Prevention of unwanted pregnancy isone of the most pressing issues of concern to all women. Everyone understands that abortions are very harmful for a woman's body. However, gynecologists are worried about the situation: despite the fact that now there are contraceptives of the new generation, the number of unplanned pregnancies, ending with abortions, is growing every year. What makes women refuse to use effective new-generation contraceptives, risklessly risk, and, in the end, go to an abortion? The financial side of the issue? It can hardly be called an objective reason - methods and means of contraception are very diverse. If desired, a woman with absolutely any income can choose for herself suitable means of protection from unwanted pregnancy. In fact, most methods and means of contraception do not cause any particular damage to the woman's budget. Abortion will entail much more damage for a woman, both financial and moral. If the reason for women's refusal to protect themselves from unwanted pregnancies is not the material side, then what? What makes women risk their health and ignore contraceptive methods? As the results of long-term follow-up of gynecologists' doctors, as well as statistics of opinion polls show, the most common reasons for refusing to use contraceptive methods are banal reasons:
- Ordinary laziness. A woman does not want to look for suitable methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies. However, the hope for "maybe" sooner or later will lead a woman to the onset of an unwanted pregnancy. If you do not want long to choose methods of contraception - the spiral is exactly what you need. In order to use this method of contraception, like a spiral, you will have to spend only a few hours on a campaign to a gynecologist, after which you can forget about the problem of contraception for several years. This is the best method of contraception for those women who do not want to follow their menstrual cycle or taking tablets.
- Ignorance of the principle of the operation of most methodsprevention of unwanted pregnancy. Unfortunately, the harm of contraceptives in the minds of many women is greatly exaggerated. Often, around the means of protection from pregnancy, there are entire legends that are passed from one woman to another, each time gobbling up more and more horrific details about the dangers of contraceptives. If a woman fears for her health, she needs to see a gynecologist, who will help her choose the safest method of contraception, taking into account her particular health and needs.
- Hope for a rhythmic method of contraception. Very many women use exactly rhythmic methods of contraception. However, they do not take into account the fact that for a successful use of the calendar method of contraception, the menstrual cycle in a woman should be very, very stable. This method is far from the safest method of contraception.
- Fear of women to use contraceptive methods whenbreastfeeding. Many mothers believe that this can seriously harm the baby's health. However, in fact, this is not so. The use of contraceptives in breastfeeding is absolutely safe and can not in any way damage the health of crumbs. If a woman is still very afraid, she can always choose nonhormonal contraceptives for herself. About what they are, will be told a little lower.
On the dangers of abortion, which womendo because of the neglect of modern methods of contraception, says a lot. Therefore, in this article on this issue, attention will not be accentuated. It tells about what modern methods of contraception exist, and also classifies methods of contraception.
Natural methods of contraception
The physiological method of contraception is one of the favorite in many women, despite its imperfection. There are two types of physiological method of contraception:
- Temperature method of contraception.
- The calendar method of contraception.
The female organism is arranged in such a way thata woman can get pregnant not every day, but strictly on certain days of her menstrual cycle. The onset of pregnancy is possible only during ovulation. Ovulation is the process of exit from the ovaries of a mature egg. Any biological method of contraception is based precisely on this feature of the female body. And that is why, for the protection of biological methods of contraception, it is very important that a woman has a stable menstrual cycle. The natural method of contraception, called calendar, allows you to determine the time of ovulation by counting and drawing up a schedule of fertile days for conception. In order to do this, a woman should know some features of the conception process. Fertilization of the egg is possible only within one day from the time of release from the ovary. Spermatozoon also retains the ability to fertilize an egg within three days of penetration into the vagina. This feature is based on natural methods of contraception, including the calendar. To begin with, a woman needs to determine the duration of her menstrual cycle. For the first day of the cycle, you must take the first day of menstruation. From the resulting duration, take 18 days - you will get the first auspicious day for conception. After this, take away from the first day of the menstrual cycle 11 - you will get the last "dangerous" day. Remember that the reliability of such a biological method of contraception is possible only in the case of a stable cycle for at least a year. The temperature method of contraception is a more reliable contraceptive, as it is based on a constant accurate measurement of the basal body temperature. Basal places, in which this temperature is measured, is the oral cavity, the vagina, the rectum. In the evening, prepare a notebook, pen and thermometer. It is preferable to use ordinary mercury, since its readings are more accurate, and for an effective method of contraception accuracy is very important. Immediately after awakening, without standing in bed, measure the temperature in the rectum, within 10 minutes. Try to measure the temperature at the same time. After that, immediately record the testimony in the notebook, do not rely on your memory. The temperature should be measured for at least a month. After that, the woman needs to make a schedule, marking the calendar dates vertically, and horizontally - the basal temperature. After that, connect the dots together. As a result, you will get a graph of your menstrual cycle. Immediately after the process of ovulation, the basal temperature rises sharply, amounting to approximately 37.3 degrees Celsius. The most favorable days for conception are the time for 4 days before and after the temperature rises. This method is difficult to attribute to the best method of contraception, as it is not reliable enough, but its adherents say about some of its advantages over traditional methods of contraception. Objectively for the sake of, these advantages are listed below:
- There is no need to introduce into the body foreign substances, as, for example, when using barrier methods of contraception.
- Unlike tablets to prevent unwanted pregnancies, these methods are classified as safe contraceptives.
- Also, these methods are preferred by believing women, as these are the only ways the church can prevent unwanted pregnancies.
- Similar methods are non-hormonal methods of contraception.
Less of these methods, only one, but very weighty - they are though safe contraceptives, but very unreliable.
Birth control pills
Methods of contraception for women in our timeare wide enough. Including contraceptives - tablets. Tablets are sufficiently reliable contraceptives that protect against the onset of pregnancy in about 98% of cases. Such a high degree of protection is achieved thanks to the artificially synthesized sex hormones contained in the tablets. Oral contraceptives inhibit the processes of ovulation, as well as change the normal structure of the mucous membrane of the uterus, thereby excluding the possibility of implantation of the embryo, even if the fertilization did occur. Thus, tablets to prevent unwanted pregnancies provide a multi-level protection level. That is why tablets are considered the most reliable method of contraception. Some women worry about whether pregnancy is possible after contraceptives, especially hormonal drugs. Such fears are absolutely groundless, absolutely all changes occurring in the female body are completely reversible and disappear after the woman stops taking oral contraceptives. In addition, such contraceptives as tablets have a very "pleasant" side effect - almost all women notice a significant improvement in the condition of the skin, nails and hair. In some cases, hormonal contraceptives for women are prescribed by gynecologists with a curative purpose, for the correction of hormonal disorders. Remember that an independent choice of hormonal contraceptives for women is unacceptable. Appoint hormonal contraceptives for women should only a gynecologist. After all, you can select truly effective methods of contraception, only taking into account all the individual characteristics of the female body. Doctors singled out several advantages of hormonal contraceptives for women:
- Stabilization of the menstrual cycle in those women in whom he was irregular.
- Also hormonal methods of female contraception almost completely eliminate premenstrual syndrome and unpleasant physical sensations during menstruation.
- Hormonal methods of contraception for women protect a woman from such a common disease as iron deficiency anemia.
- Women who use hormonal methods of female contraception, 60% reduced the risk of all kinds of inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system.
- In addition, the risk of development is significantly reducedall kinds of tumor diseases. Moreover, there is a pronounced therapeutic effect. For example, in those women who used hormonal contraceptives in myoma, doctors noted a significant improvement in the condition, and even a complete cure.
- The risk of developing osteoporosis in those women whouse hormonal women's contraceptives, decreases at times, which is also important. Unfortunately, with osteoporosis, a good half of all women face. It is also worth paying attention to when choosing contraceptives after 35 years.
- Wonderful prevention of the occurrence in the future of such a formidable complication, as an ectopic pregnancy.
- The use of female hormonal contraceptives significantly improves the condition of the skin and treats a large number of skin diseases associated with hormonal disorders.
However, listing numerous advantages, it is necessary to say also about the negative aspects of this most effective method of contraception:
- Women who preferred thisthe method of preventing an unwanted pregnancy, there may be a periodic increase in blood pressure. However, this side effect is very rare, no more than 5% of cases and, as a rule, in women who suffer from hypertension.
- Modern contraceptives on a hormonal basis can cause attacks of cholelithiasis in those women who suffer it.
- Choosing tablets - the most effectivecontraceptive means - it is necessary to consider that in the first months they can cause disturbances of the menstrual cycle. These disorders can manifest as spotting bloody discharge, or, conversely, complete absence of menstrual bleeding. This phenomenon should not be frightened, as it is temporary in nature and disappears on its own, two to three months after the start of taking the drug. In the same case, if this did not happen, which is extremely rare, a woman should consult a doctor who will help to choose another, more optimal, drug. After all, the effectiveness of contraceptive methods is provided by individual selection.
- The main argument against hormonaldrugs, which put forward women who prefer non-hormonal methods of contraception, is a set of excess body weight. In fact, the concentration of hormones in modern contraceptives is so small that in no way can it affect the body weight. A set of weight is due to an improperly balanced diet and insufficient physical exertion.
- Some drugs can cause enoughunpleasant sensations in the mammary glands, reminiscent of the sensation during pregnancy: the breast can be poured and even ache a bit. Typically, these feelings disappear after a few months after the start of taking the drug.
- In very rare cases,the strongest headache, which is of a paroxysmal nature. In the event that a headache occurs more than twice a week, a woman should immediately stop taking medications and consult a doctor.
- Women using hormonalcontraceptives after 40 years old, often complain about the periodic occurrence of a feeling of nausea, almost never turning into vomiting. Doctors explain this with age-related hormonal changes in the body of the woman herself.
- Some women complain that after starting taking pills, they experience emotional instability. However, doctors deny the connection with contraceptives.
- Quite often in the first few months a womancan mark a change in sexual desire. In some women it rises, partly due to the fact that a woman stops being afraid of an unwanted pregnancy. And other women, on the contrary, complain of a decrease in sexual desire. However, this is also a temporary phenomenon, and it is not worth worrying about this woman.
- In rare cases, when taking hormonaldrugs, the appearance of pigmented spots, especially in those areas of the skin that are exposed to direct sunlight. In case of such a complication, a woman should inform her doctor. As a rule, after a couple of months the problem goes away by itself.
Barrier means of contraception
New methods of contraception are provided to womenwide choose. If a woman does not want, for whatever reasons, to drink birth control pills, she can choose contraceptive topical solutions. The principle by which vaginal contraceptives work is very simple: chemicals are used that are introduced into a woman's vagina. When sperm hits, these chemicals, called spermicides, instantly destroy them. In addition, spermicides create a thin protective film on the mucous membrane of the vagina, and thickening of the cervical secretions also occurs. Thus, an additional barrier appears for spermatozoa. There are two chemicals used in vaginal contraceptives: benzalkonium chloride and nonoxynol. It was on their basis that a contraceptive topical drug, popular with many women, called "Pharmatex", was created. Another very important advantage that such contraceptives possess when breastfeeding is complete safety for the baby, since active ingredients do not penetrate into breast milk. The main types of contraceptives in this group are described below. Contraceptin belongs to the group "chemical contraceptives", disinfects, has an antibacterial effect and kills spermatozoa. This is the best contraceptive for those women whose sex life is irregular. This tool does not require systematic use, just once, just before intercourse, to insert vaginal suppositories into the vagina. Nonoxylol also belongs to the group "chemical means of preventing pregnancy." It also has a pronounced spermatocidal effect, leading to immobilization and death of spermatozoa. In addition, this drug has a pronounced antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal effects, which provides a sufficiently high level of protection against many sexually transmitted diseases. Exactly the same action has the Patent Oval. The form in which these contraceptives are manufactured are candles. Pasta gramicidinovaya continues the list of contraceptives. The active ingredient in this chemical contraceptive is the antibiotic gramicidin. It has a powerful bactericidal and contraceptive. In addition, very often its use is recommended for those women who suffer from inflammatory diseases of the cervix or vagina. Chemical methods of contraception also offer such an effective tool as traceptin. This is a very effective remedy with a contraceptive effect. Produced in the form of tablets, which must be introduced into the vagina immediately before the sexual act itself. However, such a chemical method of contraception can cause such a side effect, as severe burning in the vagina. If you are faced with such a problem, you should pay attention to other local contraceptives. The newest methods of contraception offer a woman such a tool as Pharmatex. It is a contraceptive drug, reliably protects from the onset of an unwanted pregnancy. By its effectiveness, it can be put on a par with such contraceptives as candles, spiral and tablets. The risk of pregnancy is not more than 1%. In addition, this chemical protection against pregnancy has a high ability to protect a woman from many sexually transmitted diseases. It has a depressing effect on such pathogenic flora as candida, chlamydia, herpes, gonococcus and chlamydia. This tool is one of the best methods of contraception for breastfeeding, also for those women who are contraindicated in intrauterine contraceptives - a spiral. Pharmatex does not have any contraindications and side effects, can be used courageously even as a contraceptive after 40 years. Pharmatex is available in several forms:
- Vaginal balls. They are administered 3 minutes before the onset of sexual intercourse, deep into the vagina.
- The second form is a cream. The cream should also be injected directly before the sexual intercourse deep into the vagina.
- Tampons. Entered into the vagina before sexual intercourse, protective action lasts 24 hours, while similar contraceptives are single. And before each new intercourse it is necessary to inject a new dose of the drug.
If contraceptive methods are used,take care of that they were at hand at the right time, then not to start feverishly rushing about in search of the treasured box. Some women prefer rather exotic birth control pills, for example. The plaster is pasted onto the skin of the woman for a certain period, during which time the protection against the onset of unwanted pregnancy occurs. What is the basis of the effect of a contraceptive, such as a patch? Under his influence, the level of hormones in the female body changes, which, in fact, has a contraceptive effect. It should be borne in mind that this method is quite young, so the effectiveness of this method of contraception is still unknown. Listing the barrier contraceptive means ring can not be ignored. In fact, the opinion that the ring is a non-hormonal contraceptive is mistaken. The principle of its action is the same as that of tablets. However, its advantage is that a woman does not need to constantly monitor the timely use. Such a contraceptive as a ring, it is enough to place one time in the vagina - and for three weeks you can forget about the issue of protection. Hormones contained in the vaginal ring, penetrate into the blood and provide protection from pregnancy. Due to the action of hormones, the uterine mucosa changes - it thickens and loses its ability to implant the fetal egg. This remedy reliably protects against unwanted pregnancy in 97% of cases, but do not forget that it does not protect against venereal diseases. That is why its use is justified only if there is a constant sexual partner.
Very often a woman, in answer to her question about how,what contraceptives are better, hears about the Navy. IUD is an intrauterine device. And is this really the most reliable method of contraception? In order to understand this, it is necessary to know, by what principle is the protection from the onset of an unwanted pregnancy. The intrauterine device is a special flexible device intended for insertion into the uterus for a long time, and providing protection from the onset of an unwanted pregnancy. There are two varieties of IUDs:
- Non-commensal spiral.
- Medicamentous. Such a spiral can contain substances such as copper, silver, gold, progesterone and other drugs.
The shape of the intrauterine device may also bethe most diverse: in the form of a ring, and in the form of a spiral, in other modifications. As a material for the manufacture of intrauterine devices, plastic is used more often. The spiral combines the advantages of barrier methods of hormonal and contraceptive methods. Protection from the onset of pregnancy is due to the fact that the spiral:
- It causes thickening of the mucus of the cervical canal of the uterus.
- Significantly reduces the speed of movement in the uterine cavity of the egg.
- Reduces the ability of spermatozoa to penetrate the uterine cavity.
- Causes changes in the structure of the mucous membrane of the uterus.
The intrauterine device is currentlythe most effective method of contraception, it gives 99% guarantee of protection against unwanted pregnancy. In addition, when comparing contraceptives for lactating women, the comparison will be in favor of a spiral. It is completely safe for the baby, since even with the use of a medicamental spiral, not a drop of the drug penetrates into the breast milk. To put the Navy a woman can at any time convenient for her, regardless of the day of the menstrual cycle, which allows a woman to choose the most convenient day for her to go to the doctor. In addition, if you choose contraceptives after delivery, the spiral is the most optimal option for you, since it can be administered immediately after childbirth, as well as after uncomplicated abortion. The intrauterine device is the best contraceptive for women who want to achieve long-term and effective protection against pregnancy. However, when choosing contraceptives for girls, it is necessary to know that the use of a spiral in nulliparous women is not recommended. It is not recommended to leave the spiral in the uterine cavity longer than indicated in the annotation. Also, in any case, independent extraction of the spiral is not permissible. Summing up, I would like to once again pay attention to some facts:
- Such a contraceptive, like a spiral, can be used as a method of contraception after childbirth. In advance, take care of acquiring a spiral and inform the doctor about your desire.
- The intrauterine device is an absolutely safe contraceptive for lactating women, since the spiral does not cause any harm to the baby.
- Those women who are contraindicated in the use of hormonal contraceptives after 35 years can use the spiral without fear of deterioration of their health.
- I would like to draw the attention of women to the fact thatThe intrauterine device does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. That's why the use of a spiral is justified only if the woman has a regular sexual partner.
Contraceptive means for men
Very often girls are interested in what kind ofthere are contraceptives for men, and are they anyway? Despite the fact that their choice is small, contraceptive methods for men still exist. The following are all the male contraceptives available at the moment. Interrupted intercourse is one of the most popular contraceptive methods for men. The essence of this method is as follows: the penis is extracted from the vagina of a woman before the onset of ejaculation. However, the reliability of this method of male contraception is very small. Very often, at the very beginning of the sexual act, a small but sufficient number of spermatozoa is produced for the fertilization of the ovum. As the statistics show, every third sexual intercourse, using its interruption as a male contraceptive, leads to the onset of an unwanted pregnancy. Also, with the continued use of interrupted intercourse, a significant reduction in male potency is possible. Telling about what are the male methods of contraception condom also can not be ignored. As everyone knows, a condom is a latex elastic cover, put on an excited penis. The method of contraception using a condom has several distinct advantages over other masculine agents. The condom prevents sperm from entering the vagina, thereby completely eliminating the risk of an unwanted pregnancy. Also, direct contact of the penis and vagina is excluded, so there is no risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, a condom is a single-use contraceptive, ideal for those men and women whose sexual life is irregular. In addition, they can use those couples to whom other methods of contraception after childbirth for some reason do not fit. The use of condoms has no contraindications, does not require large financial costs. However, it also has a negative - condom can tear. In this case, the woman will be forced to pay attention to the methods of emergency contraception. There are also less common methods of male contraception, such as sterilization and hormonal drugs. Since the contraceptive pills for men are still in the testing stage, they will not be discussed in this article, and here's what sterilization is - read on. Male sterilization is called "vasectomy". Its principle lies in the intersection of the vas deferens. An operation is performed under local anesthesia and lasts about 10 minutes. About a month after the procedure, a man completely loses the ability to have children. However, this process is completely reversible, in the event that a man in the future wants to have children. This procedure does not have any negative impact on the health of men: it does not change the normal hormonal background, sexual desire and potency do not decrease. To date - this is a complete list of known contraceptive means for men.
Methods of emergency contraception
Unfortunately, life periodically occursunforeseen situations and unprotected sex acts. In order to prevent the onset of unwanted pregnancy, there are methods of urgent contraception. I would also like to remind women if they need emergency contraception, folk methods will not help them. There are certain contraceptives after sexual intercourse that prevent the onset of pregnancy even if the sexual act was unprotected. Contraceptive means after sex are issued in the form of tablets containing a large number of hormones. Contraceptive means after the act, according to the principle of their action and chemical composition, are divided into two types:
- Contraceptive means after sex, the mainactive substance in which is levonorgestrel. The most known methods of emergency contraception, belonging to this group, are such drugs as "Escapel" and "Postinor." They belong to the group of hormonal drugs, they can be purchased in a pharmacy without a prescription.
- Contraceptive means after intercourse,related to non-hormonal drugs, based on an active substance such as mifepristone. The most known contraceptive after the act, belonging to this group is Postinor. Non-hormonal drugs can be used as emergency contraceptives for adolescents.
The principle by which the method of urgentcontraception, is that there is a process of blocking ovulation, which excludes the possibility of fertilization. In the same case, if fertilization occurred earlier than the drug was taken, the preparation excludes the possibility of implantation of the fetal egg in the uterine cavity. Despite the fact that such remedies can help prevent the onset of unwanted pregnancies, a woman should remember that these are one-time contraceptives that must not be abused. It is also necessary to take into account the fact that this type of contraceptive does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases.
No matter how indignant the older peoplemoral debauchery of modern society and obscene, in their opinion, the behavior of adolescents, adolescent sex was, is, and will be. And it is extremely unreasonable for adults to try to hide their heads in the sand - from the denial of the existence of the problem, it will not go anywhere. It is much more sensible to help children and tell them about contraceptive methods for adolescents. This will help to avoid problems associated with sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancy. The newest methods of contraception allow choosing the most optimal means, which will not have a negative effect on the growing organism. In order to understand how to choose contraceptives, it is necessary to take into account some characteristics characteristic of teenage sexual contacts.
- In most cases, sexual intercourse in adolescents is not regular, therefore it is absolutely inadvisable to use new planned methods of contraception.
- Unfortunately, in adolescence very oftenthere are casual sexual relations, which significantly increases the chances of contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Therefore, before contraception for adolescents is not only the task to exclude unwanted pregnancy, but also to protect against sexual infections.
- Contraceptive methods for girls should be very reliable, since an abortion made at such a young age can lead to severe consequences.
Taking into account all the above-mentioned features of the sexuallife of adolescents, we can draw the following conclusion about how to choose contraceptives and what should be paid attention in the event that the adolescent categorically refuses to go to the doctor:
- The method of contraception for girls should be reliable in terms of preventing sexually transmitted diseases. And also protect from the onset of unwanted pregnancy.
- Contraceptive means for girls should not harm their health.
- In addition, the method of contraception for adolescents should be affordable.
The most ideal for all the above requirementscondoms, or non-hormonal birth control pills. But their use is possible only if the girl has one constant and reliable sexual partner
Traditional contraceptive means
So, you learned about what iscontraceptives. However, before summarizing, I would like to mention the national contraceptives. Unfortunately, even in our time, many women hope for traditional methods of contraception. And absolutely ignore the effective traditional methods of contraception. There are various contraceptives at home:
- Douching of the vagina with a powerful pressure of water immediately after intercourse.
- Douching of the vagina after sexual intercourse with water, in which a certain amount of citric acid is predissolved.
- Introduction before the sexual intercourse in the vagina a piece of lemon.
- Introduction before the sexual intercourse in the vagina of a piece of laundry soap.
Supporters of folk methods of contraceptionargue that a sharp change in the alkaline balance in the vagina leads to the death of spermatozoa and excludes the possibility of pregnancy. In fact, such popular contraceptives will lead to the appearance of such a disease as erosion of the cervix. But the prevention of pregnancy by national means is impossible. All methods and methods of contraception are described in this article. Any woman who is responsibly approaching the issue of family planning can give preference to the most effective contraceptives that are suitable for her. However, before making a final choice, it is still better to consult your doctor with a gynecologist who knows about all your diseases and individual characteristics of the body. We sincerely wish your test to become "striped" only when you really want it! We advise you to read: