tuberculosis Tuberculosis of the lungs is a disease knownhumanity with a long time. Over the years, only its name changed (previously tuberculosis was called consumption), but the essence of the disease remained one. This is a serious illness, from which no one is immune. It is terrible not only for its consequences, but for the fact that it directly affects the social component of the life of any individual. And in general, pulmonary tuberculosis can be safely called a social disease. Why so? In this and in many other issues it is worthwhile to understand thoroughly, since this can touch everyone.

What is TB?

This is an infectious disease that is transmittedit is airborne. This makes pulmonary tuberculosis very dangerous, because it has all the prerequisites for becoming an epidemic. However, modern society is hardly threatened. It is worth saying "thank you" vaccination. In the old days, tuberculosis of the lungs (consumption) could become (and often became) a real killer, on account of which a huge number of life-ravaged lives. What causes this disease? The basis of tuberculosis is the so-called Mycobscterium tuberculosis, its other name is Koch's stick. This species of bacteria was discovered in the late 19th century by a scientist named Robert Koch. To date, Mycobscterium tuberculosis has been well studied. By the way, this microbe can cause tuberculosis not only in humans, but also in some animal species, which only exacerbates the spread of the disease. As a rule, domesticated animal species are subjected to lung tuberculosis. Lungs are not the only organ that can become the target of tuberculosis. But pulmonary tuberculosis is more common, and its essence is studied in more detail. The death rate from this disease is approximately 16-19%. As for the number of cases, at present, about 80 people out of 100 000 are diagnosed with tuberculosis in the lungs in Russia. It is more common in men than in women. But statistics argue that in women this disease has a less active course. tuberculosis infection

How does infection occur and what is the further development of the disease?

As already mentioned, a bacteriumMycobscterium tuberculosis is transmitted by airborne droplets. This can happen when talking with a sick person, sneezing nearby, coughing, or any close contact with him. The most accurate is the statement that it is not so much the closeness of the contact that is important, but the very hit of Mycobscterium tuberculosis in the form of aerosol secretions. After this, the stick gets on the mucous membranes of a person, and then inside the body: into the lungs or into the gastrointestinal tract. In this case, primary tubing occurs. It will be much better if the stick goes into the stomach. There, it has chances to dissolve under the influence of a rigid acid-base medium. In case of getting into the lungs, the chance to catch tuberculosis is much higher. The environment for the development of tuberculosis is much more favorable there. In the first period after entering the human body, Mycobscterium tuberculosis does not manifest itself in any way. Moreover, even from the side of immunity, it remains unnoticed. The incubation period can last for an unlimited time. The incubation period ends at a time when the body can no longer resist the infection. By the way, in the incubation period a person can infect others. The bacterium enjoys this favorable period for it and multiplies as quickly as possible. Especially the infection is good in the tissues, where there is a good circulation of blood and lymph. For example, in the lungs, kidneys and lymph nodes. After the bacterium multiplies, the decisive moment comes. During this period much is being decided. If the body and its immunity are strong enough, then Mycobscterium tuberculosis is exterminated from the human body, which does not allow the development of the disease itself. In this case, you can almost certainly say that treatment will help. But if the body is weakened, there are attenuating factors (chronic avitaminosis, diabetes mellitus, HIV, hepatitis and other ailments, there is a high probability that pulmonary tuberculosis will soon pass into its active stage, having the ability to develop rapidly. another question is whether the person with Mycobscterium tuberculosis will be infected, so if the bacterium comes out of the so-called granuloma, then the disease has come out into the open form, which means that the patient actively releases the infection into the environment.If the granuloma, the bacteria has retained its integrity, it is almost impossible to get infected from such a person, but it's time to understand what are the first signs of tuberculosis.How does he manifest himself in the early and subsequent stages? And how can one independently determine the symptoms of this terrible disease? Everyone should have this knowledge , because they can help in time to prevent or suspend the disease. diagnosis of the disease

Symptoms of the disease that can be identified independently

Of course, the most accurate way is tuberculosisis revealed during laboratory tests, as well as with a full examination of the doctor and his professional advice. But there are a number of symptoms that should become an "alarm bell" for a person. Signs of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults and children are almost identical. In general, it can be argued that there are no absolutely characteristic symptoms that are peculiar only to tuberculosis. But, for example, it is worthwhile to worry if there is a long-lasting cough that is accompanied by active sputum discharge, and in some cases, blood. There is shortness of breath, a person sometimes becomes hard to breathe. Together with this, there is often a dry cough, so sputum or blood separation is not a defining feature. And hemoptysis itself occurs in the last stages of pulmonary tuberculosis. This is due to the occurrence of bleeding in the lungs, which results in such an unpleasant and very disturbing symptom. What other signs of tuberculosis can there be? Resting - this is also the symptom that is observed with the started stage of pulmonary tuberculosis. At this point, most of this body is already affected, which greatly hampers breathing for a sick person. As a result, there is a shortness of breath. Lack of oxygen is very difficult to make up for anything, and they have sat down and can be (oxygen masks and other devices), this significantly limits the vital activity and mobility of the patient. But still there is one clear sign of pulmonary tuberculosis. And he is called tuberculous intoxication. How to recognize it? Tuberculous intoxication adversely affects the body. It manifests itself with the following symptoms:

  • sharp and unmotivated weight loss;
  • An unusual and previously not observed blush on the cheeks of a reddish hue;
  • simultaneously with this present unhealthy pallor of the skin throughout the body;
  • unresponsive drowsiness, which is even after a long sleep (this is due to brain intoxication);
  • a constant increase in body temperature in the range from 37.2 to 38.3 ° C (subfebrile temperature);
  • changes in appetite (from its complete absence to a significant increase, bordering on overeating);
  • night sweating of the body, because of which a person often wakes up in a so-called cold sweat.

However, it is not uncommon for the first stages of tuberculosislungs is completely asymptomatic and invisible to its owner. In this case, only clinical studies can be done in time, a number of which are familiar to everyone. What kind of methods are we talking about? inoculation of mantle

Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

All of the above symptoms and signsdiseases can be called primary. They can be visible to the person himself. But medicine is not limited to this. To establish an accurate diagnosis, a number of already established studies are used that will accurately determine the presence of the disease, its stage and development. The most common type of research, which is absolutely familiar to everyone, is fluorography. At the moment, it is made every year by billions of people. This manipulation reveals any changes in the lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes. This method is instrumental. One group includes chest X-ray, computed tomography, bronchoscopy and some others. With regard to laboratory methods for detecting pulmonary tuberculosis, it is now most commonly used for sputum smear and flushing bronchial water. The resulting material undergoes a test, during which the Mycobscterium tuberculosis bacteria are colored in a characteristic color. Along with this, a laboratory study of pleural fluid, a biopsy of the lung, pleura and lymph nodes can be conducted. And, finally, immunological methods of detecting the disease. These include the well-known Mantoux test. A person under the skin is injected 2 tubercular units, which helps to see the body's response to them. But today we can state that the Mantoux test is an outdated method. Quite often it gives false positive results, which causes the patient and the doctor to be worried. Where more advanced and modern immunological test can be called a diaskintest. This is an express test in order to detect pulmonary tuberculosis. It is based on the same subcutaneous injection with specific proteins of tuberculosis. The chance of an error is minimal, and therefore the specialists of the whole world prefer to use a diksintest, and not a Mantoux test. In extremely difficult and difficult cases for diagnostics, a polymerase chain reaction can be used, which also belongs to the group of immunological methods for finding pulmonary tuberculosis. treatment of tuberculosis

Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis

Treatment of this disease consists of severalcomponents. Of course, everything depends on its manifestation and form. The most important condition for treatment is that it must necessarily be carried out in specialized clinics, which are otherwise called tuberculosis dispensaries. Such measures are connected with the desire to limit the patient's contact with society in order to prevent further spread of the infection. The treatment is based on special anti-tuberculosis antimicrobials, which suppress the activity of Mycobscterium tuberculosis bacteria. Treatment with such drugs is quite effective, especially in the early stages. But they and they have their own conspicuous disadvantages. So, over time, the number of strains that are insensitive to the effects of the drug increases. In the treatment of tuberculosis, a surgical method can also be used. It is used in case of neglected forms of the disease, in the presence of complications. As for the latter, such can be various bleeding, pneumothorax, empyema and some others. The next stage of the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis is aimed at eliminating the inevitably emerging tuberculosis intoxication. There is an intoxication in addition and from reception of antimicrobial preparations. To reduce the intoxication of the body used various vitamins, sorbents, hepatoprotectors, infusion therapy and other elements. Fight during treatment will have and with oxygen deficiency, which, as already mentioned, is caused by lesions of the lung tissue. Elimination of hypoxia greatly facilitates the course of the disease and the treatment itself. Some devices for normalizing breathing can be used for this. Among them are oxygen masks, oxygen concentrators for premises and some others. In general, treatment should be done in a timely manner, it must have a well-thought-out program, systematic and consistent. All the time throughout the treatment the patient must be under the careful supervision of a specialist. By the way, doctors, such as pulmonologist and phthisiatrist, are engaged in this. But where is the best remedy, than any even the most effective treatment - is prevention. Treatment of tuberculosis can last for years, and sometimes even throughout life. And prevention will take much less time and effort.

Tuberculosis: prevention

Vaccination is the basis for the prevention of thisdisease. As already mentioned, this is a social disease. This is an important factor. Equally important is that it can be transmitted from person to person by air. And that's why a person who does not lead an antisocial lifestyle may be infected, but, for example, constantly in contact with a large number of people. In this and in other cases, the vaccine will help to avoid infection. At the moment there is no more effective method for prevention than vaccination. In addition, all contacts with people who are potential carriers of tuberculosis should be limited. In the risk group are people without a specific place of residence, HIV-infected and those who are serving their sentences in places of deprivation of liberty, and some other categories of people leading an antisocial and deviant lifestyle. These people are most often ill with pulmonary tuberculosis. For prevention purposes, it is necessary to undergo an x-ray of lungs in adults and children every year. It is included in the list of compulsory medical measures, which every person must periodically pass. This applies to adults and children alike. In addition, there is no distinction from the point of view of vaccination. It is necessary to vaccinate both adults and children. Thus, today's knowledge will help to strengthen your knowledge in the matter of such a disease as pulmonary tuberculosis. This will help not to catch or recognize the disease on time, relying on the symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, to suspend the disease, to conduct effective treatment. And let the health does not fail anyone! The life of every person can and should be full. And the physical condition in this plays one of the primary roles.