Such long, but at the same time, so quicklyflashed nine months of waiting for the birth of your crumbs, the first walk, the first word "mom" ... All parents are waiting with great impatience for the first words of their crumbs. However, often, when a child starts to speak, these very words cause not only joy in the parents, but also a certain amount of anxiety, which all increases with the growth of the child. Recently, more and more often there are children who have any deviations from the normal development of speech. In this case, both the hearing of the baby and the level of his psychophysical development do not suffer in any way. In some cases, violations of speech development are very minor and the child does not very clearly pronounce only a few single sounds, or his vocabulary is extremely poor for his age category, deviations from the pace and sound of the voice. Speech therapy in the kindergarten nowadays is quite commonplace. And in some cases, speech disorders are so serious that the child talks so badly that his speech is almost incomprehensible, and sometimes completely absent. And in the event that mild violations of speech do not prevent a child from attending an ordinary preschool institution, and subsequently a normal secondary school, severe speech disorders do not allow the child to lead the usual way for his peers to attend a kindergarten and school. Such children are forced to study in special educational institutions of a compensatory type. However, in ordinary kindergartens there is a huge number of children who really really need expert help from a speech therapist. That is why almost every kindergarten employs teachers - speech therapists, who conduct special corrective classes both with groups of children in need of this, and individually if the child needs it. In these classes, teachers are engaged in the development and correction of not only the speech process itself, but also the attention of the child, the ability to focus all his attention on some particular phenomenon, logical thinking. If, for some reason, children at preschool age have not received the necessary speech therapy in a kindergarten (for example, a child has not attended a kindergarten), they can expect to receive such help at the speech therapy centers, which are absolutely in any medium-sized secondary general education school. As a rule, in order to attend a speech therapist, a child should receive a consultation and referral from a speech therapist from a polyclinic at the child's place of residence. However, one should not rely solely on school speech therapists - as a rule, at school, the speech therapists' attention is mainly aimed not at eliminating logopedic deficiencies, but at overcoming difficulties in the learning process and increasing academic achievement. Therefore, parents must necessarily take their child to additional classes in serious speech therapy centers. In the event that logopedic speech defects are not eliminated in a timely manner, as the child grows, serious psychological problems and complexes may arise that can significantly complicate a child's life. As a result, you will have to go to a speech therapist, and to a psychologist as well. In the same case, if logopedic speech disorders are so severe that the speech of the child is absolutely indistinct, which makes it impossible to raise and educate the baby first in an ordinary garden, and afterwards - at school, the child must be trained in special institutions of a compensating kind. Highly qualified specialists - speech therapists, psychologists work in such institutions. The child receives a comprehensive treatment, with him conducted classes aimed at improving the speech process, the development of figurative and logical thinking. Also, such children need to be socially adapted so that they can become full members of society.
Signs of speech disorders in the baby
Children's speech therapists are faced with a wide variety ofspeech disorders - from the simplest to the most severe. In a particularly difficult situation, children with severe speech impairment turn out to be especially difficult if the baby, on the background of a violation of the verbal process, retains a full hearing and an adequate level of intelligence. The child understands that he is not the same as the rest of the kids. Such children can not participate fully in games with peers, communicate with parents, and deal with teachers - all this can not but affect the self-esteem of the child and the process of its development. As a result, a child with a completely full-fledged intellect and level of development remains outside the children's collective, and feels literally pulled out of life. That's why parents are so worried about how much children start talking. Incidentally, the timing of the onset of speech in children is spelled out quite clearly - if the child does not speak for two years, parents should show the child as soon as possible to the doctors. In the event that parents, doctors and teachers do not notice signs of violation of the speech process in a timely manner and take all the necessary measures, the child starts a secondary developmental lag, which unqualified teachers can be regarded as innate. Such babies are very difficult to adapt in the future to the learning process of writing, reading and counting. They have pronounced sound insufficiency, which entails a limited perception of images, verbal generalizations, sounds and letters, which makes the education of a child in an ordinary school simply impossible. Of course, such children will not be able to adapt themselves and adapt themselves to their independent existence in society. Of course, with the growth of the child and his awareness of himself as a person, he realizes his inferiority. The child in most cases just closes in himself, deliberately refuses to communicate with the outside world, which seems alien to him and hostile. The character of the child begins to deteriorate noticeably - the parents note closedness, rudeness, a tendency for hysterics in their baby. The child becomes insecure. In this situation, a very important role is played by the behavior of parents and those educators who are involved in the upbringing of the baby. Many parents very rudely pull out the child when the child makes speech therapy speech errors, making him tactless, and sometimes frankly offensive sharp remarks. However, this is a gross pedagogical error that can lead to various psychological problems and a sharp refusal of the child from contact with the world around him. In the event that speech impairment is not strongly pronounced and the degree of violation allows him to be in an ordinary kindergarten, it is very important to choose the right tactics of behavior with the child. Do not underline in the conversation once again that the child is different from other children. Of course, correcting the speech errors of the baby is necessary, but it must be done very tactfully and unobtrusively, without infringing on the pride of the baby and not focusing on this problem of special attention. Many parents for various reasons refuse to attend sessions at the speech therapist, mistakenly believing that they can cope on their own. However, in no case should you try to do this if you do not have a special speech therapy education. No training manual, no training disk is able to teach parents the skills that receive speech therapy at the institute for 5 years of training. And incorrect, albeit sincere, attempts to help a child suffering from various speech disorders can not only be unsuccessful, but can only worsen, and sometimes significantly, the state of the child. There is a huge number of varieties of speech disturbance - it is simply impossible to write about all in one article, of course. Therefore, today two types of the most frequently occurring speech disorders are described in more detail: stammering and dysarthria.
Stammering in children
Stuttering occurs in about 20% of all casesspeech disorders in children. Doctors - speech therapists characterize stammering as a change in the normal rhythm, pace and smoothness of the speech sound of a person. The cause of such violations are convulsions of certain parts of the human speech apparatus, which can be caused by a variety of causes, which in various cases can range from mild to severe. Most often, the parents are the first to pay attention to the problems of the child's speech, associated with stuttering. In order not to miss the onset of the disease and the timely treatment of stuttering in children, parents should know the main signs of stammering:
- Violation of the rhythm of speech
Parents note involuntarypause, repeated repetition of individual sounds or even whole syllables. The most common stuttering in children 3 years. However, in some cases, stuttering may occur at a later age - most often in such cases, the cause of stuttering is a consequence of the child's psychological stress. The formation of an enabling environment is an important part of how to treat stuttering in children.
- Sudden silence of the baby
In a child's life, there is a stressfulthe situation - the toddler experienced severe pain, a sense of fright or something and ... is silent. The child is silent for an hour, another. And after that he starts talking again, but stuttering. If you are in a similar situation, as soon as possible, take the child to a medical facility, where experienced doctors and psychologists will help the child smoothly and as softly as possible from the state of psychological shock. And in this case, the risk that the child will begin to talk stuttering will be much less than without the medical and psychological help that parents can give their child, with all the desire, simply because they lack the necessary knowledge and skills.
- The appearance in the speech of unnecessary sounds
In the event that parents began to notice that their baby before the words began to use additional sounds, most often such vowels as "a" and "o".
- Repetition of syllables in words or even whole words at the beginning of a sentence
- Sudden forced pauses in the middle of the word - in the middle of the sentence the child stopped talking
Numerous observations of neurologists suggestthat all the stuttering children have significantly weakened the central nervous system. For successful treatment of stuttering, the child simply needs to establish the causes of the disease. And these reasons can be very different - one can never accurately predict which factor will become the culprit of the disease. But it is better to prevent a complication than to puzzle, how to cure stuttering in a child.
Causes of stuttering in children
The reasons for stuttering in children can be very different. In a number of cases, stuttering is caused by a general weakening of the nervous system caused by various acute infectious diseases. Sometimes the trigger mechanism can be even an ordinary chicken pox or a cold, taking place in a particularly severe form. That is why it is so important to apply for medical help in a timely manner - in the event that a sick kid gets adequate treatment and proper care. Also, very often the development of stuttering in children is the result of either severe stress or prolonged depressive conditions. Parents constantly need to remember that a small child has a very fragile and vulnerable psyche. The main task of parents is not only to feed and clothe the child, but also to create a favorable psychological climate for him. Remember that children are very hard to tolerate any changes in the usual way of life - stability is very important for them. And the stress for the child can be not only negative events, but also positive emotions - it can be a divorce of parents, mother's exit to work or going to kindergarten. Psychologists - speech therapists also note cases of stammering in those children, which parents often make a child read poetry or tell something to the public, to the guests. Remember that constant repetition of the same information can lead to the development of stuttering in the child - do not force the child to do anything against his will, in order to avoid complications of the speech process. In some cases, stammering develops in those kids who start talking very late (after three years), but very violently. It is this development of speech that provokes the appearance of stuttering. But, as a rule, this kind of stuttering goes quite quickly and without any outside interference of parents or speech therapists. Speaking of such a speech violation, as a stammer, you can not fail to mention the fine motor skills of the hands. Almost always stammering in a child is accompanied by a violation of fine motor skills. This violation is noticeable even with the naked eye: Such children do not have very good control over their hands - they do not shoelen shoes, can not fasten buttons or lift off a small object - a speck, a small toy, a button. Be sure to remember all these aforementioned signs of stuttering - after all, it refers to those types of disturbance of the normal speech process that can be prevented and prevented from aggravating its course if treatment is started as early as possible. At their first suspicion that the baby has a stutter, parents should as soon as possible seek professional advice from a doctor - a speech therapist and a psychologist who know exactly how to save the child from stuttering. However, besides the help of a speech therapist, the correct tactic of behavior of parents and the whole family of the baby is very important. All adults surrounding the child should remember that these children have a very weak nervous system. Such babies need a very gentle and tactful approach and attitude. In no case should not be punished by physical influence. And even a voice to raise on such kids is extremely not recommended - it can greatly injure the child's psyche and significantly worsen the course of the disease. Try to protect the child's psyche, do not allow an overabundance of impressions. And this is true not only in global issues, but also in domestic trivia. For example, children's books - in any case, do not read to the child those books, which he can not yet understand due to his small age. Do not read the baby before bedtime of fairy tales with the participation of negative characters, such as gosh, Koshchei immortal, kikimora. Water - like reading can provoke nightmares and, as a consequence, development of stuttering. The same is true for children watching television programs. Watching TV itself has a very strong effect on the state of the nervous system of the baby, so in no case should you allow the child to stay with the TV for a long time. Carefully watch what your child is looking for - try to completely exclude the viewing by the child of adult television shows, cartoons containing scenes of violence. Do not allow the baby to watch TV less than one hour before bedtime. However, in no case should one take the other extreme in dealing with such children, fully indulging in all their whims and never refusing anything. Thus, parents risk very much to spoil the nature and psyche of their child - after all, having got used to constant indulgence to all his whims, with the slightest refusal in something can cause serious stress. Remember that your child will grow up and go first to a kindergarten, then to school. And he will not be some exceptional personality, which he is for his parents, but only one of the students, the same as everyone else.
Dysatria in Toddlers
The second most common problem,associated with a violation of the speech process - is dysarthria. Doctors - speech therapists call dysarthria those disorders of the speech process, which are caused by organic damage to the central nervous system of the baby. The most important and brightest sign that a child has a dysarthria is not only the correct pronunciation of individual specific sounds, but a complete breakdown of the pronunciation of all words without exception. Dysarthria in children requires long and serious treatment. And the examination of children with dysarthria can reveal the severity of the disorder. Those children who suffer from dysarthria suffer from a restriction of normal mobility of the musculature of the maxillofacial apparatus, as well as mimic muscles. Such children are very specific speech: it is very blurry and fuzzy - with all sounds without exception, and the voice is very quiet and weak. To hear what exactly wants to say your baby, you will have to make some effort. However, in rare cases, but still sometimes there are cases when the child's voice sounds too harsh - the surrounding people compare it with a gnash of metal on the glass. It should also be noted that children suffering from dysarthria, as a rule, are not very talkative at all, trying to spend most of the time in silence. Associated with this feature is the fact that dysarthria causes a violation of the normal rate of respiration, which causes discomfort in the child and worsening of well-being. The reasons for the development of this speech disorder are often unclear for doctors. However, doctors still identify several major factors that can trigger the development of a child's dysarthria:
- Complications of the normal course of pregnancy
In the event that during pregnancy,women have any health problems - any viral infections or placental problems, the child significantly increases the chance of developing dysarthria. Most often, the development of dysarthria is caused by intrauterine infection of the fetus with the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. Correctly proceeding pregnancy is a good prevention of speech disorders in children.
- Complications during the birth process
In the event that during childbirth the childreceives birth trauma as a result of complications such as prolonged labor with hypoxia or, on the contrary, too rapid, the risk of damage to the central nervous system and, consequently, the development of dysarthria increases many times.
- Infectious diseases
The risk of developing dysarthria is also present in those children who, in early childhood, suffered such infectious diseases as meningitis or encephalitis, higher than in the other 8-9 times.
Varieties of children's dysarthria
Dysarthria in babies can be observed both inlight form, and in fairly heavy. Fortunately, a severe form of dysarthria is rare, as a rule, it is a constant companion of such a serious disease as infantile cerebral palsy. Such children need to be trained and rehabilitated in specialized educational and medical institutions that specialize in teaching and treating children suffering from musculoskeletal disorders and speech disorders. In such correction centers with children, there are experienced specialists - defectologists: psychologists, speech therapists. But, fortunately, in most cases there is an erased dysarthria in children. The mild form of the course of this disease is called an erased form or a dysarthric component. Children with this form of the disease have no contraindication to training in ordinary kindergartens and schools. The mild form of dysarthria manifests itself only by insignificant limitations of the normal functioning of the speech apparatus and fine motor skills of the hands. The speech of a toddler with a mild degree of dysarthria is fuzzy, blurred, but quite understandable for others and the child does not get into speech isolation. However, the mild form of dysarthria is often the reason why children start talking late. Such children are practically the same as their peers. If you do not particularly listen to the speech of the baby, it is almost impossible for a person without special education to determine the presence of a problem. But experienced speech therapy without any work from a whole crowd of children very quickly calculate the crumbs with dysarthria. Such kiddies have their own peculiarities of development:
- Speech disorders
As mentioned above - these children are quite clear and understandable for others, one of them is different from the speech of a perfectly healthy person - the sounds are blurred, the speech is quiet.
- Taste preferences
Children with an erased form of dysarthria havepeculiar taste preferences. First of all, it concerns the consistency of food - children do not like such solid foods as bread, carrots, apples and so on. When a child begins to eat solid food, the following happens: the crumb begins to chew solid food, but literally after a few minutes the crumb stops chewing, but just keeps his cheek. But the food that has a liquid consistency, the child eats with pleasure. This is due to the fact that because of insufficiently well developed muscles of the maxillofacial device, the child simply can not physically chew the food properly. In most cases, parents regret their baby and prepare liquid food for him, only to eat the baby. However, such a measure is not so good and harmless as it seems at first glance - soft food only aggravates the situation, since the jaw muscles are even more atrophied. It is much more reasonable not to indulge the child's requests, but, on the contrary, gradually accustom the child to solid food. It is not necessary, of course, immediately translate the baby solely on solid food. But still gradually include in the diet of the baby solid food - it will not only allow the child's body to receive adequate nutrition, but will also strengthen the speech device, thereby improving the child's speech.
Formation of hygienic skills
In addition to disturbing the normal speech process,children with mild form of dysarthria, there is a problem of forming those elementary skills of self-service that require the participation of certain groups of muscles of the hands and speech device:
- Oral hygiene
An ordinary dental cleaning process for a baby withdysarthria can be a real problem. Due to the fact that the child has poorly developed and very weak muscles of the tongue and cheeks, as a result of which the child can not rinse the oral water by itself, either immediately swallows or spits out. In order to eliminate this problem, parents and teachers should make some efforts - to teach the child how to properly control their muscles. How to do this, you will tell a doctor - a speech therapist.
- The problem with an independent dressing process
Children suffering from dysarthria do not like very much, butoften and simply do not know how, to lace up your shoes, zippers and buttons, zipper the sleeves. Many parents begin to get angry and try to get their orders, or waving their hand at instilling a skill and doing everything themselves. However, neither one nor the other is the right decision. In no case should the child be punished, demanding from him what he can not yet do. The child needs to be accustomed to this gradually - begin to practice the necessary skills gradually. As practice shows, children are much more eager to learn self-service in the event that the child is interested. That's why teachers teach kids to dress, fasten buttons on puppet clothing, and tie laces - on special games laces. Of course, there are other problems of speech in children, for example, the child does not speak the letter p, or the child speaks his own language, which is not understood by others, or the child does not speak at all for 3 years. In some cases, a child without problems has become worse talking. There are a lot of options for such speech disorders in a child - however, parents should not think about how to make a child talk. Parents should remember one thing - the diagnosis of speech disorders in children is not such a simple matter, as it may seem at first glance. Do not try to cope with the problem yourself - ask for a speech therapist. After all, the child's correct speech is the key to his success in the future. We advise you to read: