Cystitis is a very common disease. Especially in women. As dry medical statistics say, with this disease at least once in a lifetime every second person encounters. Therefore, it is very important to know everything about cystitis: symptoms, causes of development, treatment. Possessing this information will help to notice the problem at the very beginning of its development. So, and take all the necessary measures to treat this disease. And first you need to find out exactly what cystitis is. The bladder is a hollow pear-shaped muscular organ designed to collect and then remove urine from the body. Urine in the bladder comes from the kidneys, along the two ureters. Outward urine is excreted through the urethra. In the event that the mucous membrane of the bladder becomes inflamed, the same notorious cystitis develops.
Symptoms of cystitis
The onset of the disease almost always occurs invery pronounced form. Do not notice the flow of even a chronic form of cystitis is almost impossible - the symptoms are very much disturbing the sick person. The symptoms of such a disease, as cystitis, are quite monotonous and are found in almost all cases. Typical symptoms of cystitis include:
- Increasing urination
With cystitis, the frequency of urination canreach 30-40 times a day. Moreover - to the real urination in women are added and false desires. As a result, a sick person spends a considerable part of the day in the toilet. There is no need to talk about any normal life during this period.
- Painful sensations
To a person with a slightly cystitisurination - so it is also very painful. And at the end of the process of urination there is a strong thread. In addition, women are characterized by pain in the area of the bladder and lower back. And the pain can be very different - both pulling and dull, and acute, spastic.
- Change in color and smell of urine
In acute attacks of cystitis most oftenthere are significant changes in the urine - it becomes more turbid, there is a sediment. Changed and the smell - it becomes very pronounced and very unpleasant. In the midst of a urinary illness, there may be an admixture of blood and pus - in especially severe cases.
- Increased body temperature
Often, in addition to all of the above symptomsa person with cystitis increases body temperature. And it can rise to very significant figures - up to 39-40 degrees. And to knock it down can be very difficult - the usual antipyretics do not have almost no positive effect. Pay attention - all these symptoms are usually pronounced in adults. In children and the elderly, they can be very blurry, and sometimes completely absent. And the only indicator of the presence of the disease is general weakness, fever and frequent urination. In order to reliably diagnose the disease, you need to see a doctor - even if all the symptoms are expressed clearly. After all, it is necessary not only to establish a diagnosis, but also to identify the cause of its development. And the signs of the disease alone will not allow this. Otherwise, it is very difficult to choose the right treatment, which will help to eliminate not only the symptoms of cystitis, but also the disease itself. To diagnose the disease, the sick person must first pass a general urinalysis and urinalysis for bacterial examination. These tests will help determine the type of pathogen, as well as the degree of inflammation. But in order to get the right picture, it is necessary to correctly pass this urine test correctly. This is done as follows. The penis or vagina and labia must be thoroughly rinsed with running water, always with soap. And remember - a woman should ALWAYS wash in the direction of the anal opening - otherwise you can put an E. coli in the vagina. In extreme cases, use a special wet disinfectant wipes. The jar for analysis must be thoroughly washed and boiled. Do not touch the container from the inside - it should be very clean. Only the average portion of urine is collected - the first and last portions are not suitable for analysis. The volume of urine required for analysis is at least 5 tablespoons. In addition to the analysis of urine, more often additional tests are performed to determine the diagnosis. For example, a study of the bladder, which allows to determine the degree of inflammation, the presence of pathological changes in the walls of the bladder, stones and sand. In almost all cases, ultrasound examination of the bladder and kidneys is performed.
Causes of development of cystitis
So, with what is cystitis, how is it manifestedand diagnosed, we sorted it out. Let's now learn about the causes of the appearance of cystitis, which also provoke the development of the disease. There are several reasons for successful treatment, it is extremely important to determine exactly which factor triggered the provocation.
- Pathogenic microflora
Most often, the main cause of cystitisare bacteria that enter the bladder through the urethra. Approximately half of all cases, this most pathogenic agent is the most banal E. coli, which lives in the rectum of absolutely any person. But under adverse conditions - for example, with weakened immunity - getting this very rod into the bladder can lead to the development of cystitis. Unfortunately, from this very often the female half of the population suffers. However, besides the E. coli, there are quite a lot of bacteria that provoke the development of cystitis. Therefore, a bacterial study of urine is still necessary. Pay attention - most often this kind of cystitis is observed in girls, girls and women. This phenomenon is explained by an anatomical feature of the structure of the female genitourinary system - the urethra itself is much shorter than that of men. Yes, and it is located in close proximity to the anal opening. So, the pathogenic microflora is much easier to penetrate inside the bladder.
- Inflammatory process of the urethra
The second most common cause of developmentCystitis is the inflammatory process of the urethra itself. Most often this occurs soon after sexual intercourse, as a result of which the friction of the external opening of the urethra occurs. Typically, the symptoms of cystitis in such cases occur about 12 hours after sexual intercourse. However, irritation of the urethra can be triggered not only by sexual intercourse. There are a number of people who can provoke such a reaction - intimate hygiene gel, toilet soap, even colored toilet paper. Carefully follow the reaction of your body - for sure you can quickly identify the culprit of the development of irritation.
- Anatomical pathologies
In some cases, cystitis can be causedanatomical pathology of the genitourinary system - if urine from the bladder gets back into the ureters. This pathology is very quickly detected during the most ordinary ultrasound examination of the kidneys and bladder. Such people should be under constant strict control of a urologist.
- Stagnation of urine
In some cases, the cause of cystitisbecomes a banal stasis of urine - more precisely, its bad outflow. This phenomenon is most often observed in the elderly, as well as bedridden patients who do not move independently. In addition, this can occur in cases where a tumor is located in the bladder cavity. And constantly restrained urge to urinate can lead to the same sad consequences. Of course, this is not all the causes of cystitis, but most of them. In each case, the provoking factor will be revealed only by the attending physician, having familiarized himself with the results of the analyzes and external manifestations.
Prevention of cystitis
In the event that you are at risk,you need to take care of strict adherence to preventive measures. It will help to reduce the risk of the disease several times. We will tell you only about the general rules, and your doctor will give you more specific information, taking into account your specific features of the organism.
- Timely emptying of the bladder
Try to empty the bladder so often,as your body requires. In the case of bedridden patients, relatives should learn how to use urinary catheters. Remember, we have already talked about the fact that it is the untimely emptying of the bladder that can provoke the development of cystitis.
- Fluid consumption
For the normal functioning of the bladderan adult should drink at least one and a half liters per day. And this volume is indicated without taking into account liquid dishes, fruits and vegetables. Drink the most preferable clean water without gas, compotes of dried fruits and fruit drinks.
- Compliance with hygiene rules
Be sure to strictly follow the rules of personalhygiene. Take a shower at least once a day, and it is desirable to wash yourself after each visit to the toilet. Do not forget to change your underwear in time. And at a time when the treatment will be carried out, the laundry should be changed even more often - about 10 times a day.
- Do not forget about sexual intercourse
Immediately after it, do not just wash it, butBe sure to empty the bladder. Thanks to this, all the bacteria that could get into the cavity of the urethra are washed out. All these measures will help to prevent bacteria from entering the urethra and, consequently, into the bladder.
- The right selection of clothes
Try to give up completely and completelyany synthetic underwear. It does not pass air and creates a very environment favorable for propagation of pathogenic microflora. Believe me - cotton underwear looks just as good, and for health it is definitely more useful. And in the summer time it is necessary to abandon narrow trousers - from the same considerations, in order to avoid the emergence of an unfavorable environment. This is especially true for women.
Treatment of cystitis
Self-management of cystitis in women canlead to the most unfortunate consequences. Therefore, at the first opportunity, seek medical help - only the doctor will appoint you exactly the treatment that will prove to be really effective. And before the doctor comes, you can try to ease the condition of the sick person. For this, follow a few simple rules that will help to avoid the occurrence of various complications:
- Drink as much liquid as possible
At the first symptoms of cystitis in womenit is necessary to start drinking as much as possible - preferably pure drinking water. Or cranberry or cowberry mors. A large amount of liquid helps wash out the infection from the bladder. And the treatment will be much more effective.
- Therapeutic diet
For the period of treatment, completely eliminate from the dietnutrition of the sick person any products containing calcium - milk, sour-milk products, cheese and cottage cheese. Calcium worsens the course of the disease, complicates treatment and increases the risk of various complications.
- Warming up
If the cystitis in women is accompanied by painfulsensations, you can try to ease the condition of a sick person with the most common warm-ups. Attach to the place that hurts most - to the back or bottom of the stomach - a plastic bottle filled with warm water. The duration of heating can be as long as it is necessary - no harm to health is found. However, warming can not replace treatment - this is only a temporary measure.
- Soda solution
In order to relieve severe burning sensation whenurination in women, doctors recommend in the first hours after the onset of the disease every hour to drink half a cup of warm water in which half a teaspoon of baking soda is dissolved. The effect is achieved by reducing the acidity of urine. However, remember that such treatment can negatively affect the condition of the stomach.
First aid for complications of cystitis
Cystitis in women is extremely dangerous risk of the most serious complications. Therefore, immediately call an ambulance in case you have such symptoms as:
- Severe headache or dizziness
- Temperature above 40 degrees
- The appearance of blood in the urine or genitals
- Signs of cystitis appeared in pregnant women
Do not treat cysts lightly, as a banal cold. The consequences for the body can be very negative. Therefore, start treatment in time! We advise you to read: