With the word "ficus" most people representa tall plant with large glossy leaves, which was very popular in the 60s of last century. However, the popularity of this flower is not quenched and now, so we decided to tell you how to grow ficus in the home and what room types are suitable for this. Home ficus represents evergreens from the family of mulberry. Among the known species there are huge trees, and very tiny specimens. Room ficuses have about 20 species, among which the first place can be safely put a rubber locus. Also popular is the lily-like species, Benjamin Ficus, dwarfish and Bengali.
Rules of care: watering, lighting, transplantation
Home ficus well tolerates room conditionsand quite unpretentious. Adapts to any lighting, only in very darkened rooms branches can be stretched, and the ficus becomes less leafy. It is better to prepare a place in advance and try to avoid direct sunlight from reaching the ficus. Remember that the variegated species need more bright light. In the warm season, it is better to take the ficus to fresh air: a balcony or a terrace. Room ficus is very sensitive to sudden changes in temperature, humidity and generally does not like changes. In winter, if there is insufficient lighting, you can use additional lighting. In order for the leaves of the ficus to remain glossy, it is necessary to periodically carry out foliar dressing and, of course, do not forget about the regular application of fertilizers to the soil. Watering the ficus is necessary, making sure that the ground has dried out sufficiently, because the overflow has a detrimental effect on the state of the plant. It is better to use a little heated water for irrigation. The most optimal way to "drink" the ficus is this scheme: the plant is watered until the water begins to pour through the drainage hole. Then the pot is left in this state for half an hour, and then the remaining water is poured. Alternatively, you can just put the ficus in a tray of water and leave it for 20 minutes. This time is enough for the earth to become saturated with moisture. In winter it is necessary to water the ficus very carefully. But considering that in our apartments during the heating season the air is overdried, then it is still necessary to water quite often. At the same time, make sure that the ficus does not stand on the cold floor. Subcooling quickly leads to the death of the root system. Young ficus should be transplanted annually into pots of larger diameter. Large specimens are no longer transplanted, but simply replace partially the soil. For the transplant, you can use a special primer or any universal soil. The main thing is to pay enough attention to drainage - at the bottom of the pot it is necessary to pour a layer of expanded clay about 1-3 cm. From October to February, all room ficuses are in a period of rest. This is a forced state due to a lack of light and a drop in air temperature. If there is a need for the ficus to continue growing, indoors it is necessary to raise the temperature of the air and install additional lighting. Such species as figs and bottled, in the period of rest drop the leaves, the others just slow down the growth.
- Ficus rubber
At home is a tree withlarge oval leaves. The length of the leaf reaches up to 35 cm and the width to 20 cm. The height of the tree depends on the conditions of the contents and can reach 2 m. This ficus came to us from the hot tropics, where it can reach up to 30 m. Ficus has one peculiarity: the presence of aerial roots - Supports. The trunk practically does not branch. There are species with mottled leaves and ordinary green, the latter in care are considered more unpretentious. It is necessary to keep the ficus clean (especially the leaves) and make sure that there is no damage on it. If the short stem of the leaf is still damaged, then white juice appears, which is poisonous. Indoor ficuses of this kind practically do not blossom, but as a whole are rather unpretentious. Rubber ficus does not like sharp changes in soil moisture, and if it is first filled too much with water and then thoroughly dried, there is a risk that the ficus will simply discard all the leaves. The humidity of the air and the brightness of the lighting do not play a big role, but direct sunlight can burn the leaves. The variegated rubbery ficus is more finicky and requires frequent spraying of leaves, usually growing slightly slower than species with green leaves.
- Dwarf Ficus
This ampel plant is fully capableto lay the soil with a beautiful carpet. Numerous stems constantly produce shoots about 5 cm long, which in turn release roots. This ficus was brought to us from Japan and China. Its leaves have a heart shape and are slightly corrugated. In young shoots, the leaves are asymmetric, and if at that time the ficus is propagated in a vegetative way, then this asymmetry will continue in the adult plant. In young specimens, the length of the leaf is about 2.5 cm, it can grow to 10 cm with age. This ficus grows very slowly; to increase the growth rate of shoots, it is necessary to increase the humidity and temperature. But such individuals easily tolerate a lack of lighting, without loss for appearance.
- Ficus lily
Received its name for a specific formleaves - in the form of a violin. In young plants, the leaves are covered with a small fluff with a wax coating. The leaves reach a length of 60 cm and a width of 30 cm in adult plants. In natural conditions such ficuses can grow up to 12 m in height. The trunk is straight, without branches and air roots. Requires bright lighting. To ficus properly formed, it is necessary to regularly turn the plant around its axis.
- Ficus dulled
It is also known as laurel or Cuban ficus. It is a green tree with a smooth trunk and a very branched crown. It releases air roots. The leaves are round ovate, measuring up to 8 cm. Thanks to the special structure of the trunk, this ficus is often used for bonsai. The trunk is covered with bark, on which there are peculiar reddish spots - through them gas exchange of a plant takes place. To give the necessary shape to the trunk, use a wire that is periodically replaced to avoid damaging the plant.
- Ficus Benjamin
Very popular due to its universaldimensions. This ficus can be a bush, and a real tree. There are a lot of varieties of this plant, but they all resemble a weeping tree, reaching 2 m in height. These species differ in the size of the leaves and their coloration: they can be ordinary green leaves, with white divorces, and even spirally twisted. Flower growers use the fact that these ficuses let out air roots and create surprising interweaving. With age, plants grow, and the trunk becomes a real work of art. The ficus has a rather weak stalk, so most often a few specimens are planted in the pot or additional supports are used. Very unpretentious in the care. Excellent haircut, so the shape of the crown can complement the design of the room. This ficus practically does not bloom, but the absence of buds is compensated by evergreen leaves.
- Ficus carica
According to the biblical tradition, it was his leaves that becamethe first "clothing" for Adam and Eve. Although this ficus is more known to us as figs. Fruit-bearing tree up to 12 m in height is considered one of the oldest fruit trees and it easily races without care.
- Ficus sacred
Originally from East Asia. In India, it is revered by Buddhists because of the legend that it was under his leaves that the Buddha received inspiration. At home it reaches up to 30 m in height and looks very impressive thanks to the roots-props. Ficus has leaves of a heart-shaped shape and during the differences in atmospheric pressure, juice is released. In the people this phenomenon is called the weeping of the sacred tree. The petioles near the leaves are long and reach almost half the leaf plate. At home, this ficus does not like too much dry air and heat - immediately begins to discard the leaves.
- Bengal Ficus
In natural conditions grows into a hugeA tree with additional supports, into which air roots are transformed. In "captivity" such a ficus is more like a bush. The leaves are dark green, covered with a small fluff. The pot does not bloom. In winter, you can not put near a source of heat - can discard the leaves. The peculiarity of this plant is the need to keep in a rather spacious room.