Myopia, or, as doctors call it,myopia, is a disease in which the human eye does not distinguish between images and objects far away. In this case, the image does not belong to a specific part of the retina, but is displayed in the plane in front of it. Therefore, it is perceived as fuzzy, indistinct. This is due to the discrepancy between the strength of the optical system of the eyeball and its length. Usually it is increased in nearsighted people (axial myopia), but the disease can also arise as a result of too much strength of the refractive apparatus (the so-called refractive myopia). The greater the discrepancy, the greater the problem. To date, this is a social and clinical scourge, quite widespread among schoolchildren - they suffer almost 12% of children. In general, the first symptoms of myopia occur at a young age, and over the years the situation only worsens.
Why does this disease occur?
The fact is that myopia as a biologicalthe concept is an ambiguous phenomenon. Many scientists consider it not a disease, but a variant of the norm. All cases are united by one sign - the visual setting of the eye. This physical category is characterized by the fact that with the combination of certain parameters of the human cornea (the length of the anterior-posterior ocular axis and the lens), the main focus of the optical system is placed in front of the retina, which is typical for all types of myopia. Such features can be caused by different reasons. The original pathogenetic mechanisms of the appearance of myopia have been studied insufficiently, in fact, as well as hereditary pathology, intrauterine diseases, structural and biochemical transformations of tissues with growth of the organism, and the like. The immediate causes, due to which the short-sighted refraction is formed, are more known. The main characteristics of the disease are: an increase in the visual strength of the refractive apparatus of the eyeball and too large a dimension (more precisely, the length of the PZO).
How does the disease manifest itself?
In general, short-sightedness begins with characteristiccomplaints. The visual acuity of a person falls, the surrounding reality is perceived as "in a fog", it becomes difficult to translate the view from one subject located at a short distance to another that is in the distance (the so-called slow refocusing). Sometimes the patient doubles in the eyes, often there is fatigue and overexertion, there are "goose bumps" and darkening, an acute reaction to light, visual activity and performance decrease. Often myopia develops in school-age children. They begin to see bad objects, they do not clearly distinguish figures and letters written in the class on the board, try to sit closer to the TV screen or to the first places in the cinema. To view something in the distance, short-sighted, as a rule, screw up their eyes. Very often, the real myopia begins with a spasm of accommodation (CA), which is the first stage of the axial form of the disease. If the symptoms are found in time, then it can be cured. CA can disappear after passing the hardware optico-physiological, as well as drug treatment, if you reduce the load on the optic nerve, or in the process of growing up a child. Myopia in the phase of accommodation spasm is characterized by the fact that the eye still retains a spherical shape, and over time its anterior-posterior dimension (i.e., the axis) increases and it becomes ellipsoidal. At the beginning of the SA it is not very strong, as doctors say, short-lived - it arises, then disappears. The kid and his parents may not notice his presence. The blurring of letters or numbers, written on the board, at times, passes quickly. Vision improves in breaks or on the way home from school, so the child does not attach importance to this, and therefore, does not say anything to adults. Because of this, myopia is often found at a later stage, when the duration of the spasm of accommodation increases from a few hours to one or two days. Changing the situation for the better is possible after a long respite, a night's sleep, during the holidays, that is, when the eyes are resting. Later, the periodic fall of vision becomes much more persistent and prolonged, the vision is restored partially or completely after passing a special treatment.
The main factors of myopia appearance
There are many reasons for myopia. We will mention the main ones:
- a weak sclera that does not adequately resist the rapid growth of the eye;
- incorrect landing during work (the person sits too close to the subject, for example, the child sits close to a computer or television), insufficient lighting, lack of rest;
- undeveloped accommodative muscle, which is responsible for the "adjustment" of the lens at different distances, resulting in an overvoltage;
- short-sightedness can also develop due to hereditary predisposition;
As you can see, the factors that influence developmentmyopia, there are many. However, which is the main one? Why sometimes, with the same heavy load on the optic nerve, do some children develop a disease, while others do not? Simply weak immunity, unlike a strong one, is not able to fight and "hold a blow." Therefore, as a rule, sick and weak people develop short-sightedness. Let's consider several reasons for this state of the human body:
- damage to the cervical and spinal cord during labor;
- chronic diseases of the oral cavity and nasopharynx (for example, adenoids, sinusitis);
- the propensity to allergies and such infectious diseases as measles or scarlet fever, tuberculosis, diphtheria and the like;
- weak immune system;
- disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
All the above factors with too muchthe load on the optical system in most cases can cause accommodation spasm, so, subsequently, if the symptoms are not detected in time and the treatment is not taken, myopia develops and progresses. In the event that there is a predisposition in the family, it is natural that the process of myopia begins much earlier and proceeds quite swiftly.
What are the categories of myopia?
Ophthalmologists distinguish the following degrees of myopia:
- weak - up to 3.0 diopters;
- averages are considered changes in the area of 3.25-6.0 diopters;
- high - over 6.0. It can reach significant values (for example: 15, 20 and even 30).
A person who is diagnosed with nearsightedness,Needs glasses for long distance, and sometimes even for near. However, unfortunately, they are not always able to adequately correct vision, which is associated with the changes in the shells of the eye. The disease can be congenital or appear due to the negative influence of some of the factors mentioned above. With the course of life, it either keeps on the same level, or progresses. Myopia needs to be treated, and for this, there are special methods of modeling, the main task of which is to weaken the refractive power of the eye apparatus so that the image falls on a certain area of the retina.
What to do?
If you suspect your nearsightedness(symptoms showed up, doubts arose, etc.), be sure to see a doctor. You will be checked for visual acuity, appropriate glasses, and a course of treatment (an average of two weeks). There are methods for fighting the disease, such as electrical stimulation of the eye, bioresonance therapy, opto-physiological massage, visotrening and others. You must understand that myopia is not just a violation of the optical apparatus. This is a "malfunction" in the whole body. So, because of problems of mineral-protein metabolism, the sclera weakens, and the eye expands in length, thereby acquiring the shape of a pear. At the same time, his back department suffers most. In severe disease, even detachment from underlying tissues and retinal ruptures is possible. As a result, there is a real risk in general of losing sight. You should also know that myopia is a contraindication to some professions that require the employee to see well. The disease limits in the way of life: people suffering from it are forbidden heavy loads, lifting large weights and so on. Women with such a problem can not give birth naturally, as an alternative to physicians offer a cesarean section. Therefore, start taking care of your body from your youth. Do not read in poor lighting, eat properly, avoid unnecessary stress and injury, and then you will be healthy! We advise you to read: