In children, allergic reactions occuroften. It can manifest itself with various symptoms: rashes on the skin, redness, runny nose, sneezing, itching, flaking, lachrymation. To determine how to treat an allergy in a child, it is important to identify its cause. Flower pollen, animal hair, household dust cause respiratory manifestations of allergies, and food and contact allergens are skin. The most common types of allergies in children, like atopic dermatitis, food allergy, pollinosis.
Atopic dermatitis in children
One of the most common diseases inInfants are atopic dermatitis. In the common people it is called diathesis. It manifests as flaky, reddish rashes on the cheeks, hands, legs, and ass of the baby, causing itching. Many doctors believe that the hereditary predisposition affects first of all the appearance of the disease. And some products, acute and chronic infections, substances that irritate the skin, are factors that provoke an exacerbation. In children under two years, as a rule, with atopic dermatitis, crusts and wet areas are formed. In older children, cracks appear on the skin, irritation and peeling. In addition, children can not hold back when the skin itches. Therefore, combing gets a bacterial infection. As a result, secondary inflammation develops. Atopic dermatitis is a seasonal disease. It becomes aggravated and hard to pass in the cold season and easier in spring and summer. In order to determine the diagnosis, it is necessary to visit an allergist and a children's dermatologist. The attending physician will prescribe the necessary tests: skin tests, blood tests, feces. The latter should be checked to find out if the child has a dysbiosis. With this diagnosis, prescribed ointments and antihistamine drops help poorly, it is necessary to restore the intestinal microflora, to reduce the content of pathogenic microorganisms (staphylococcus, yeast fungi, proteus and others). Dysbacteriosis can be caused by treatment with antibiotics. Assign drugs containing pre- and probiotics. For example, "Lineks" can be taken from birth. However, self-treatment here is unacceptable. Treatment of atopic dermatitis in children should be comprehensive. Eliminate allergen products at least for a while. Choose clothes and bed linen for your baby only from natural fabrics. Do not overheat the baby, make sure that there are fewer stressful situations. For skin care, use soft hypoallergenic agents. Regularly conduct wet cleaning and airing, as home dust causes allergies, sneezing and itching. Avoid contact with animals and birds, as well as with plants that form pollen. If the child's parents are allergic to anything, the risk of an allergic reaction in children is increased by a factor of 2, since the child receives from the parents an excessive reaction of the immune system to foreign substances. Remember that the best remedy for allergies is breast milk, since it contains biologically active substances that interfere with the development of allergies. Only a nursing mother should follow a hypoallergenic diet.
Food allergy and allergen products
In two months the intestines of the baby are still weak, not strong andThe gastrointestinal tract is not capable of producing antibodies. Therefore, there is a risk of food allergies, even in such crumbs. If you are breastfeeding, first of all pay attention to what you consume. Malnutrition during pregnancy can also cause food allergy in children. Keep a food diary of the baby. It is especially important to do this when introducing complementary foods in children. Start with small doses, enough half a teaspoon of new product. And watch for a week. If an allergic reaction occurs, do not give this product. You can try it again in a few months. Experts advise to start lure with single-component puree, especially if there is a tendency to constipation. It is best for the children's body to absorb vegetable purees from zucchini, colored cabbage, white-head, broccoli. Suitable apple and pear puree. With a peach, pumpkin and carrots for children with allergies should be delayed. If there are no constipation, you can try and porridge. Note that in oat and buckwheat contains a strong allergen - gluten protein. If the domestic cereal from these croups caused an allergy, give preference to the purchase of gluten-free porridges. Strangely enough, but cow's milk can also become an allergenic product. In this case, cook the porridge on the water. As a rule, intolerance to cow's milk protein goes by itself to 1-2 years. Allergenic products include:
- eggs, fish, caviar, seafood;
- mushrooms, nuts, beans, honey, chocolate;
- carrots, red berries, citrus fruits;
- tomatoes, sour cabbage, spinach;
- smoked sausages, pork liver;
- mayonnaise, vinegar, fermented cheeses.
The following products are allowed:
- fermented milk products, mild cheeses;
- rice, buckwheat, oats;
- potatoes, cabbage, greens, zucchini, squash, fresh cucumbers, green varieties of apples, prunes, green pear;
- bread with bran, white, unhealthy;
- apple marmalade, marshmallow, pastille, steam and boiled beef;
- rabbit, turkey.
Doctors identified cases when the cause of the allergywas overfeeding the child with some product, although before it was well tolerated by the child's body. Choose natural foods that do not contain nutritional supplements that provoke allergies. Treatment of food allergy is to exclude the product-allergen, the appointment of antihistamines and enterosorbents (agents that bind the allergen and remove it from the body).
Pollinosis, or allergy to pollen
Pollinosis is an allergic disease,caused by increased sensitivity to pollen, which falls on mucous membranes and causes inflammation. This disease is manifested with rhinitis and conjunctivitis. In Russia, there are three periods of exacerbation of pollinosis:
- spring (April-May) - flowering trees (oak, birch, alder, hazel);
- summer (June-July) - flowering of cereal grasses (wheatgrass, timothy grass, bluegrass, fescue, foxtail and others);
- the end of summer and the beginning of autumn - the blossoming of mazewood and composite plants (wormwood, quinoa, ragweed and others).
To determine which plant causedAllergic reaction, contact an allergist. The most popular drugs used to treat various types of allergies in children: gel and drops "Fenistil" from the first month, "Zirtek" from 6 months, gel "Lokoid" according to the doctor's prescription (hormonal drug).