Dysbacteriosis. Everyone has heard about him, they write a lot about him and they often frighten young parents. Young mothers with anxiety peer into the contents of diapers, frightened at the slightest change in the consistency of feces. Often the slightest frustration of the child's digestion parents take for dysbiosis and independently begin to treat the crumb with all improvised means. Often, such treatment brings absolutely the opposite result, only worsening the condition of the child. And the treatment of dysbacteriosis in children is possible only if the causes of the onset of the disease and the features of the course are absolutely certain. However, only a few well imagine what exactly is dysbiosis in infants, what are the causes of its occurrence and methods of treatment. It is for young parents that this article is written, in which the most complete description of such a disease as intestinal dysbacteriosis is given. Doctors give the following definition of dysbacteriosis. Dysbacteriosis refers to any disruption of the normal balance of the intestinal microflora, which disrupts the natural ratio of pathogenic and beneficial microflora, resulting in a malfunction in the normal operation of the intestine.
Dysbacteriosis in infants
A newly born baby from a sterile environmentmother's body falls into the environment of the surrounding world, which is densely populated by a wide variety of microorganisms. Of course, that under such conditions the child's body simply can not remain as sterile as it was in the womb of the mother. Practically from the moment of birth of crumbs in his body, the process of settling microorganisms, both useful and pathogenic, begins. Strictly speaking, the process of colonization of the child's intestinal microorganisms begins already in the process of childbirth, at the moment when the baby makes his progress through the mother's birth canal. And after the baby begins to eat independently, his intestines will become the habitat for a variety of microorganisms. Microorganisms in the intestines of the baby begin to multiply actively. A healthy baby has one gram of bacteria for every three grams of feces. Such coexistence of microorganisms and humans is beneficial to both sides and is called symbiosis. Microorganisms that live in the human intestine are divided into two subspecies:
- Obligatnaya flora
The microorganisms of this group are simply vitalare necessary for the normal functioning of the intestinal tract. These microorganisms are necessary for the process of digestion, for the full operation of the immune system of the child. These microorganisms include E. coli, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Bacteria - saprophytes, which do not have either positive or negative influence on human health, also apply to obligate flora. This group is the most extensive and accounts for approximately 96% of the entire intestinal microflora.
- Facultative microflora
Microorganisms of this group in the intestineare present in small amounts, and under unfavorable conditions, for example, with reduced immunity, injuries, stress, unhealthy diets, they begin to multiply actively. And after reaching a critical level, this pathogenic microflora often leads to the occurrence of various intestinal infections. To conditionally pathogenic microflora are such microorganisms as proteus, staphylococcus, Candida fungi. And if the presence of this microflora in an adult does not always lead to the onset of the disease, in infants, in whom the immune system does not fully work - always. I would like to talk more about such particularly useful bacteria as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Their presence in the child's body, as already mentioned above, is simply necessary. If these microorganisms in the intestine are enough, they simply simply displace the entire pathogenic microflora. This is due to the fact that the products of the vital activity of these bacteria create an environment in which the existence of a pathogenic microflora is simply impossible. The second, no less important function of useful microflora is the maintenance of the normal functioning of the immune system. The presence of bifidus and lactobacilli stimulates the production of immunoglobulins, which protect the child from the penetration of various pathogens into the body. Knowingly, if the balance of microflora is disturbed, so often the child has a significant weakening of immunity. Lactobacilli, and bifidobacteria are responsible for the production in the intestine of such vitamins as:
- Folic acid
- Vitamin B6
- Vitamin B12
These vitamins are necessary for normal developmentchild and the work of his immune system. And, in addition, these microorganisms are responsible for the full assimilation of iron, calcium and vitamin D. Another very important function of bacteria is stimulation of intestinal peristalsis. Normal peristalsis avoids the occurrence of various problems with constipation in the baby. Knowing all this, it becomes quite obvious why it is so important that in the intestines of the baby there is a proper bacterial ratio. If it is disturbed, there is a risk of developing hypovitaminosis, rickets and iron deficiency anemia. In addition, the risk of developing intestinal infections is greatly increased.
The process of formation of microflora
As mentioned earlier, the baby is born withabsolutely sterile intestine. The colonization of the intestine by the microflora begins at the time of delivery. Immediately after birth, right in the birth hall, the first contact of crumbs with the surrounding world takes place, and at this time his organism continues to be populated with microorganisms. After minimal treatment, doctors spread crumbs to the abdomen to their mother. The baby receives another portion of the microflora that the skin gives away, thereby preventing the primary colonization of the child's skin by an alien microflora. Next, there is probably the most important event in the life of every baby, the first attachment to the chest. After the crumb plunges into the mouth of the mother's nipple and makes the first throats of such a valuable colostrum. At this moment, the first stone of the foundation of the health of the crumb is laid. In addition to the fact that in colostrum there is a huge amount of the most diverse useful substances that are necessary for the baby, it contains factors that affect the formation of a natural normal intestinal microflora. Colostrum is very rich in bifidogenic components, which stimulate the development and growth of bifidobacteria. Colostrum enters the intestine of a newborn baby for the first time two hours of his life. Once in the children's body, these substances create favorable conditions for the life of bifidus and lactobacilli, which, entering the intestine, create a favorable environment for feeding bifidobacteria. In addition, the colostrum contains a huge number of immunoglobulins, which are a kind of biological vaccination from a huge number of diseases. That is why the kids who were attached to the chest in the first two hours of life grow healthier and stronger than their peers, who for some reason were excommunicated from their mother's birth. Such children are much less likely to develop dysbiosis, they have a much faster formed microflora, they are harmoniously developing and gaining weight. After the first application to the breast, during the next three to five days, the intestines of the baby are infected with various microorganisms of the intestine. And among the microorganisms entering the intestine, there is a rather large number of conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic microflora. That is why often during the first week of a baby's life, he develops a so-called transit dysbiosis, which is characterized by the appearance of a watery stool with veins of mucus and greens, and in addition, spastic pains in the belly and regurgitation. But already by the end of the first week the baby begins the next phase of colonization of the intestine with microorganisms. By this time, bifidus and lactobacillus, obtained by the baby in the first hours of life, multiply in large numbers and begin to displace the pathogenic microflora. Signs of disturbance of microflora gradually disappear, the child's stool is normalized, regurgitation is significantly reduced to the values of the physiological age norm. Treatment of dysbiosis in infants is quite successful. In itself transit dysbacteriosis is not a disease, provided that its appearance was not accompanied by such complications as deep prematurity, antibiotic intake and the presence of infectious diseases. But in order for this phase to pass safely, a number of specific requirements must be met:
- As early as possible applying to the breast, preferably within the first two hours after the birth of the crumbs.
- Breastfeeding on demand throughout this time. The question is, what to feed the child with dysbiosis should not even be discussed - if the mother has milk - then only breastfeed.
- Joint stay of mother and baby.
If these simple rules are violated, abruptlythe chances of developing a primary dysbacteriosis will increase and, as a consequence, a violation of the normal process of digestion and stool. In the case of crumbs the work of an already immature immune system worsens, food allergies can occur. Symptoms of dysbiosis in children do not take long.
Symptoms of dysbiosis
Behavior of a crumb with dysbacteriosis,considerably changes. If the crumbs are disturbed by the normal qualitative and quantitative composition of the microflora, the crumb suffers a certain discomfort. Dysbacteriosis symptoms in children is accurate and pronounced. The baby has increased gas formation and intestinal colic, resulting in the baby showing anxiety, crying, knitting. He is disturbed by the usual sleep and wakefulness. Typically, such attacks of intestinal colic occur one and a half to two hours after feeding the baby. As a rule, the baby's tummy swells, rumbling is noted along the bowels. As a consequence of these phenomena, the crumbs have regurgitation and even vomiting. If the dysbacteriosis in the crumb is in a pronounced form, there may be a phenomenon such as malabsorption. As a result, there is a violation of absorption in the small intestine of nutrients, the baby has diarrhea - the child's chair is foamy and has a sharp putrefactive smell. In addition, the baby not only does not gain weight, but often loses it. And as already mentioned above, the crumb suffers a severe dysbacteriosis in the event that something is wrong in his body - either the baby was born prematurely or was treated with antibiotics. And malabsorption significantly worsens the general health of the crumbs and the course of the underlying disease, if any. After a certain time, diarrhea in the crumbs can be replaced by persistent constipation. This is because in the intestines of the baby the content of bifidobacteria is significantly reduced, which is responsible for the correct intestinal motility, which is simply necessary for the normal stool of the baby.
Types of dysbiosis
Depending on what the causes of dysbiosis in children, it is divided into two subspecies:
- Compensated dysbiosis
If the crumb suffers compensateddysbacteriosis, no external manifestations of dysbacteriosis is observed. The baby's state of health is quite satisfactory, there is no violation of digestion or stool. And the very fact of the presence of dysbacteriosis is revealed, as a rule, absolutely by accident, during the analysis of feces. And almost always the cause of this analysis is either another disease, or a simple preventive examination. Analysis for dysbiosis in children is purposefully done extremely rarely.
- Uncompensated dysbiosis
But the uncompensated form of dysbiosisdelivers a huge number of health problems of crumbs. All the above signs of dysbacteriosis are present and the question of treating the baby just is not worth it. Treatment should be started immediately, without further deterioration. After all, the more dysbacteriosis is neglected, the more difficult it is to treat, and the more severely the organism suffers. Preparations from a dysbacteriosis for children quickly enough start to render positive influence on an organism of the kid. In the first case, with a compensated form of dysbiosis, in the absence of complaints and a good weight gain, parents often refuse treatment of dysbacteriosis, believing that there is no cause for concern. However, leaving such a dysbacteriosis without attention is possible only in older children. At the very very end, dysbacteriosis should be treated in any case, no matter what kind it is - compensated or not compensated. In small crumbs, the concept of compensation is very unstable - today there is enough compensation, and tomorrow dysbiosis will become uncompensated, taking place in a very serious form. That's why crumb requires proper treatment.
Treatment of dysbiosis
After the fears of the parents are confirmed,they have a completely logical question: how to treat dysbiosis in children? How trivial it is not sounded, but the best treatment for dysbiosis is the correct and prolonged feeding of the baby with the breast. Any kid needs a mother's milk at least during the first year of life. And about the kids suffering from a dysbacteriosis of an intestine, and to speak it is not necessary. Dysbacteriosis in children under one year is successfully treated with breastfeeding. It has already been said that in colostrum there is a huge amount of substances that contribute to the normal formation of microflora. But even mature mother's milk is no less useful for the intestinal flora of a child. It creates an optimal environment for the growth and development of these bacteria, and also helps maintain the necessary balance between lactobacillus, E. coli and bifidobacteria, thereby ensuring not only proper digestion, but also the prevention of allergic reactions. If, for some reason, you can not breastfeed, you need to carefully approach the issue of choosing a mixture for artificial feeding of baby crumbs. A mixture for such a child should contain additional protective factors. Such mixtures include all fermented milk mixtures, as well as dry mixtures containing prebiotics. Prebiotics are those substances that create conditions favorable for bifidus and lactobacilli. Remember that when choosing a therapeutic mixture, you must first consult with your doctor - a pediatrician. Before drug treatment of dysbacteriosis, it is necessary to conduct a study of the feces of the child for accurate diagnosis of the disease and exclusion of intestinal infections. After the conclusion of a laboratory study confirming the presence of a dysbacteriosis in the baby, it is possible to proceed directly to treatment. The treatment of dysbiosis itself consists of two stages. At the first stage, it is necessary to achieve complete suppression of reproduction and growth of pathological microflora. For these purposes, doctors prescribe crusta reception of special drugs called bacteriophages. These immunopreparations absorb and remove the entire pathogenic microflora from the child's body. In especially severe cases, when bacteriophages fail, doctors are forced to resort to intestinal antiseptics and even antibiotics. Antibiotics are used in this case, those that have an effect only on the lumen of the intestine, not getting into the blood. The second stage of treatment of dysbacteriosis should be the colonization of the intestine with the necessary microflora and the creation of favorable conditions for its growth and development. To do this, probiotics are used - pharmacological preparations containing in their composition live bifido and lactobacilli, as well as E. coli. It is impossible to unequivocally recommend a particular drug - treatment should be prescribed only by a doctor and in each case individually.
Prevention of dysbiosis
Of course, it is much more reasonable to tryprevent the development of dysbiosis, than after it is treated. Do this as soon as possible, even before the onset of pregnancy. Before the onset of pregnancy, the mother must undergo a complete examination to identify and eliminate the violation of the microflora of the genital tract. In the same case, if the presence of candidiasis revealed during pregnancy, you must immediately begin treatment. Modern pharmacology offers a large number of drugs that can be used during pregnancy. In addition, the expectant mother should carefully monitor her health, avoiding the possibility of infection with various diseases, which are treated with antibiotics. It is also very important to choose in advance that the maternity home, in which the earlier applying crumbs to the chest and the subsequent joint stay of the mother and baby. About why this is so important, already written above. And besides, such a joint stay allows us to establish a closer emotional contact between mother and baby.
Dysbacteriosis in older children
Many parents mistakenly assume thatthe problem of dysbacteriosis disappears after three years. However, this is not at all the case - both children and schoolchildren suffer equally from dysbiosis. However, schoolchildren are often just shy to tell their parents about the problem with the stool. Dysbacteriosis of the intestine symptoms in older children is sufficiently blurred and not always pronounced. The reasons causing a dysbacteriosis at children in more advanced age, it is a lot of. Such a cause can be a significant deterioration in the immune system of the child. As a rule, this happens in the event that a virus penetrates into the body of the child, the immune system that triggers the destruction of an alien pathogenic microorganism is triggered. And if, for some reason, the immune system of a child is weakened, pathogenic microorganisms begin to multiply unhindered, disrupting the normal intestinal microflora. The second, very common cause of dysbacteriosis is the prolonged treatment of the child with antibiotics. As a rule, standard conventional courses of antibiotics do not cause a child to develop dysbiosis. And if suddenly it develops, it very quickly passes by itself, when after the end of treatment the intestine is again populated with useful bacteria. But in the event that the disease was serious enough and doctors had to resort to the help of potent antibiotics, and the course of treatment is quite long, a strong dysbacteriosis can not be avoided. Dysbacteriosis in children after antibiotics is treated quite effectively. The third reason for the development of dysbiosis is the formation of such a negative environment in the intestines of the child, in which the existence of a normal microflora becomes practically impossible. Some bacteria die, part continues to multiply - as a result there is an imbalance of the intestinal microflora. To lead to this state may be intolerance to the child of any individual food components due to the lack of certain enzymes in the body. For example, very often there is milk intolerance - lactose insufficiency. Someone does not tolerate casein, animal protein, legumes.
Symptoms of dysbiosis in older children
If the infant has parents and doctorsTo observe a number of certain signs of a dysbacteriosis, then in children older than clear symptoms of the disease there is almost no case. However, nevertheless there are a number of complaints on which it is possible to suspect the presence of a dysbiosis in a child:
- Constant or recurring nausea, eructation.
- Constant heartburn is also often associated with the presence of a child's dysbiosis.
- Pain in the stomach, smack or smell from the mouth.
- The occurrence of allergic reactions to those products that the child used to eat without any problems. Allergy and dysbacteriosis in children almost always go hand in hand.
Most of all, if the child has dysbiosisthe process of digestion suffers. Any food, having got into the intestine of a person, is subjected to splitting by bacteria. And only after that the split food begins to be absorbed into the blood. And in the event that the natural balance of microflora is disturbed, the body rejects most of the food as alien substances. That's why the child has vomiting and diarrhea.
Treatment of dysbiosis in older children
If parents suspect the presence of a childdysbiosis, they need to see a doctor as soon as possible. The doctor must find out which bacteria the child lacks in the body, and which, in contrast, is excessive. For diagnostics use two methods:
- Bacteriological examination of feces
The essence of this study is as follows: samples of the feces of the child are placed in a certain favorable environment, in which the available bacteria begin to actively grow and multiply. As a result, after seven days it will be possible to determine the approximate composition of the microflora of the baby's intestines. The only drawback of this method of research is that this method can detect only 60% and all existing types of bacteria. Among other things, to obtain reliable results it is very important to carefully observe all the requirements for conducting similar studies.
- Examination of metabolites of microflora
The essence of this method of research is,that the content of fatty volatile acids is determined, which are the result of the vital activity of various kinds of bacteria. Results can be obtained in a few hours. Treatment of a dysbacteriosis. The principle of treatment of dysbacteriosis in older children is slightly different from that of infants. In schoolchildren, dysbacteriosis is accompanied by a violation of intestinal motility, the presence of an irritated bowel and even psychoemotional disorders. That is why treatment of dysbacteriosis in most cases should be complex. How to cure a dysbacteriosis in a child, can only be solved by a doctor. The main principles of treatment of dysbiosis are:
- A sick child must follow a strict diet. Nutrition for dysbacteriosis in children should contain a large number of different sour-milk products, as well as foods rich in fiber and proteins. Nutrition must be regular and systematic. Diet for children with dysbiosis is simply a prerequisite for successful treatment.
- In addition, it is extremely important to establish a normal intestinal peristalsis. A proper diet and certain pharmacological drugs prescribed by a doctor will successfully cope with this task.
- Restoration of normal intestinal microflora. To do this, use a large number of a variety of drugs, depending on what kind of bacteria is not enough in the body of the child.
- Treatment of co-morbidities, if any.
Prevention of dysbiosis in children older thanage should consist in observance of correctly balanced diet, healthy way of life. In the event that the course of treatment of the child with antibiotics is supposed, parents should consult with the doctor in advance about the preventive reception of probiotics. This will help reduce the manifestation of dysbiosis in children receiving antibacterial therapy. Often, in various sources, you can find information about a phenomenon such as the treatment of dysbiosis with herbs in children. However, doctors categorically do not advise self-medication. Firstly, a lot of time can be lost and the dysbacteriosis will take a neglected form. And secondly, children often have strong allergic reactions to various herbs. Remember that intestinal dysbacteriosis is not such an innocuous disease as it might seem at first glance. Untimely treatment can lead to the development of fairly serious complications, the echoes of which the child will feel all his life. We advise you to read: