Over the past few years, yoga has become incredibleis popular among the girls of our country. She came to replace the usual and already podnadoevshim types of physical exertion: Pilates, cardio striptease and aqua aerobics. Yoga for beginners - exercises aimed at stretching the muscles, strengthening the spine, general improvement of the body and preparing it for mastering more complex asanas, as well as the development of iron willpower. You can not consider yoga solely a way of training the body - it helps to improve not only the physical shell, but also the mind. Therefore, the initial stage of teaching yoga involves not only the implementation of the basic postures, but also the achievement of clarity of mind and consciousness by subordinating to a specific list of rules.
What is yoga?
Recklessly consider yoga as a religion. Undoubtedly, it originated on the basis of religious and philosophical currents, but in itself it does not count as a religion. The famous philosopher Patanjali, who lived in ancient India, was the first to summarize his people's knowledge of physical culture and spiritual practices. In the third century BC he wrote the first textbook on yoga - the so-called "Yoga Sutra." It immortalizes the basic principles of self-development and tempering of the mind and body, the ways to achieve higher enlightenment and the description of the first asanas successfully practiced by the supporters of Hinduism. The book was propagated by the followers of Patanjali after his death. Throughout India, yoga schools began to open, the students of which, with the help of asanas and meditation, tried to achieve energy euphoria - "samadhi". This is a state of absolute satisfaction, when a person is able to abstract not only from the problems surrounding him, but even to stifle pain with effort of will. For a long time this psychic "trance" was considered an ordinary myth for attracting people. However, in the 18th century, archaeological excavations were carried out on the territory of Ancient India, during which two coffins with the bodies of monks buried more than half a century ago were taken from under the earth. None of them had even a shadow of decay - they were so pure mentally and physically they left this world.
The first level of yoga: "yama" - preparation for the performance of asanas
- Rejection of bad habits
For two to three weeks before the start of the course, give upcigarettes and alcohol. In a few days your breath will become even, headaches will disappear, you will finally cease to suffer from insomnia. The true teachings of yoga impose a ban on the use of tobacco and alcohol, even in small quantities. How can a yogi conquer his body and subordinate will power, if he is dependent on bad habits? It turns out, doing yoga is an excellent occasion to stop smoking and stop finally "running away" from problems with a glass of wine.
- Positive thinking
Learn to see everything in positive. A person who looks at the world around in the eyes of a pessimist can not understand the joy of strengthening the body shell with the help of a long time in an uncomfortable position. The boss unfairly raised your colleague? This is an excellent occasion for self-improvement - if you show yourself with the best of luck, you will also have the chair of the department head! You tried to dye your hair on your own, but the result was dissatisfied? But pamper yourself and visit the beauty salon to look even more spectacular and more beautiful.
- Ability to listen to oneself
Need to feel the needs of your ownorganism. Practical yoga classes will not give the right result until you learn to listen to yourself. If you sleep 8 hours a day, but still feel broken for dinner - extend the pleasure for another hour and your well-being will improve. On the face every now and then pop out pimples, and the stomach asks for light food? Give up your favorite nuggets, potatoes in the village and cola - your skin will be cleansed, and every night's heartburn disappears without a trace.
- Full control over yourself
Have enough patience and self-control. Yoga teaches endurance, the ability to tolerate inconveniences and adequately overcome them, without losing reason. This practice will quickly get you bored if you are restless, quickly and enthusiastically rush to conquer new peaks, and then you can equally easily abandon the goal that you so long ago longed for. On the journey of life, you expect not only dizzying ups, but no less rapid falls, but this is not the reason to give up the dream. So it is in yoga: if something does not work out the first time, rest and try again. If you are insulted, just mentally wish the person good. Anger will only ruin your own nerve cells, but it will not bring any benefit.
- Independence from external factors
Do not let your mood depend onweather conditions, a cup of coffee, a headache or a critique of an elderly neighbor. You will find complete independence from your feelings. Often, the girls motivate their refusal to attend classes because they are tired, and at home, business, children and a hungry husband are waiting. Over time, laziness will develop, and you will completely abandon yoga. Performing asanas, ignore the neighbor's "wishes" for the traffic jam, PMS and quarrels with the boss.
Learn to concentrate. For example, on the subject, your own feelings or an interesting book. This quality is useful to you not only during yoga classes - regularly doing exercises, you yourself with surprise will notice that you learned not to be distracted by the details during the work process.
The second level is meditation or dhyana
Anyone who desires to practice yoga seriously shouldfirst learn the art of meditation. Meditation is immersion in oneself, expansion of consciousness, a way of establishing control over thoughts, emotions and feelings. In addition, it is an excellent tool for concentration training. It will help alleviate the symptoms of a debilitating illness, relax after a hard day's work and find peace after the loss of a loved one. Most meditative practices will be an excellent "introduction" to yoga. First, make yourself comfortable. The myth that you can only meditate sitting in a lotus position has nothing to do with reality. Sit down on the floor, if you are comfortable there, settle on a soft pillow or chair. How can you relax if you are in an uncomfortable position with stiff legs and aching back? If you are cool, wear a sweatshirt or a thin sweater. Convenience is the main rule when choosing not only the pose, but also the clothes. The best background for meditation will be slow music with ethnic motives. To calm and comfort the recounting of the mantras you utter, take the rosary. Plastic "beads", sold in the markets and souvenir shops, definitely can not be used. The coldness of a natural stone, which is sorted in the hands, makes the person sober, and "stroking" the rough surface of the pomegranate, malachite or bone of the Tibetan yak soothes and tones up meditation. Sit as you like. Close your eyes and slowly count to 10. In the room you are in, there must be complete silence, so that nothing distracts you from the action that is happening. Listen to yourself, your body, your thoughts. Deeply breathing in the air, imagine how oxygen penetrates into the blood, and she runs through the veins, inhaling life and warming your physical body. Think what the air smells like in your apartment? Spirits of a beloved man, delicious soup, steaming on the stove or positive emotions? Feel the touch of clothing on your delicate skin. How do you feel about contact with silk, wool, linen? Then focus on the work of your internal organs. Start rocking back and forth, focusing on the rhythm of the heartbeat. Concentrate on the thoughts that are particularly troubling you now. What are you thinking about? Try to assess your behavior and actions from the outside, as if they do not belong to you at all. Do not be afraid to admit your own mistakes - they strengthen the spirit of the person, make him stronger. Calm yourself and think that in a few days or weeks your problem will seem to you, most likely, funny and far-fetched. Sit still for a few minutes in silence. Slowly open your eyes and stand up. Now you can proceed directly to the execution of the exercises themselves.
Complex for beginners
Start with the "diamond pose". Kneel on a small pillow, lying on the floor. Sit with your buttocks on your heels, your back remains flat. Try to keep your knees, ankles and feet in contact with the surface of the pillow. Raise your head up, breathe deeply. Spend in this position for 1.5-2 minutes, no more.
- Lower yogic breathing
After resting for 10-20 seconds, sit down again."Vajrasana." Try to breathe belly. On inspiration, try to "push" the air with the muscles of the abdomen, alternately pulling and relaxing them. During inspiration, keep the press as tight as possible.
The next posture is designed for relaxation inintervals between more complex and energy-intensive exercises. Prepare for her in advance a thin rug. Lie down on your back, place your hands along the trunk with your hands palm up, legs bend at the knees or pull. Feel how in just a few seconds your body has relaxed, all muscle groups relax. Watch your breathing - when performing "Shavasana" it should be calm and smooth, not intermittent. Lie in this position for 8-10 minutes with your eyes closed to make up for the breakdown.
Open your eyes, sit down and tightly grasp your kneeshands or mesh your fingers in the "lock". Straighten the spine, as if stretching into a string. Feeling his tension, slowly relax your hands and lie on your back. A couple of deep sighs, then a repetition of the exercise. And so 10 times.
The next posture - "Tadasana" promotes the removalmuscle tension. Stand on the mat, the heels should close at the same time. Make sure that not only the spine, but also the shoulders during the "pose of the mountain" were smooth, and not skewed. Deeply inhale the air and hold your breath for 5-10 seconds, while straining your abdominal muscles. Exhale and relax. The break between the repetitions of this asana is 2 seconds. If you suffer from a cold, try replacing this exercise with Bhastrika. The initial pose is similar to "Tadasana". Do a quick breath-exhale at the next rate: 15 breaths and exhalations for 2-3 seconds, then 2 deep for 5-6 seconds. Repeat daily 3-4 times.
Tips for beginners
- Doubt? Ask for advice!
Do not hesitate to consult more experiencedpractice and use their experience. Watch the training video on the Internet, read the magazines devoted to yoga, and communicate in specialized forums. Of course, with the instruction in the yoga school such "consultations" will not be compared. However, if you currently do not have enough time and money to attend training sessions, communicating with "advanced" practitioners will help to find answers to the questions of interest.
- Set a clear goal and follow it
What do you want to achieve by doing yoga? If you want to know the depth of the philosophy of yoga, do it every day. You decided to practice because you heard that yoga is an excellent prevention of colds? Then you will have one or two classes a week.
- Do yoga on an empty stomach
Execution of postures immediately after meals is not recommended. The ideal time for classes is early morning, when your stomach is still empty. It is allowed to practice asanas about one and a half to two hours after eating. Before training, if you are very hungry, you can drink a glass of kefir or warm green tea. Today many women begin to practice yoga, paying tribute to the changeable fashion. However, pursuing "through strength" will not bring a positive result, since they do not provide true pleasure. We advise you to read: