In medicine, hemorrhoids are defined as varicose veinsexpansion of veins (hemorrhoids) of the rectum. As a result of the expansion of these veins, so-called hemorrhoidal cones (nodes) are formed. They can be both internal and external. Very often, the presence of these nodes leads to bleeding during defecation. External hemorrhoids are some formations around the anus. Their size can be with a pea, and can reach the size of the nut. In our time, hemorrhoids are considered a very common disease. It can arise for various reasons. Hemorrhoids are affected by both young and old people. One of the reasons may be a sedentary and sedentary lifestyle. Often, hemorrhoids occur as a result of a cold in the anus. Hemorrhoids in women can be the consequence of childbirth. Modern medicine allows you to get rid of hemorrhoids by removing it. But nevertheless, cases when the disease returns again are not uncommon. What are the causes of this disease? What are the main symptoms of hemorrhoids? And how to treat hemorrhoids at home?
Causes of hemorrhoids and symptoms of the disease
The main cause of the disease istension during bowel operation. Frequent constipation can be a reason for the emergence of hemorrhoids, because very often you have to strain to make the emptying of the intestine. Excessive completeness, pregnancy and childbirth can significantly increase the risk of disease. Sitting work or on the contrary standing can provoke hemorrhoids. The cause of the disease may be a loss of muscle tone. As a rule, this is observed in the elderly. The cause of the disease can be various operations performed on the rectum. Symptoms of the disease, as a rule, are approximately the same. The most common symptom is the appearance of blood during defecation. One of the first signs of the disease should be considered an unpleasant sensation in the anus. There may be a sensation of a foreign body, as if something is interfering. During walking, there may be a heaviness in the abdomen (mostly in the lower part). Functional disorders of the intestines, which are accompanied by constipation and diarrhea, malnutrition - all this only increases discomfort. As the hemorrhoids develop, more unpleasant sensations arise, there is itching and bleeding. So, bleeding is, perhaps, the most important sign of hemorrhoids. There may be bleeding during defecation, as well as after it. Due to stagnation of blood in hemorrhoids cones, there is a lack of oxygen. As a result, the venous walls become weaker, depleted and stretched. Now they are very easy to tear and erosion, which is why bleeding occurs. It can be a small blood discharge, and possibly intense, in the form of a trickle of blood. Blood covers the stool from above, without intermixing with it. It is worth saying that bleeding from the anus can be a sign of other diseases, for example, it can be a symptom of malignant formation inside the rectum. When this symptom appears, you should immediately consult a doctor who can help you to understand the exact causes of bleeding.
Pain during bowel movement
As already mentioned, pain canarise during and after the defecation process, during walking, during sitting. Pain sensations can not be considered characteristic of hemorrhoids as a symptom. The presence of pains, as a rule, speaks about the existing concomitant diseases, among which there may be inflammation, infringement of hemorrhoids and thrombosis. And also the pain may indicate the onset of an attack of acute hemorrhoids. Pain can also occur if a crack forms on the walls of the anus. Painful sensations can be so strong that the patient will not be able to move and sit. And any physical load (even coughing) can only enhance the sense of pain. Hemorrhoids can be accompanied by itching inside the anal passage. This itch appears as a result of skin irritation around the anus during mucosal discharge from the rectum. Erosion of the walls of the hemorrhoid cones (nodes) can also lead to the sensation of itching. Such skin irritation can provoke the development of eczema. Symptom of hemorrhoids is the excretion of mucus from the anus. Well, the most important symptom, confirming the presence of this disease, is the loss of hemorrhoid cones. The prolapse of these cones from the rectum is the result of their gradual shift toward the anus. Attempts during defecation or prolonged stay in the toilet only contribute to this process. There are several stages of the disease. Thus, during the first stage, the hemorrhoid cones fall out only during defecation, and after its termination they self-correct. The second stage of the disease is characterized by the loss of hemorrhoids, not only during defecation, but also under various physical loads. At this stage, the nodes no longer self-adjust, but require self-direction (mechanical action). For the third stage, the fall of the hemorrhoidal nodes is characteristic, even with the slightest physical exertion, and they alone do not correct themselves.
Diagnosis and treatment of hemorrhoids
Diagnosis of this disease includesexamination of the rectum and anus of the patient. As a result of this examination, a doctor can detect and internal hemorrhoids. Sometimes the diagnosis requires an X-ray. Treatment of hemorrhoids was practiced in antiquity. Nowadays medicine has gone far ahead. Modern methods of treating hemorrhoids are divided into operative and conservative. The most common practice is a conservative method of treating the disease. In the event that the conservative method of treatment did not give its results, and the hemorrhoids developed to the third stage, surgical intervention is required. The disease can be cured at any stage. But it is worth understanding that the treatment will take a very long time. It must necessarily be complex. The earlier you contact the doctor, the easier it will be to cure the disease. Conservative treatment is also divided into general and local. General treatment implies the use of special tools that can improve the tone of veins (phlebotrophic drugs) and stimulate blood microcirculation. Local treatment is aimed more at preventing the inflammation of hemorrhoids, thrombosis, reducing pain and stopping bleeding. Preparations for local treatment have analgesic effect, healing, can remove itching, inflammation. As a rule, these drugs are presented in the form of trays, ointments, microclysters and candles. The most effective should be considered a combined treatment, which will combine both local drugs and drugs for general treatment. To relieve pain in the anus, local anesthetics (combined) are often used, which are presented in the form of ointments, suppositories and gels. Sometimes non-narcotic analgesics are used, which can eliminate the sensation of pain.
What medications are still used for treatment?
To eliminate the pain caused byformed in the anus pass cracks, use spasmoanalgesics, various analgesic sprays, preparations containing nitroglycerin, special plasters. To eliminate bleeding, use drugs in the form of suppositories containing adrenaline. Collagen hemostatic sponges are used as a topical treatment. If bleeding is very severe, intravenous injections of special hemostatic drugs are possible. With the available inflammatory processes, it is recommended to use enemas containing special substances that can reduce irritation of the mucous tissues of the rectum. General treatment involves the use of non-steroidal analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs and the use of phlebotrophic drugs. Sometimes it is advisable to use anticoagulants. As a rule, they are appointed in case of the formation of thrombosis of hemorrhoids. It is not uncommon for cases when a thrombosis is accompanied by an inflammatory process, which also goes over to the subcutaneous tissue. It is for this reason that treatment should be both general and local. In such circumstances, often prescribed combination drugs that have anti-inflammatory, analgesic and thrombolytic effect. In parallel, it is recommended to use ointments that have an anti-inflammatory effect. To normalize the outflow of blood in microcirculatory disorders, acetylsalicylic acid is prescribed along with low molecular weight dextrans. More and more often, the treatment of hemorrhoids began to include special herbal baths, herbal compresses on the anus. Such trays can easily be done at home.
Other methods of treating hemorrhoids
Modern medicine welcomeslow-trauma methods of treatment of this disease. Such methods include monopolar coagulation, cryotherapy, infrared coagulation, biopolar coagulation, sclerotherapy, doping with latex rings, laser coagulation. These methods of treatment are contraindicated only in cases where there is thrombosis of hemorrhoid cones (nodes), chronic and acute paraproctitis and other inflammatory processes and diseases of the perineum and anus. Infrared coagulation is appropriate for the first-second stage of the disease. CQI implies a thermal effect on the hemorrhoid cones, as a result of which their necrosis occurs and they are completely painlessly removed. After the procedure, the pain disappears and the patient feels well. The essence of cryotherapy is the use of special cryoprobes, which are cooled by liquid nitrogen. As a result of the procedure, the hemorrhoid cones are frozen and die. The disadvantage of this procedure is the impossibility to control the depth of the effect, and the wounds that formed on the frost-bitten areas can lead to damage to the rectum. Bipolar coagulation implies the effect of current on the hemorrhoids. All these procedures are carried out by specialists.
Recommendations for the treatment of hemorrhoids at home
To avoid the occurrence of hemorrhoids,It is recommended that after each evacuation of the intestine carefully and gently wash the area of the anus. Water should be warm, and wipe the anus with a soft cloth, gently applying it. Home treatment of hemorrhoids also implies the regular reception of warm baths. They are able to relieve pain and itching. The use of anesthetic ointments will help ease the pain and remove the tumor. Among such ointments is Hydrocortisone. In the walls of the house you can also carry out sclerotherapy. It involves the use of special solutions that contribute to the scarring of tissues. In the most serious cases of the disease, surgical removal of the formed hemorrhoidal nodes is possible. Treatment of the disease at home can include special health gymnastics. But before you start gymnastics, be sure to consult your doctor. Perhaps you have some contraindications. Wellness gymnastics can be different. It includes exercises that help strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor and anus. This can be crossbones, all kinds of flexion and extension, walking with a high hip lift and many other exercises. During treatment it is recommended to exclude the use of alcohol, spicy and salty foods. It is necessary to eat foods that contain fiber.
Prevention of disease
Treatment of hemorrhoids at home implies a complexvarious procedures, local treatment with various medications. But you can avoid this disease. Proper nutrition will avoid this disease. The daily diet must include fresh fruits and vegetables containing coarse fibers, cereals and whole grain bread. It is recommended to drink more liquid (at least 2 liters per day). During defecation should not be very strained. If you have even the slightest symptoms of the disease, you should seek medical help as soon as possible. And then, perhaps, you will manage to avoid unpleasant consequences. If the diagnosis has not yet been made, do not self-medicate, this can only aggravate the situation. We wish good health. We recommend to visit the profile resource for hemorrhoids -