By volume and completeness of perception, the human eyesurpasses all other sense organs. Visual information is about 90% of all information entering the cerebral cortex. Thus, good vision is the key to the successful development of all cognitive processes in the child. In addition, quality vision plays an important role in educational and labor activities, and its violation can lead to the appearance of secondary deviations in physical and mental development. The most common visual impairment is myopia, or more simply, nearsightedness in children, when the child near the objects sees well, and distant from it - bad.
Classification of myopia
Myopia can be of two types: congenital or acquired. In order to treat this or that form of this disorder, it is important to know the reasons for its occurrence. Congenital myopia can be caused by exposure to the visual analyzer of various pathogenic factors during pregnancy, or heredity. The most common of these are cataracts (opacity of the lens) and pigmentary degeneration of the retina (narrowing of the field of vision or its complete disappearance). Acquired myopia has many more causes of occurrence. The most prevalent of these are head injuries or diseases of the central nervous system. In addition, ophthalmologists distinguish three degrees of myopia: weak, medium and strong. Nearsightedness of I and II degrees is non-progressive, it is not even considered a disease, but one should not treat it with disdain, since in time such reasons may arise that it can develop into the third degree - a progressive one, and this is not an inoffensive defect, but a serious disease consequences. Its prevention depends on the timing of the impairment of vision and how soon it has been treated, because the cause of progressive myopia, in the first place, is untimely medical care. This can be avoided if parents notice the violation in time and turn to a specialist. It is also possible that myopia of grade III may also be congenital.
Symptoms of nearsightedness
If in time to identify the child such a defectAs a myopia, one third of cases of myopia in children and childhood blindness can be prevented. Determine if there is short-sightedness in your child, it is difficult, because he rarely complains of pain in the eye area. But attentive parents will be able to recognize this violation on the following grounds:
When such signs do not appearto take measures independently and the more so it is not necessary to put on glasses glasses. You should immediately consult an ophthalmologist. Only a specialist will be able to make an accurate diagnosis, determine the congenital disorder or acquired one, establish its causes and prescribe a treatment.
Consultation of a specialist
As soon as you, vigilant parents, suspectedsigns of visual impairment in your child, a specialist should be contacted as soon as possible - do not delay the visit to the ophthalmologist. He will conduct a survey, and determine the degree of myopia. Based on his opinion, the specialist will prescribe the treatment. In some cases, if the myopia is progressive, it is a surgical or laser correction and many other modern methods on which the treatment of myopia in children is based. In others, when myopia is non-progressive, it can be just gymnastics for the eyes, any exercises or preventive measures that can prevent the development of grade III myopia and other visual impairments. Prophylaxis of myopia in children includes a set of measures of a different nature.
First of all, the child's parents must turnattention to how the children's room is furnished, in particular, how the writing desk is located. He must be in front of the window, so that daylight falls directly on the notebook or textbook. In the evening, artificial lighting is needed - a desk lamp, its light should be strong, but also not bright. During the work of the table lamp, the overall light in the room must also be turned on to prevent a sharp transition of the eyes from light to darkness, if the child tears his eyes from the notebook and looks around. It is also important to monitor the position of the child at the table. The working posture should be correct: the back is straight, both legs stand on the floor or stand, hands on the table, bent at the elbows, but not propping the head, eyes about 35-40 cm or more from the table. If this position is not respected, then there is a propensity to develop myopia. Parents should carefully monitor the amount of time spent by the child at the computer and TV: no more than 2-3 hours a day, with a break of 15 minutes after each hour. In the break, a special children's gymnastics for the eyes is recommended, which the specialist will advise. The child must be on the street, at least 1 hour a day: daylight and fresh air are beneficial for the body. In addition to all of the above, the prevention of myopia in children also means eating various vitamins that strengthen vision: A and B. They are found in many foods such as corn, green peas, egg yolks, apples, lettuce, honey, fish, cabbage, blueberries, apricots, black currants and others. You also need the body and vitamin C, contained in oranges, dried wild rose, tomatoes, green onions, ascorbic acid. Observing these simple recommendations, you can forget about the concept of children's short-sightedness, and if it is congenital, you can avoid its further progress and contribute to the proper development of visual processes in your child!