Strawberries are loved by absolutely everything. This fragrant berry does not leave anyone indifferent. Thanks to sensual color, wonderful taste and a shape that resembles a heart, strawberries and strawberries have been popular all over the world for hundreds of years. Strawberries are very fruitful berries. If desired and proper care, the plantation owner can collect up to thirty tons of strawberry berries per hectare per hectare. Summer residents are not planters, but they can grow a good harvest of strawberries on their plot to provide their family with a delicious dessert in the season. Yes, and stock up for the winter with jam and compotes from this fragrant berry. To do this, you need to know how to grow strawberries. To the harvest did not disappoint, it is necessary to prepare the soil for planting seedlings. It is equally important to properly place the seedlings of strawberries. The guarantee of a high yield is the use of elite seedlings. Equally important is proper care: timely weeding of weeds and regular treatment of plants against diseases and harmful insects.
Select a location
Significantly affects the crop the right choiceplaces for growing strawberries. It is best to plant strawberries on light soils in their mechanical composition. If the soil in large quantities contains carbonates, many varieties of strawberries will bear fruit poorly. Of great importance is the proper moistening of the soil, since a lack, as well as an excess of moisture, will affect the plants equally badly, and therefore also on the harvest. And if the groundwater rises to the surface closer than one meter, you can not grow strawberries here. To grow strawberries are not suitable and sites that have steep slopes, because in the spring they are flooded with thawed water, and in the summer they dry up. Strawberry needs a dosed amount of moisture - for it the optimal method of drip irrigation. To protect against weeds, beds with strawberries should be covered with a mulching film - this allows less weeding plants. In addition, such a film will protect strawberries from dirt if raw weather is given for the harvest period. The site for planting strawberries should be chosen so that it is not blown away by strong winds. In the summer, this will save moisture in the soil, and in winter such a site will be covered with an even layer of snow. In addition, in a sheltered area from the wind, strawberries will be pollinated by bees. Wherever the wind constantly blows over the site, there can be no question of normal pollination. If there is no natural protection from the wind, around a plot of strawberries can be planted on a pair of rows of sunflower, Jerusalem artichoke or corn. Strawberries feel great on almost any soil. It is suitable even for loam and sandy soils. The only, very uncomfortable strawberry feels on limestone, acidic, clayey and swampy soils. If there are heavy soils on the site, then this can be countered by adding small doses of phosphogypsum or peat in the autumn period. In addition, drip irrigation and mulching black film will help in solving the soil-related problems. It is better to grow strawberries in a crop rotation after grain crops. It is very good to grow strawberries where in the previous season legumes were planted. It is not necessary to plant strawberries on those plots where tomatoes or potatoes grew. There it can be grown no earlier than six years.
When preparing to plant strawberries,whether there are larvae of wireworms and a May beetle in the ground. Critical content is the presence of pests in the amount of one larva for two square meters. Before planting strawberries, the plot must be properly prepared. And it must be done in advance. In order to reduce the acidity of the soil, it is necessary to make the soil liming a year before the strawberry is planted, and to reduce the alkaline reaction, gypsum. If the site is littered with grass weeds, in autumn it can be treated with a herbicide of continuous action. In early October, to ease the spring digging, plowing is carried out - to a depth of up to thirty centimeters. To increase the moisture reserves in the ground in winter it is desirable to provide snow retention. In the spring, before planting strawberries, the ground is digged up to 14-16 centimeters.
In the garden, planned for strawberries, in autumnit is recommended to make manure at the rate of half a ton per hundred square meters. Or the same amount of humus in the spring. To ensure sufficient quantities of nutrients and micronutrients, the following guidelines should be followed:
- nitrogen - 0.8-1 kg per hundred, with half of this rate brought before planting, and the rest is left to feed during the growing season - depending on weather conditions and plant conditions;
- phosphorus - 0.5 kg per hundred parts - is brought before planting;
- potassium - 1 kg per weave - half before planting, and the second half during flowering in the form of a solution;
- magnesium - 1 kg per hundred parts - is brought before the preparation of the soil.
To obtain large yields of strawberriesexperts recommend the use of sorted healthy seedlings, elite or first reproductions. Seedlings should have a root neck diameter of at least six millimeters and a developed root system of seven to nine centimeters in length. The best yields are given by the seedlings, which were excavated from the ground in late autumn and preserved until the spring, at a low temperature. Seedlings are planted in early autumn or early spring. In early spring, it is planted immediately, as soon as it becomes possible to work on the site, when the soil is provided with moisture accumulated in winter and spring. Landing in a timely manner is very important in order for the plants to become well established. Late arrival with planting can lead to the death of most of the seedlings, even if irrigation is provided. In autumn, the seedlings are planted from the second decade of August to the end of September, after the rainy or good watering. Delay with autumn planting also affects the survival rate of seedlings and adversely affects its frost resistance, especially in the case of early winter. Before planting the seedlings must be kept for up to five days in a damp and cool place. Planting is carried out manually in a moist, but not wet soil. Before planting, the root system of the seedling can be treated with a fungicidally insecticidal mixture. The first time of planting boxes with seedlings should be kept in the shade. Seedlings should be planted so that the root system is located vertically, and the root neck was at the level of the ground. Long roots should be shortened to eight to ten centimeters. After planting it is necessary to water the plants. After the water has absorbed, the soil around it is mulched with dry soil or humus so that a crust does not form.
Care for strawberries
Strawberries are a moisture-dependent culture,so when growing it, you should not rely on natural precipitation. Due to a lack of moisture during critical periods of growth, even for one and a half to two weeks, the yield of strawberries is significantly reduced. Therefore, to grow strawberries it is better to provide for any irrigation system, for example, drip irrigation or sprinkler installation. During the first two weeks after planting, it is necessary to keep the soil moist - in order for the seedlings to take root well. The next two weeks are watered every two days, depending on the need. Remember that strawberries do not like excessive soil moisture. When waterlogged, the stability of strawberries against diseases decreases, especially against powdery mildew and gray rot, winter hardiness decreases, and the formation of generative kidneys decreases. Regular spacing of the rows should be carried out, because they must be clean from weeds. It is possible to cover straw with straw, and it is better to use straw of wheat in this case. Helps in the fight against weeds and film. Constantly it is required to control and appearance of diseases and pests. Recently, biological protection has become increasingly popular. For these purposes, insect entomophages are used. In order to strengthen the plant, the harvest in the year of planting can not be collected. For this, in the first year, the flower stalks are neatly torn off. If a plant becomes pest or disease due to pests or diseases, then it is necessary to repair strawberry plantations.
Early, middle and medium-late varieties bear fruitthe whole of June. The degree of maturity and cleaning time depends on the variety and destination of the berries. For sale or for processing, strawberries are harvested when it fully ripens and acquires the best taste. If strawberries have to be transported for a long distance, it is harvested unripe. Do not collect wet berries, because they can quickly rot. Collect the berries carefully, making sure that they do not crumple. Without cooling, strawberries can be stored for 10-20 hours, depending on the variety. In a chilled room with a temperature of not more than + 4 ° C, strawberries can be stored for up to three days. Collect strawberries better in small baskets with a capacity of up to three kilograms.
Mowing of leaves
For the liberation of plants from disease andpests, as well as to stimulate the growth of young leaves, after harvesting you can mow down the foliage. Such an event is not mandatory - it is advisable to hold it if the strawberry area is overgrown or poorly maintained. The foliage is mown on average three weeks after harvest. Early mowing weakens plants, which can adversely affect their wintering and yields next year. Later, mowing can lead to a deterioration in the differentiation of the kidneys. After mowing, foliage should be scraped, and then comprehensively combating diseases and pests, fertilizing mineral fertilizers and cultivating the soil between the rows.
If there is snow cover strawberriessafely withstands low winter temperatures. A layer of snow of ten to twenty centimeters can protect it even from frost at 25-30 ° C. If there is no snow, then at a temperature below -12 °, the plant first partially freezes, and then it dies. Strong plants withstand the cold better. Therefore, frosts cause less damage where the area is well looked after, provided the plant with moisture and fertilizers and protected against diseases and pests. In snowless winters, strawberry plantations can be covered with straw. It should not have seeds, otherwise mice may appear, which will cause irreparable damage to plants. Many people are interested in how to grow strawberries all year round. In Holland, it is grown at any time of the year in a closed ground. Agrotechnics are the same as for open ground. The task of the plant grower in this case is to "wake" the plant from hibernation, providing it with the necessary conditions for reproduction, growth and fruiting. And then this magnificent berry will delight you with its unique aroma and delicate taste at any time of the year, despite the fact that we grow strawberries in an unusual way. We advise you to read: