Under the drug allergy is commonly understoodallergic reactions to any medication. It is necessary to distinguish between the usual allergy to the drug (side effects) and the symptoms of an overdose of the drug, which have no relation to allergic reactions. In this case, it is very difficult to prescribe the treatment without revealing a specific cause.
General about a drug allergy
A large number of people, noting the negativereaction to a medicine, immediately believe that this is an allergy, which in the root can not be true. Since the basis of allergy to the drug in children and adults should lie mechanisms for the development of inadequate drug tolerance, which is quite rare. By the way, that's why the treatment should be prescribed only by a doctor. The drug allergy can appear only after repeated taking of the medicine, when it may already seem that our body tolerates it well enough. Drug allergies can occur in relation to different drugs, for example, to the long-familiar vitamin complex, aspirin or antibiotic group of penicillins. In this case, you will have to treat the disease with other means.
Is aspirin as dangerous?
People who prefer home treatment, oftenfrom a headache they drink only aspirin. It is considered an important and popular medicine, but many cause intolerance, which is not a real allergic reaction. Salicylic acid, during its action on the cells, can cause a so-called pseudoallergic reaction. It is necessary to know that simple aspirin can cause a severe asthma attack, which is why asthmatics are not recommended to take medicines containing salicylic acid in any form. Treatment is carried out by other drugs.
Antibiotics: be extremely careful!
According to statistics, the reaction to penicillinexperiences about 5% of patients taking antibiotics with its content. In this case, common symptoms are urticaria, the manifestation of eczema, as well as angioedema. But this is only a small list of what can even result in the most innocent treatment of the common cold. It is necessary to approach very cautiously to reception of the given medicinal preparation as 1/10 part of allergic reactions - a direct threat to life to the patient. When analyzing acute reactions to penicillin drugs, 70% of the lethal outcome of anaphylaxis was detected, while none of the patients ever suffered from this form of allergic reaction. One of the most dangerous ways of injecting is injection. The reaction to penicillin is usually checked by skin tests. Only after you make sure in the absence of allergies, you can begin treatment. What drugs belong to the penicillin series In any case, treatment should be carried out under the supervision and supervision of a doctor. He can tell what drugs should be taken only after the tests. Drugs included in the penicillin series include drugs such as amoxylline, ampicillin, flucloxacillin, and cloxacillin. It is very important to know that these drugs can have different names, for example, amoxin, augmentin, timentin, magnapen. In case of reaction to at least one of the medicines, there is a risk that the allergy may manifest itself on all other drugs of this series. But do not despair before the time, since not all antibiotics lead to such consequences. Therefore, your doctor will certainly choose a replacement, since patients with allergic reactions to the penicillin series may not experience identical symptoms at all during treatment with cephalosporins.
Drug allergy and symptoms
In most cases, a drug allergymanifests itself in the form of urticaria, as well as Quincke's edema, in addition, there may be an anaphylactic shock. Allergy severity can range from small manifestations, for example, in the form of urticaria on the hands to a rapid drop in blood pressure, which occurs during anaphylactic shock. If one of the symptoms appears, the treatment stops for a while.
What can cause a drug allergy?
Any treatment can lead to unpleasantconsequences, up to a lethal outcome. Allergy can be triggered by any medications, but among them, in addition to antibiotics and aspirin, the following can be distinguished:
- anti-inflammatory non-steroid drugs;
- radiocontrast agents;
- ACE inhibitors.
How to Prevent Drug Allergy
First of all, it is necessary to avoid takingdrugs that cause an allergic reaction. Data on the preparations for which you have an allergy should be recorded in a special notebook, the so-called "allergy passport". Your doctor should always provide information about the available food and drug allergy, even when you think that some unimportant drugs do not have a special relationship to medicines that cause you allergies.
How can I tell if you have a drug allergy?
In order to understand exactly howan allergy to medicines, it is necessary to study the mechanism of occurrence of this unpleasant disease. Allergy is essentially a certain reaction of immunity to the drug that it does not cause trust. So, you started treatment of a disease. During the first contact with such a medicine, the immune system may not react at all. In most cases, the manifestation of allergies can lead to periodic or repeated intake of stimulant drugs. The immune system starts to remember them, to recognize and during each reception to warn about the existing threat with rather unpleasant symptoms. Here such an interesting and unusual signaling lives inside any person. Is the drug allergic to you or your loved ones? It is better to see this. In the event that you notice similar manifestations, you should not rush and make a diagnosis yourself. Allergy to medicines is a very insidious and rare phenomenon. Very often, a malaise from a medication is only a side effect, which is always mentioned in the instructions to the medication. Coping with it is easy enough, you just have to stop taking this drug. It can also be just a pseudoallergic reaction, which for many symptoms is very similar to a drug allergy, but without a specific immune system response. But, as in the case of this allergy, and pseudoallergia, immediate medical intervention is required. The final diagnosis and the necessary treatment can only be given by a qualified allergist.
How can one distinguish a false allergy from a real one?
This is quite possible, but on the condition that you can carefully recall some details in which the disease manifested itself. Here are some useful tips that will help you:
- pseudo allergy occurs after the first administration of the drug, with the real allergy never. It is always preceded by an acquaintance of the body with the medicinal product;
- manifested only once, as a reaction toa certain medicine, a real allergy will manifest even during the reception of similar in composition analogues. In this case, a false allergy can manifest itself on various drugs;
- the present allergic reaction is very rare and earlier than 7 days after the start of the drug, but a false allergy manifests itself from several hours to 2 days.
The correct answer to what is happening to you can only give an immunological test. And before the results are obtained, it is better to stop treatment with such drugs.
How to treat a medicinal allergy
How is the allergy treated? In most cases, when a drug allergy is manifested, the drug that caused the allergic reaction is simply canceled and antihistamine (antiallergic) drugs are prescribed. When it comes to pronounced manifestations of allergy, glucocorticoids and even adrenaline can be used for treatment.
What is the danger of allergic reactions?
Drug allergy is a problem, enoughrelevant for doctors. Since it is the doctor who is fully responsible for the treatment, the purpose of this or that therapeutic drug, while foreseeing the occurrence of an allergic reaction in humans to a medicine is sometimes simply not possible. Very often patients themselves take medications systematically advertised on television, which are released in pharmacy networks without a doctor's prescription. These medications are the most serious danger. Reactions and complications during drug treatment
- Toxic, which arise when increasingthe recommended dose of the drug. Toxic reactions in most cases occur in patients with chronic diseases of the kidneys and liver, since the excess dose of the drug in these cases is due to inadequate removal of the drug from the body.
- Side effects are abdominal pain, headache andothers. You can see their list in the section of side effects of the drug in the instructions for its use. An example is a constant state of drowsiness after taking an antiallergic drug.
- Secondary effects are fungal infection of the mucous membranes, disturbance of the intestinal microflora and other.
- The withdrawal reaction, which appears after the cessation of prolonged treatment with certain medications.
- Allergic reactions.
Types of allergic reactions to drugs depending on the period of their manifestation
Varieties of drug allergies
Allergy of medicinal origin inMost cases become the main cause of severe allergic diseases, a little less often - chronic. Among them are the following. Quincke's edema and urticaria, which is constantly itchy, with pressure disappearing edematous red tubercles, which rise above the surface of the skin, with a diameter of 2 mm to 2 cm. These manifestations can persist for several hours to 2 days. Edema Quincke and urticaria can go into a chronic form and manifest themselves over the years. Such diseases can serve as evidence of the most serious diseases, that's why it is not recommended to be limited only to taking antihistamines, but it is recommended to have a checkup at a specialized allergic center. Attacks of severe bronchial asthma, characterized by weakened and difficult breathing, restlessness, wheezing, may occur during the administration of penicillin and a number of other antibiotics, local anesthetics, protein medicines, B vitamins, preparations containing acetylsalicylic acid. Allergic rhinitis - nasal congestion, scanty light discharge from the nasal passage. Quite often, the cause of an allergic rhinitis is the intake of drugs, which include acetylsalicylic acid. Serum sickness, which most often occurs after the administration of antidiphtheria, tetanus antitetanus, and tetanus toxoid. Much less often, its causes can be blood transfusion, the use of sulfonamide drugs and antibiotics. The first symptoms of serum sickness most often occur on the 7-12 day after using the drug. In the case of repeated administration of serum, they can appear on 1-5 days. In this case, there is an increased body temperature up to 39 degrees, rash, swollen lymph nodes, swelling and tenderness of the joints, as well as abdominal pain. Allergic skin lesions often manifest as a rash. Her appearance can provoke barbiturates, sulfonamides, sedatives, aspirin, antibiotics. The rash may be in the form of tubercles or points, or in the form of red spots. Such rashes last no more than 5 days after stopping the use of the drug that caused the allergy and are accompanied by an unpleasant itch. Anaphylactic shock is the most terrible and dangerous manifestation of allergy. In most cases, it can provoke antibiotics. In this case, vomiting and diarrhea, the appearance of choking and spasm of the bronchi, lowering blood pressure, impaired blood circulation of the brain with subsequent swelling of the lungs and the brain. What should a specialist know in order to establish the cause of the drug allergy? The cause of the occurrence of an unforeseen allergic reaction can only the attending physician, while he will need to know the answers to some questions:
- what manifestations were seen at the time of taking the drug;
- how much they were expressed;
- Whether there were changes in a place of introduction of a preparation;
- whether this medicine can cause a similar reaction, for this it is necessary to read the instruction on the use of the medicinal product;
- whether the occurrence of an allergic reaction depended on the dose of the preparation and on the mode of its administration;
- unusual manifestations were observed only with the first and / or repeated admission of the medication;
- Allergic diseases are present in the patient and his family members.
Rules for the prevention of allergies to medicines
Never take severalmedicines that had not been consumed before. Since in this case it will be very difficult to determine which particular drug could trigger an allergic reaction. If a new drug is prescribed, it is recommended to take ½ or ¼ of the dose prescribed for one dose and monitor the body's response. What if I get an allergy after taking or taking the medication?
Remember, the health of you and your family is in your hands! Therefore, be very careful when using new medicines, and best before their reception, consult a doctor.