You are only theoretically aware of the fact thatsuch nausea in the mornings, absolutely freely fit into all your jeans and skirts, do not know what are the pigment spots and stretch marks. However, you already have a test with two coveted stripes, which confirm that from now on you are a happy pregnant woman. That miracle, which now lives in you, is still very tiny, and only the most sensitive medical equipment can fix its presence. However, this fact does not in any way interfere with your communication with him, you already come up with a name for the future baby, look out for fantastically beautiful clothes, strollers and cribs, presenting your baby in them. However, to the great regret, often this joyful expectation, the real euphoria, is ruthlessly cut off by such a terrible and tragic phenomenon as a miscarriage. As the statistics of obstetricians and gynecologists show, about 20%, that is, every fifth pregnancy, ends with the onset of a spontaneous miscarriage. For the sake of justice, it should be noted that in most cases miscarriages occur on very small terms, when a woman does not even guess about her pregnancy. The signs of miscarriage at an early age of up to 2 weeks of pregnancy are almost absent. But, unfortunately, sometimes this misfortune lies in wait for those women who already with all their hearts fell in love with their unborn baby. In such a situation, any words of consolation will be powerless, and only time can help a woman to cope with her pain. Time and awareness that very soon you can try again and again become pregnant. However, in order that the tragedy will not happen again, a woman should know what exactly is the process of spontaneous termination of pregnancy, what factors provoke its onset and how to avoid it. This is exactly what will be discussed in this article about spontaneous miscarriages that occur in the early stages of pregnancy - during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Miscarriage at a later date is much less common. Most often, the threat of miscarriage in the early stages is if there are the following problems:
- Presence of genetic disorders in the fetus.
According to doctors - geneticists, about 75% of allspontaneous interruption of pregnancy happens precisely because of the presence of various variants of genetic disorder in the embryo. However, do not be afraid - in most cases these genetic defects are of an accidental nature. The reason for such mutations can be a variety of environmental factors - the impact of various viruses, radiation and so on. And the pregnancy, interrupted for this reason - is a kind of "natural selection", which is necessary for nature to get rid of not viable and sick offspring. It is almost impossible to avoid such miscarriages. And is it worth it? After all, if nature itself tries to avoid the appearance of such a child, then it really suffers from serious pathologies, which may not be compatible with life at all. After all, if nature itself provokes miscarriages, the causes are quite serious. The only thing that can be done in this situation is to try to avoid its onset long before the expected pregnancy by visiting a genetics doctor who will give you advice on how to do it or at least reduce the risk to a possible minimum. However, unfortunately, given the large number of negative effects of various factors of the modern world, the risk of developing such gene mutations remains always.
- Violation of the hormonal background in a pregnant woman.
In the event that a woman who is onearly pregnancy for some reason violated the normal hormonal background of the body, possibly spontaneous termination of pregnancy. The most frequent miscarriages are the result of a shortage in the body of a pregnant woman the most important hormone - progesterone. However, in the event that this problem is detected in a timely manner, pregnancy can in most cases be saved. For this doctor gynecologist - endocrinologist appoints a pregnant woman a course of treatment with hormonal pharmacological drugs. There is also another fairly common problem of hormonal character - this is the increased content of male sex hormones in the body of a pregnant woman. These hormones significantly reduce the normal production of progesterone and estrogens, which are responsible for the normal development and course of pregnancy. In addition, for the successful course of pregnancy, those hormones that are produced by the adrenal cortex and the thyroid gland are also responsible. Be sure to monitor the condition of these organs before pregnancy. Quite often, spontaneous abortion at an early stage is caused precisely by this cause.
- The causes of the immunological nature
Sometimes in a pregnant woman there is acomplication, as a rhesus - conflict. This happens in the event that the fetus from the father inherited a negative Rh factor - blood, while the mother Rh factor - a positive factor. As a result, the organism of a pregnant woman perceives the embryo as something alien to it, and begins to reject them. In this case, to prevent the spontaneous termination of pregnancy, doctors also use the treatment of a pregnant woman preparations containing the hormone progesterone, which in this case is the strongest immunomodulator.
- The presence of various infections in the mother.
Currently, there is a huge numberthe most various infections, sexually transmitted infections and provoking spontaneous termination of pregnancy in the early stages. These are infections such as toxoplasmosis, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, syphilis, gonorrhea and many others. One should also not mention such infections as herpes and cytomegalovirus, which are responsible for miscarriage in the early stages of pregnancy in about 20% of all cases of spontaneous abortion. A woman who plans to become a mother should remember that a large number of different infections can often occur without any signs of disease, that is, asymptomatic. That is why it is so important before you decide to become pregnant, be sure to go through a complete examination of the body, including the presence of sexually transmitted infections. Miscarriage results from the fact that pathogenic viruses and bacteria lead to infection of the embryo and damage to the membranes. In order to avoid this, you need to undergo a course of treatment before pregnancy. If this can not be avoided, treatment should be started as soon as possible in order to reduce the risk and the degree of negative impact on the fetus.
- The general weakened state of health of a pregnant woman and the presence of her chronic diseases of internal organs.
In the event that the woman at the very beginningpregnancy is ill with any disease, which is accompanied by intoxication of the body and a significant increase in body temperature, there is a very high probability that the pregnancy will spontaneously stop. The most dangerous are such diseases as influenza, viral hepatitis and rubella. However, even the most banal tonsillitis or runny nose, borne in the first weeks of pregnancy, can provoke the onset of miscarriage. Do not even talk about such serious diseases as pyelonephritis, pneumonia or appendicitis. Such diseases are a very serious complication, which jeopardizes the safe passage of pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child. It is very important to undergo a full medical examination before planning pregnancy. This measure is necessary in order to identify all the chimneys of chronic inflammation present in the body of a woman and to start treatment in time, directed at their elimination. But even in the event that you can not get rid of chronic diseases before pregnancy, you need to see a doctor as soon as possible.
- The presence of a woman in an anamnesis of abortion.
Very many women for some reasondid abortions. Abortion is not just a surgical intervention in a woman's body, but a very serious stress for him. As a result of the artificial termination of pregnancy in the woman's body such complications as significant dysfunction of the adrenal cortex, ovaries and the emergence of various inflammatory processes of the genital organs. All these complications caused by abortions very often lead to disruption of the normal gestation process for subsequent pregnancies. And the habitual miscarriages of pregnancy, and secondary infertility - all this is the consequence of artificial abortions. That is why it is so important to protect yourself from unwanted pregnancies. And if you still can not avoid abortion, when the next pregnancy comes, inform the doctor - gynecologist that you have previously interrupted pregnancy.
- Acceptance of a pregnant woman with medicines and certain rights.
As everyone knows, medicationshave the ability to penetrate the placental barrier and have a negative impact on the fetus. Especially dangerous is the intake of drugs in the first trimester (the first twelve weeks) of pregnancy. This is explained very simply - it is during this period that the vital organs of the fetus are laid and formed. And if during this period the fetus is affected by drugs, it is possible to form defects in the development of the fetus and, as a result, premature termination of pregnancy. The most dangerous are painkillers containing codeine, some antibiotics, hormonal contraceptives, especially Postinor. If during pregnancy, while you are still not aware of it, you took these medications, be sure to inform your doctor - gynecologist. Such pregnancies require more careful monitoring by doctors. And, if there is such a need, preparations should be prescribed only by a doctor in case of a miscarriage threat. The absolutely false belief that a woman needs treatment is necessary for traditional medicine, that is, herbs. In fact, a pregnant woman should be extremely careful with the use of herbs. Very many herbs have a very strong negative impact on the body of a pregnant woman and the formation of the fetus. The most dangerous at an early date are herbs such as: tansy, St. John's wort, nettle. Also, a pregnant woman should remember that such an inordinate seasoning, like everyone's familiar parsley, often causes an increase in the tone of the uterus and, as a result, spontaneous termination of pregnancy.
- Stressful situations.
The causes of miscarriage in the early stages are oftenare banal. Very often, various stressful situations exert an extremely negative impact on the normal course of pregnancy. Such a stressful situation can be the death of a loved one, a divorce or tensions with relatives. However, close people should remember that under the influence of certain hormones, the emotional background of a pregnant woman becomes very, very unstable. And the reason for strong stress can be even the most insignificant reason - accidentally dropped word or a broken cup. If, for any circumstances, a pregnant woman is nevertheless forced to undergo various stressful situations, she needs to tell the situation to her doctor who will prescribe her sedatives that are beneficial for the nervous system. In no case can you take any sedative yourself, as many of them are capable of causing significant harm to the fetus and provoking spontaneous abortion.
- Heavy physical stress on the body of a pregnant woman.
Although, contrary to the very popular opinion,lifting of weights, and other physical load provoke a spontaneous termination of pregnancy in only 5% of all cases of miscarriages, in no case should one ignore such a danger. Try to avoid heavy physical work during pregnancy, and if this is not possible, try to evenly distribute the load, alternating it with rest. And it is absolutely unacceptable to lift heavy objects. The maximum permissible weight for a pregnant woman is five kilograms. However, very often the actual weight of bags with products is many times greater than it. And if the family already has an older child, then sledding sledges, wheelchairs, bicycles become a holy mother's duty. But do not do this - better ask someone from friends, neighbors or relatives. Especially if the woman already has a threat of miscarriage.
- Fall and other injuries of a pregnant woman.
Unfortunately, sometimes life turns soin the way that a pregnant woman can be in an extreme situation, for example - get into a car accident or just slip and fall. As a rule, in such situations, the embryo suffers extremely seldom, as it is well protected - and the amniotic fluid, and the walls of the bladder, and the muscle mass of the mother and her fatty layer. However, if you have had such a nuisance, still reinsure and seek medical help.
- Adopting a hot tub.
Very rarely, but still, sometimes the reasonSpontaneous miscarriage can be the abuse of a pregnant woman's baths with excessively hot water and prolonged stay in her. Of course, no one calls a pregnant woman to refuse to take a bath at all, but she needs to remember about simple precautions. In particular, the water should not be too hot, and the duration of bathing - no more than 15 minutes. Otherwise, there is a risk of spontaneous abortion.
- Unhealthy lifestyle of a pregnant woman.
The course of pregnancy is very negativeaffects the presence in a pregnant woman of habits such as smoking or abuse of alcoholic beverages. But the lack of outdoor exercise, the regime of the day, the abuse of caffeine-containing beverages also have a very negative impact not only on the health of the pregnant woman, but also on the development of the fetus. Otherwise, spontaneous termination of pregnancy is also possible.
Symptoms of miscarriage
Often, miscarriage can be avoided ifseek medical help in a timely manner. But in order to do this, a pregnant woman should know in which case she needs to immediately go to the doctor. Below we will talk specifically about the symptoms and signs of a beginning miscarriage. Miscarriage in the early stages of the symptoms is as follows:
Stages of miscarriage
The spontaneous termination of pregnancy is divided by physicians into various stages:
- The first stage is the stage of a threatening spontaneous abortion.
This stage is characterized by the appearance of achingpain in the lower back and / or lower abdomen. After that, mild bloody discharge from the genital tract may appear. If such signs appear, a woman should immediately call an ambulance or call for help in a medical institution herself. If at this stage to begin immediate treatment, then in most cases pregnancy can be saved. Some women in this condition are almost the entire pregnancy.
- The second stage is the stage of abortion.
This stage is characterized by the appearance of tangiblepain in the sacrum and abdomen. At the same time, the pain sensations are of a cramping character. Following the painful sensations, there are bloody discharge from the genital tract, which is greatly enhanced by the movements of the woman. Soon the woman begins to complain of a feeling of weakness and strong dizziness. However, even at this stage of spontaneous abortion, pregnancy can still be saved if you immediately seek medical help. That is why with any, even the most minor bleeding, immediate medical assistance is simply necessary. Of course, in some cases, treatment is carried out at home. But most often in such situations, doctors - gynecologists prefer to place a woman on inpatient care in gynecological departments. A pregnant woman should in no case refuse the proposed hospitalization. Do not also be afraid of hormonal treatment offered by doctors - after all, it is most often hormonal failures that threaten the normal course of pregnancy. And the hormonal background simply needs to be normalized - thus, the factor that threatens the termination of pregnancy will disappear. And the hormones that doctors give you are the ones that he would have received naturally if the pregnant woman had no hormonal failures. Only these stages of spontaneous termination of pregnancy are reversible. All the rest do not have a back stroke and inevitably lead to the loss of the child.
- The third stage of spontaneous abortion is a miscarriage in progress.
In the stage of spontaneous interruptionpregnancy in the course of a woman feels a sharp and severe pain in the lower abdomen and lower back. Painful sensations are accompanied by significant blood loss. In this stage of the miscarriage, a fetal egg dies and pregnancy can not be saved. But sometimes the death of a miscarriage occurs a few days before the onset of miscarriage. In this case, the fetus will not leave the uterus entirely, like a roundish blister of grayish color, but in parts. This phenomenon is called incomplete miscarriage.
- The fourth stage of spontaneous abortion is an accomplished abortion.
After the dead fetal egg without residueexpelled from the uterine cavity, it begins to contract, restoring its former size. Bleeding after the expulsion of the fetal egg and contraction of the uterus almost completely stops. Complete miscarriage should be confirmed by ultrasound. Among other things, gynecologists distinguish such a definition as a failed miscarriage. At such a phenomenon a fetal egg dies under the influence of some causes, however, its expulsion does not occur. The woman disappears signs of pregnancy, and overall health worsens. When ultrasound examination, the doctor marks the death of the fetus. Another name for this phenomenon is frozen pregnancy. In the event that a woman is faced with such a phenomenon, the question of whether cleaning after a miscarriage is necessary is not even worthwhile - there is no miscarriage as such. And the only way to eliminate the fetal egg and leftovers is precisely the curettage of the uterine cavity.
Scraping of the uterus cavity
A lot of discussion is caused by the problem of scrapingthe uterine cavity after spontaneous abortion. Cleaning after a miscarriage is often considered unnecessary precaution and is ignored. If miscarriage occurs at home, very often a woman, noticing the rejection of the fetus, does not seek medical help, considering this measure excessive, and miscarriage - complete. However, in fact, this is not so. Complete expulsion of the fetus and membranes occurs very rarely. In most cases, a woman needs surgical scraping of the uterine cavity to remove the remains of the fetal egg or fetal membranes. Otherwise, they will immediately begin to decompose, forming a remarkable breeding ground for the propagation of pathogenic microorganisms, which immediately lead to the development of various inflammatory processes in the female body. That is why in any case after a miscarriage, if it happened outside the conditions of the hospital, a woman should seek medical help. Only a doctor will be able to objectively assess the condition of a woman, as well as whether cleaning the uterine cavity is really necessary. Do not refuse to scrape the uterus, if your doctor insists on it. The consequences can be much more serious. Before performing a scraping of the uterine cavity to remove the remains of the fetal egg and its membranes, the medical workers will conduct the necessary training. First, the woman will be made an enema and removed the pubic hair. After that, a doctor will conduct a conversation with a woman - an anesthesiologist, who will find out what type of anesthesia is best for her. After that, the gynecologist who will make the scraping will perform a general examination of the woman, using mirrors to determine the condition of the cervix and mucous membranes of the vagina. Then will also follow a midwifery manual study, the purpose of which is to determine the size of the uterus, its shape and location. Next, the woman will receive anesthesia. This can be a general anesthesia, in which the woman is in the unconscious mind and does not realize what is happening. This type of anesthesia is most often used - it helps to relieve a woman of additional stress, and doctors - to calmly and quickly do their job. However, in some cases, if there are contraindications, the operation is performed under local anesthesia. To do this, the cervix is injected with an anesthetic, which blocks the nerve endings that are responsible for the pain. The woman is on the gynecological chair all the time of the operation. Before the manipulation begins, the female genitalia will be treated with a 5% iodine solution. After mucous membranes of the vagina and cervix will be treated with alcohol solution, after which the very beginning of scraping begins. With the help of vaginal mirrors, a gynecologist will expose the woman's cervix. After this, in case the channel of the cervix is not open enough, with the help of dilators the doctor will expand it to the required degree. After this, a special curette, which has the shape of a spoon, the doctor will extract the remains of the fetal egg or shells. After this, with the help of an acute curette, the doctor will perform a scraping of the mucous membrane of the uterus. This measure is necessary in order to exclude the development of inflammatory processes in the uterine cavity. After the scraping of the uterine cavity is made, the biological material will be sent to a laboratory for histological examination without fail. Histology after miscarriage is simply required. And if this miscarriage is not the first, or there is a habitual miscarriage, then genetic research. Such a measure will help to establish what exactly was the cause of miscarriages. In order for postoperative rehabilitation to be successful, a woman must very carefully observe a number of requirements:
- Watch for the peculiarities of secretions from the vaginal ways. If you have any doubts, contact your doctor immediately.
- Be sure to monitor body temperature - herincrease, as a rule, signals the onset of the inflammatory process in the body. Immediately consult a doctor at the slightest increase in body temperature.
- Watch for the purity of the genitals - at leasttwice a day, wash your genitals with antiseptic solutions. Timely change the sanitary napkins to avoid the multiplication of pathogens.
Psychological rehabilitation after miscarriage
Physical recovery of the body aftermiscarriage, not complicated by anything, occurs on average in one to two months. However, much longer is needed for psychological rehabilitation. Often, a woman for many months can not tolerate the loss of a child, especially if the pregnancy was desired and long-awaited. If such a misfortune has happened to you, do not shut yourself up, alone, experiencing pain and despair. Be sure to tell about your feelings to close people - husband, mother, friend. If after that you will not feel better, it is much more reasonable to seek help from a psychologist. Ignoring such a problem can lead to the development of chronic chronic depression. Separately, I would like to say about the specific disorder of the psyche of women who lost a child as a result of miscarriage. Very often they have an obsession about that. That the miscarriage still did not happen, and when cleaning the baby is also not affected. As a rule, such women buy a pregnancy test in the pharmacy, which is often positive. In fact, after the miscarriage test positive because the hormonal background of the woman just did not have time to return to its original state. But it is on the basis of the hormone content in the urine test determines the presence or absence of pregnancy. And although the answer to the question of "miscarriage how to survive?" In each specific situation, the best way to get rid of melancholy will be the onset of a new pregnancy. However, do not forget that, in order to avoid a repetition of the tragedy, it must be carefully prepared. A woman should undergo a complete examination, take tests for all the secretions that leak, make an ultrasound. And only after receiving permission from a doctor - a gynecologist pregnancy is possible after a miscarriage. And even in the event that the first attempt to get pregnant will not succeed, in no case should not despair. A very short time will pass, and you will again see on the test two such long-awaited stripes. And this time you will necessarily go the entire way of pregnancy from the very beginning, to its happy end - until the birth of a crumb. The most wonderful baby in the world - your baby! If you are faced with this problem, then do not worry much, because you can get pregnant again! How to do this as soon as possible read in . We advise you to read: