Hypoxia of the fetus. This concept is constantly on hearing - we hear it very, very often. Some future mothers are very much frightened when they hear about fetal hypoxia, while others simply do not pay any attention to it. But do they all know what exactly hypoxia is really like? And what it is fraught with the health of the baby? Let's try to figure this out together. So, today on the agenda are the following questions: what is hypoxia, what is it dangerous for the baby and how to prevent its development. And we will start from the very beginning.
What is hypoxia and why does it occur?
Doctors call the term hypoxia such a conditionthe organism of crumbs, in which its tissues and organs are supplied with oxygen insufficiently. And pay attention - this pathological state of the baby is never an independent disease, but only associated with some other pathology phenomenon. And similar pathologies can be the most diverse - both from the future mother, and from the future baby. Although in most cases the cause of fetal hypoxia are maternal diseases. They are quite a large number, but doctors still distinguish several main groups:
- Different types of anemia
There are several varieties of anemia, amongthe most widespread of which is iron deficiency anemia. In the event that the future mother suffers from this disease, the normal function of red blood cells is violated and, as a consequence, oxygen does not flow to the necessary tissues and organs in the required volume. And as for the provision of the baby's organism, it is the mother's body that fully and completely responds, the cells and organs of the crumbs also do not get what they need for the normal development and functioning of oxygen. It turns out a peculiar closed chain - the mother is sick, and so the baby is sick.
- Various diseases of the cardiovascular system
In the event that the future mother suffers fromacquired or congenital heart defects or vascular system, it is very likely that, due to increased stress during pregnancy, circulatory failure will occur. What happens next is easy to guess. If blood circulation is insufficient, the baby will get a smaller amount of oxygen than he needs. And the more pronounced this insufficiency, the stronger will suffer the crumb from hypoxia. In the event that a pregnant woman suffers from such diseases of the cardiovascular system as bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and others, pregnancy can also provoke their aggravation. And exacerbation, in turn, in a very negative way will affect the course of pregnancy. In most similar cases, the future mother develops an unpleasant phenomenon, like respiratory failure. And this condition not only brings a woman discomfort, but also has a very negative effect on the condition of the crumbs. Because of respiratory failure, so-called hypoxia of tissues and organs develop very rapidly. But remember, we have already said that the organisms of mom and baby are directly related to each other? So, the baby's body suffers from hypoxia no less than her mother.
- Kidney disease and diabetes mellitus
No less risk of development in crumbs of hypoxiathose future mothers who suffer from diabetes mellitus and various kidney diseases are also exposed. And in advance to predict it is almost impossible, therefore doctors - gynecologists observe such pregnant women especially closely. Sometimes the cause of development in the future baby hypoxia are various violations of the placental blood flow. There are also many reasons for the development of such a violation:
- Pregnancy Pregnancy
In the event that the baby does not appear in theput the term, the placenta ceases to perform its functions in full. And, besides, the same thing happens with premature aging of the placenta, which can begin long before the supposed time of appearance of crumbs to light.
- The threat of premature birth
Of course, hypoxia does not develop in all cases of threat that the baby hurries to see his mother. But approximately in half of similar cases the hypoxia nevertheless has an effect.
- Umbilical cord and placenta
Pathological development and structure, as the mostplacenta, and umbilical cord also often leads to the development of hypoxia. And the more complex and difficult these disorders are, the more pronounced is the hypoxia of the baby. As a rule, such violations are detected during ultrasound.
- Other abnormalities of pregnancy and childbirth
There are still some pathologies of the current, likepregnancy, and childbirth, which can lead to the development of a baby's hypoxia. However, all of them can hardly be envisaged even for an experienced physician - a gynecologist. And, finally, it remains to understand what pathologies on the part of the future baby's health can lead to the development of hypoxia. Such provocative factors include:
- Hemolytic disease of the fetus
By a similar term, doctors designate the condition that develops in the fetus, if its blood group and its mother's blood group are incompatible. Hypoxia in such cases develops in about 70%.
- Intrauterine infection, malformations of the baby
There is a huge amount ofa variety of infections that can infect a baby, and subsequently cause the development of fetal hypoxia. In the event that the baby has one or another malformations, the risk of developing fetal hypoxia also increases severalfold.
What is fraught with hypoxia of the fetus?
Well, here we figured out what exactly it canto provoke development in a crumb of hypoxia. It's time to find out what the hypoxia of the fetus is fraught with for the baby. Is it so damn devil as he is painted? Perhaps there is absolutely nothing to worry about here, is it not that to sound the alarm? But, alas, the doctors say the opposite - lack of oxygen is very harmful for any living organism. And even more so for a new nascent life - for your crumbs. Because of hypoxia, all the vital systems of the baby are affected, metabolic processes are disrupted. The degree and severity of these disorders directly depends on two factors: the degree of hypoxia and the duration of pregnancy. At various stages of pregnancy the organism of the crumbs reacts differently to hypoxia. If hypoxia began to develop in the early stages of pregnancy, it will inevitably lead to anomalies in the development of internal organs and fetal systems, to the embryo lagging behind in development. In late pregnancy hypoxia is fraught with a significant delay in fetal growth, as well as a significant damage to its central nervous system. Sometimes the consequences of such hypoxia make itself felt throughout the life of a person. Yes, and the adaptive capabilities of a newborn baby who suffered from a lack of oxygen in the womb is also significantly worse. And as a result, the baby, having been born, adapts much worse to a still new environment for him. As already mentioned above, very much depends on the degree of hypoxia itself. In the event that it is insignificant, the child's body manages to cope with it without special consequences for itself. But in the event that the hypoxia is strong, prospects, unfortunately, are not so joyful. The child very quickly appears ischemia - tissue sites experiencing a severe blood flow deficit. If hypoxia at this stage is not eliminated, the real necrosis will be destroyed - tissue death. You understand that such violations can not pass without a trace. It all depends on which organs and systems in which such areas of necrosis have developed. Pathologies can be very different - from small functional disorders, which are eliminated quite easily, to severe mental disorders.
Diagnosis of fetal hypoxia
If the future mother with due regard forher condition, she may herself notice the first alarming symptoms. It's enough just to watch your baby move. As a rule, at the very beginning of the development of hypoxia, the baby behaves very restlessly - his movements intensify and become more frequent. If the mother does not score the alarm in time, hypoxia will continue to progress, and the movements of the crumbs will become much more sluggish and sparse. Many future mothers are afraid to go to the doctor, believing that nothing will be disturbed by him or for fear of being ridiculed. However, do not be afraid of it - in almost all cases, the doctor will only praise you for such care and will conduct all the necessary studies. Well, at worst? It is better to be branded as an overly impressionable "pregnant woman" than to miss a really serious danger that threatens your health, and sometimes the life of your baby. Because hypoxia of the fetus symptoms is very vague. The first thing your gynecologist should do is to prescribe dopplerometry and cardiotocography. Cardiotocography (CTG) is by far the best method to assess the condition of the fetus during pregnancy. A special device evaluates the frequency and strength of the baby's heart rate, as well as its motor activity. Such a study, as a rule, is prescribed at the gestational age of 28 weeks. And in childbirth this is also one of the most effective ways to monitor the condition and well-being of the baby. Another no less beloved by doctors, and a very effective method of research is Doppler. During this study, doctors are able to assess the correctness and speed of blood flow in the vessels, both the placenta and the umbilical cord. This method allows you to exclude a possible pathology of the structure of these vessels, as the cause of the development of hypoxia.
Treatment of hypoxia
In the event that the doctor has groundsTo believe that serious fetal hypoxia takes place, the expectant mother will be hospitalized as soon as possible in the hospital. And to refuse hospitalization it is impossible in any case - in the conditions of a hospital doctors not only diagnose much faster the reason provoking a hypoxia at the kid, but also at once will render all necessary help. But the sooner the cause of hypoxia is eliminated, the less likely the development of any complication. In addition, for a pregnant woman who has an intrauterine fetal hypoxia diagnosed, it is extremely important to observe complete peace. But it is unlikely that you will get it at home, do you? Cleaning, cooking, and if the family has an older child? The woman can only dream of peace. In the hospital, a woman will be provided with not only complete rest, but will also take all measures aimed at improving oxygen supply to crumbs, as well as normalize its metabolic processes. Such therapy should always be strictly integrated, including medication. In the event that, despite all the efforts of doctors, it was not possible to normalize the state of the crumbs, and the gestation period is more than 28 weeks, a decision may be made to conduct an emergency cesarean section. Of course, after hearing about this decision of the doctor, the expectant mother is very much frightened. However, remember that doctors resort to caesarean section in a similar situation in exceptional cases, when it is not possible to help the baby otherwise. And the risk without surgery for a child is much higher than after his birth. After all, you already know what hypoxia of the fetus the consequences can entail. We advise you to read: