Female health, as you know, the substance is verytender and fragile. And that's why it is very important to visit the "female" doctor - gynecologist regularly. And every woman knows that any visit to the doctor is necessarily accompanied by such an analysis as a gynecological smear- the norm of leukocytes and other indicators should not be exceeded. A smear on the flora, which is called bacterioscopy in medicine, is a laboratory study of the microflora of the vagina, the purpose of which is to determine the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the body of a woman, as well as inflammatory processes. Bacterioscopy of the gynecological smear is one of the most inexpensive and fastest-making studies - that is why the smear has received such a wide distribution among gynecologists. The technique of conducting a vaginal smear test consists of several stages:
- A fence of vaginal contents.
The first stage is directly in the fencesmear. For this purpose, the doctor gynecologist inserts into the vagina special vaginal mirrors, after which, using a disposable spatula, takes the material from all suspected centers of the inflammatory process. Usually. If the woman does not complain of inflammation, then the fence is made from three control points - from the external opening of the urethra, from the walls of the vagina and the cervix. A disposable spatula is a sterile stick with a slightly enlarged tip made of plastic. After the biological material is collected, the doctor applies a uniform layer of a disposable spatula to a laboratory glass specially designed for this purpose. Smears from different parts of the genitalia are applied to different slides, which are indicated by the following letters: "V" - vagina, "U" - urethra, "C" - cervix. After that, the contents of the slides are dried and sent to the laboratory for examination.
Decoding of gynecological smear
And here is a smear on the flora, more precisely, its results,ready. However, unfortunately, not all doctors consider it necessary to devote patients in detail to all test results, limiting themselves to general phrases. But every woman wants to know everything to the smallest detail. Including the result of the study of gynecological smear. In this article the norms of gynecological smear, its decoding and the degree of purity are given. So, a smear on the flora, the norm:
- Flat epithelium.
That layer of cells of the mucous membrane thatlining the cervix and vagina, is called a flat epithelium. In the event that the woman is healthy, in her gynecological smear the flat epithelium is present without fail. Otherwise, if a flat epithelium is not found in the smear, the gynecologist can presume the presence of a hormonal disorder in the patient. As a rule, in the case that the smear does not contain epithelium, the content of male hormones is increased in the body of the woman, but the amount of estrogens, respectively, is significantly reduced. In addition, the absence of flat epithelium may indicate a violation such as atrophy of epithelial cells.
Leukocytes perform the function of protecting the body fromvarious infections, prevent their penetration into the sexual organs of women. Normally, the white blood cell count should not exceed 15 units in the field of vision. In the same case, if the number of leukocytes significantly exceeds the norm, we can assume that in the body of a woman there is a certain inflammatory process of the genital organs, most often vaginitis or colpitis. And the more leukocytes, the more acute the disease. If we talk about such a study, as a smear on the flora, the norm of leukocytes is the main indicator.
- Staphylococcus aureus.
In the event that staphylococcus in the smear is containedin small quantities, there is nothing to worry about - this is normal. If the number of staphylococci in the smear is large, especially if the level of leukocytes is increased, it is likely that the patient has a severe inflammatory process of the uterine mucosa, or the vagina.
The wands are the only ones insmearing with microorganisms. Their presence does not indicate the presence of any serious pathologies in the body of a woman. Other indications of the smear test, indicating the presence of problems:
Do not confuse cocci with chopsticks. Kokki is a globular bacterium. As a rule, the presence of cocci in the smear on the flora, especially if there are also gonococci, is a symptom of a venereal disease, like gonorrhea.
These small sticks are the causative agents of such adiseases like gardnerellez. If a woman in a smear on the flora found these sticks, then it is either infected with this disease, or suffers from a pronounced dysbiosis.
- Atypical cells.
Atypical cells are called flat epithelium, glued together with small rods. As a rule, similar results of a smear testify to presence of a dysbacteriosis of a vagina.
- Fungus Candida.
The presence in the smear of the yeast of the genus Candidaclearly indicates that a woman has an acute attack of a yeast infection or, as doctors call it, a vaginal candidiasis. In the same case, if the disease proceeds in an asymptomatic latent form, fungal spores will be visualized in the smear on the flora.
In the event that a woman is sick with trichomoniasis, in her smear on the flora, doctors can easily find out the causative agent of the disease, Trichomonas.
Even if the smear contains smallsticks, atypical squamous epithelium cells, cocci that unmistakably indicate the doctor for vaginal candidiasis, sometimes additional tests such as DNA diagnostics (PCR method) and bacteriological culture are sometimes necessary for the final formulation of an accurate diagnosis. Why is the result of a normal gynecologic smear often not enough for an accurate diagnosis? Doctors - gynecologists explain this by the following factors:
- Infections such as mycoplasma,ureaplasma and chlamydial, are practically not determined by gynecological smear. Mycoplasmas and ureaplasma, chlamydia, viruses are so small that it is very, very difficult to notice them under a microscopic examination of a smear. Diagnosis by PCR or ELISA - the diagnosis is to identify these infections.
- Candida fungus found in the smear isa characteristic sign of thrush. However, in addition to an independent disease, candidiasis can be a comorbid phenomenon in more serious sexually transmitted diseases.
- Elevated white blood cells in the laboratoryThe study of a gynecological smear may indicate an incorrect analysis. Alternatively, as yet another possible option, the laboratory doctor, because of the huge number of white blood cells in the smear, may not see the causative agent of a sexually transmitted disease.
- In a huge number of gynecological casesThe smear helps to reveal the fact of presence in an organism of the woman of an infection. However, the sensitivity of the pathogen to antibiotics using a gynecological smear can not be identified. For this purpose it is necessary to carry out bacteriological sowing.
Thus, it becomes clear thatgynecological smears are an excellent means of primary diagnosis of abnormalities in the reproductive system of a woman. Remember the correct preparation for gynecological smear: do not use any pharmacological drugs, especially vaginal suppositories. They can largely distort the validity of the smear and lead to an incorrect diagnosis. Thoroughly wash yourself before going to the gynecologist, but do not douche. Otherwise, you also risk getting garbled data from a laboratory test. As a rule, the doctor - gynecologist on the eve of the study tells how to properly prepare for it. Of course, it is best to never know what gynecological diseases are. However, the knowledge received today can be useful to you in life more than once: relatives, friends, just acquaintances. It's not for nothing that people say: "Who is forewarned is armed". We advise you to read: