London - the only and unique,majestic and unshakable. If countries can change their borders or even disappear from the face of the earth, this city will remain forever. London, over 2,000 years old, who watched the power of the Roman Empire and the invasion of the Vikings, who saw the reign of the Tudor dynasty and the Stuarts, has a rich history among other capitals of the world. He unites under his leadership not only England, but also the rest of the Great Britain. On the one hand, it is a conservative city, like the whole old and good England. But if you look from another point of view, then this is a cutting-edge, noisy and cheerful metropolis. The unique identity of London is expressed in ancient architecture, monuments, traditions, stylistics and even in the current administration of the English Queen, adored by most Britons. In a word, this city has something to boast about and what to show to anyone who wants, whether an ordinary tourist, visiting businessman or an advanced history researcher. And the sights of London are generally a separate topic.
Big Ben is a symbol of England
It will be quite fair if we start withsymbol of Britain, which has long become a visiting card of the city. Big Ben - the so-called tower with the clock and bells, erected in the Palace of Westminster in 1858. The height of this tower is 96 meters, but you can go up only on a narrow spiral staircase. But, having risen, you can see a huge bell, a diameter of almost three meters and a height of two meters. Initially, this very bell was called Big Ben, then in the course of history this name was called the whole tower. Before marking the first second of the hour with a stroke, the main bell and a large group of bells with the help of a chime knock out the words: "Through this hour the Lord keeps me and his power will not let anyone back down." To the manufacture of the famous clock, decorating this building, the British Parliament came very carefully. The parliamentarians decided to create a watch with perfect accuracy up to a second, and the master who made the clock succeeded. Of course, Big Ben has an error of 1.5 seconds per day, but it was decided in an original way. At a certain time a coin of one penny worth is placed on a heavy pendulum of the clock, and then, when necessary, it is removed. Thus, the Big Ben clock beats the exact time. All Londoners compare their watches with the sounds of the bells of the capital's main hours, and their fight sounds on air throughout the world via the BBC radio channel. All four dials of watches are looking in different directions of the world, notifying about the exact time. In the basement under each dial the inscription is made: "My God, keep our Queen Victoria!". Unfortunately tourists, inside Big Ben can get only maintenance staff. Everyone can admire the tower only from the outside, but to visit near Big Ben, everyone can feel the surrounding atmosphere. This masterpiece of architecture and engineering thought is listed in the catalog of the World Heritage of Humanity.
Attractions in London includealso the famous Tower - a fortress built in the 11th century by William the Conqueror on the north bank of the Thames. This is a grandiose, powerful fortified complex, consisting of a palace, fortress walls, a prison and a warehouse for the arsenal. Earlier, the Tower housed a mint, a treasure trove of royal treasures, an extensive observatory and even a zoo. The whole history of Britain is concentrated in the Tower. Wilhelm, worried about the protection of London, ordered to erect walls up to 30 m in height and 5 meters thick. Subsequently, King Richard the Lionheart erected several towers, and later various kings expanded and completed the fortress. Who was not kept in this famous prison! Here the kings of England, Scotland and France languished, as well as high-ranking persons and famous historical figures. English King Henry VIII spent through the prison fortress almost the landmarks of his wives, who could not give him an heir. The same monarch began to mint coins from the silver of the destroyed Catholic churches and monasteries. All money production was in the mint of the fortress, as well as important state and legal documents. The weapon room, which served as a storehouse for royal weapons, hides many historical secrets, and the royal treasury stores the jewels that are still used by members of the royal family. Today, the Tower is a huge museum that passes through itself a huge number of visitors and various excursions.
It is impossible not to mention one more symbol of London -Tower Bridge. It is located near the fortress described above, hence the corresponding name. His image is familiar to many who have ever considered pictures or photographs with views of the capital of Britain. It's hard to forget the two majestic Gothic towers, connected at the top by pedestrian spans, and below by a drawbridge. If you consider the Tower Bridge in the dark, then against the background of the night sky you can see an impressive grand spectacle. With the help of a special illumination system, the bridge looks mysterious and majestic.
Buckingham Palace is another famousa landmark of London. This remarkable building is the official residence of the courtyard of the English queen. Here lives and fulfills its duties royal family. English King George III bought this palace from the heirs of the Duke of Buckingham in the 18th century and supplemented it with various buildings. In particular, he built a beautiful royal library, which contains a valuable collection of books. Inside the palace there is a chic art gallery, many of which are real masterpieces of world art. Subsequently, Buckingham Palace began to be called "The Queen's House." In the square in front of the palace stands a monument to Queen Victoria, it was during her reign that the notion "United Kingdom of Great Britain" appeared. The interior and decoration of all 775 rooms of the palace correspond to its royal status. In the rooms and halls there is Chinese, French and, of course, English exquisite furniture. And Buckingham's famous gardens are legendary. All this luxury and beauty can be admired when in the velvet season Queen Elizabeth leaves her abode for two months (August-September). During this period, the front rooms can receive tourists and visitors.
In a city like London, a huge numbermuseums. In order to thoroughly investigate everything, it will take more than a month, or even a year. Therefore, among the sights of London, it is worth mentioning especially the British Museum - the main repository of the history of the ancient world, founded in 1753. The museum contains more than seven million exhibits of various subjects. These are paintings, sculptures, coins, engravings, armor, weapons, ancient and medieval books and manuscripts. Here, the values of ancient Egypt, the Roman Empire and the Greek ancient culture are preserved. The entrance to the museum is free, with the exception of some traveling exhibitions. If you want to donate funds for the maintenance of the museum, you will find special boxes for donations. If your generosity exceeds one hundred pounds, you will be given a certificate of honorary member of the British Museum with all the resulting privileges.
Westminster Abbey - a masterpiece of Gothicarchitecture. This place is sacred for the entire British nation. Many historical figures are associated with this abbey. Here, most British monarchs were crowned and received power. The first record, which is stored here, contains information about the coronation of William the Conqueror. Many kings and poets are buried in this abbey. In the Corner of the Poets, Charles Dickens, Samuel Johnson, Tennyson and others found their last resting place.
Madame Tussaud's Wax Museum
London map with attractionsbe sure to show you the Madame Tussauds wax museum. This museum contains more than 400 wax exhibits of famous personalities. Kings and members of their families, famous world politicians, sportsmen, actors and even fictional characters live here. Not far from the Madame Tussauds museum is the London Planetarium, one of the largest in the world. Here you can contemplate distant galaxies and order a virtual journey through the expanses of the universe. The double-decker bus - "Dubledeker" - is perhaps the first thing that comes to mind to anyone you ask about the sights of London. And indeed, his appearance from childhood is familiar to every Russian schoolchild. Who would not dream of a ride on the English capital on the second floor of such a bus? It is an indispensable part of London's streets, and indeed of the whole culture of the Foggy Albion.
Famous English pubs
Being in London, certainly look in the veryan ordinary English pub. If you were in London and did not go there, consider that you were in vain visited the capital of Great Britain. The pub is a classic of the country's beer culture. The main treat here, of course, is beer, or English ale. It can be with a taste of strawberries, garlic, or something else delicious. The wooden interior, the TV, low ceilings create an atmosphere of the house where you can gather to watch football or chat heart to heart. In general, there is a huge number of various drinking and entertainment establishments in London, and if pubs traditionally close early, there is still noisy fun in night clubs and restaurants in this city. In London, you can choose an institution for every taste, ranging from luxury restaurants in the Renaissance style, and ending with clubs with cutting-edge equipment. It's impossible to tell briefly about all the famous places in London, for this you need to write a directory of several volumes. Moreover, this metropolis is constantly growing and developing. Visit London - its attractions are so diverse that you will have to take pictures for a long time, again and again admiring this magnificent city.