialists tend to believe that this is inherited. To date, various methods of treating this condition have been developed.

Indications for a compulsory visit to a doctor

The failure of the menstrual cycle seems to many people a trifle,but can lead to serious and persistent problems if it is not detected in time and the regular cycle can not be restored. For women who live sexually, the gynecologist's examination is recommended every six months, even if there are no complaints about the health and symptoms of any diseases or disorders. There are many infections that do not manifest themselves in any way, do not cause complaints and do not disturb the state of health, but are fraught with serious consequences. In other cases, you should contact a specialist if:

  • a girl under the age of 15 did not experience the first menstruation;
  • After 1-1,5 years after the first menstruation, there was no regular monthly cycle;
  • at the age of 45-55 years on a background of increasing intervals between menstruation there are abundant spotting;
  • there are systematic violations of the monthly cycle, it becomes shorter or longer for 5-7 days;
  • there are bleeding or profuse periods (this is a sign of hormonal disorders requiring medication regulation), for one menstrual period a woman should lose a maximum of 150 ml of blood;
  • the menstruation is short, and the allocation is meager;
  • In the period of ovulation, painful sensations appear (in this case there is a risk of rupture of the ovary);
  • Before and after menstruation there are spotting that "smear" for a long time (this may be a sign of endometriosis).
  • First of all, the doctor usually appointsresearch of hormonal profile, ultrasound of internal organs, a blood test, a material intake by a gynecologist for testing for infection. The treatment is aimed at eliminating not the violations of the cycle, but the causes that provoked them. Depending on the diagnosis, you may need drugs, physiotherapy, hormone therapy, or even surgery.