The human body is very complexmechanism, for the successful functioning of which is very important that all without exception its organs and systems are healthy. But, unfortunately, the human body is extremely vulnerable - there is a huge number of very different diseases and pathologies. And very often it is impossible to predict which side to wait for trouble. In this article, we'll talk about a phenomenon such as pulmonary edema, the consequences of which are extremely difficult. And, what is most terrible, it is still always possible to establish the cause that provoked pulmonary edema in each specific case, even the most experienced doctors fail. However, you can track a certain tendency.
What is pulmonary edema and what are its symptoms?
As you know, it is with the help of light bodya person is supplied with vital oxygen. In the same case, if in the lungs for one reason or another there is an excess of blood, the pressure in the pulmonary capillaries is greatly increased. As an inevitable consequence, the liquid penetrates into the alveoli, thereby violating the normal process of gas exchange. About why this can happen, we'll talk a little later. And now let's figure out how to determine that a person has developed pulmonary edema, and not some other pathology of the lungs. Timely diagnosis is very, very important, because in such cases the account is not even for hours, but for minutes. And it is very important to recognize the problem as quickly as possible and call an ambulance brigade. Although, for the sake of justice, it is necessary to note the fact that acute pulmonary edema does not develop in all cases. Approximately in 50% there is a slow progression of the pulmonary edema - in this case the prognosis is more favorable, since doctors have more time to help the sick person. So:
- Symptoms of slow-developing pulmonary edema:
In the event that pulmonary edema developsGradually, a person more and more often will celebrate the appearance of dyspnea. And the first time dyspnoea will appear only with physical exertion, but over time the level of physical activity, which can lead to the development of dyspnea, will decrease. In severe stages, shortness of breath will torment a person even in a state of complete physical rest. In addition, with swelling of the lungs in sick people, in almost all cases, doctors mark tachypnea. This term is called rapid breathing, for no apparent reason. Moreover, rapid breathing develops synchronously with dyspnea. First it appears during exercise, then in a calm state. Such a phenomenon is by no means inadmissible to be ignored, since rapid breathing can indicate various other diseases. Yes, and with the swelling of the lungs, rapid breathing occurs only in sufficiently advanced stages. Very often, sick people complain of dizziness attacks, whose frequency increases with the development of edema. In addition, the overall picture of the disease is supplemented by increased fatigue, drowsiness, deterioration of the general well-being of a person. All these symptoms should alert the sick person and his relatives. At the first signs it is necessary to apply for help to doctors as soon as possible. When examining and examining a sick person, doctors often identify hypoxia - a low content of oxygen in the blood. And, as a consequence, oxygen starvation very quickly develops - which causes many internal organs and systems to suffer. Therefore, a variety of diseases can arise - therefore, it is simply impossible to predict them. When listening to a patient's lungs with a stethoscope, atypical sounds are often heard - wheezing and gurgling. They arise precisely because of the excessive amount of fluid accumulating in the alveoli of the lungs of a sick person. Although, of course, the severity of these symptoms depends only on the stage of the disease.
- Symptoms of acute pulmonary edema:
In the event that the pulmonary edema in humansdevelops lightning fast, the symptoms are much greater and they manifest differently. As a rule, in most cases, pulmonary edema develops at night, when a person sleeps. Unexpectedly waking up, a person feels a strong choking. The patient looks very excited - he sits in bed, begins to breathe extremely hard, puffing. After a couple of minutes there is a jerky convulsive cough. For the first few minutes, the patient coughs up sputum of usual consistency, but as the edema progresses, it becomes more and more liquid, turning into water almost. It's becoming harder and harder for a sick person to breathe - he even involves auxiliary respiratory muscles in this process. The lower border of the lungs almost all the time of the attack is located at the lowest point, as with a deep inspiration. If at this point to listen to the patient with a stethoscope, you can hear the strongest wheezing, whistling and gurgling sounds. Although in especially severe cases, a stethoscope is not needed for this - it's enough just to bend over the sick person lower. Blood pressure in this case is usually either within normal limits, or, conversely, increased. Especially in those cases when it is the increased arterial pressure that becomes the primary cause of pulmonary edema. This also occurs, albeit rarely. However, this does not apply to venous pressure - it is always lowered. The face of the sick person pales, there is a pronounced cyanosis. Very often a sticky cold sweat appears. The emotional state of the sick person is also very different - he experiences not just excitement, but a real panic fear of death. This fear in any case can not be ignored - it only aggravates the severity of the course of the attack. It is necessary to try to calm the sick person, inspire him with confidence in a successful outcome. The duration of the attack is approximately 25 to 30 minutes. And it is very important to provide the patient with qualified medical care as soon as possible. Otherwise, the risk of death of a person during an attack is very high. It is simply impossible to dispense with medical aid when swelling of the lungs, whatever it is caused. The sick person should be hospitalized in the intensive care unit as soon as possible, especially if the edema develops sharply. Although in some cases, outpatient treatment is also possible - if the process is chronic and sluggish. For example, most often occurs if the cause of chronic edema is congestive heart failure. However, in this case, the sick person should be regularly observed by the attending physician, who will monitor the condition and, if necessary, adjust the course of treatment. Typically, such sick people are observed in such doctors as a therapist - a specialist in diseases of internal organs, a cardiologist - a specialist in diseases of the cardiovascular system, or pulmonologist - a specialist in lung diseases. All depends only on what kind of cause was the culprit in the development of pulmonary edema.
Diagnosis of pulmonary edema
For correct diagnosis, doctorsuse a variety of techniques. One of the leading ones for many years has been and remains the chest X-ray. When examining a picture of healthy lungs, they look like a bright area, having a darkening only in the region of the heart and large blood vessels. If a person develops pulmonary edema, the enlightenment of the pulmonary fields is extremely uneven. In particularly severe cases, there is significant turbidity, and the lung pattern is very poorly visualized. Shading in the image of the lungs is precisely the filling of the pulmonary alveoli with liquid. Although, for the sake of justice, it is necessary to note - an x-ray examination of a sick person can tell only about the presence or absence of pulmonary edema. But to establish the root cause, which led to the development of edema, with the help of an X-ray image is simply impossible. In order to reliably determine the cause of the development of pulmonary edema, physicians should conduct a thorough analysis of the clinical picture of the course of the attack. Often, a detailed study of the patient's examination data, his story and general examination allow you to get all the information necessary to identify the root cause of the swelling. There are many methods for diagnosing pulmonary edema, but there is no point in telling about them in more detail, as this information will be understood only by medical workers. For a simple person, such a story will only be a set of medical terms.
Treatment of pulmonary edema
As already clear from all of the above - edemalungs is an extremely serious pathology. And leave it without attention - to expose the life of a sick person to serious danger. However, you can not take any measures yourself. All treatment should be appointed and performed by medical personnel. Treatment is appointed taking into account a lot of factors: the severity of pulmonary edema, the causes that caused swelling. So, for example, if the edema has a cardiogenic nature of origin, drugs are used to treat heart failure. The most common is pulmonary edema in stroke. In addition, a whole course of treatment of cardiac pathology is carried out. In the event that the edema still continues to progress, in addition to drugs for the treatment of heart failure, diuretics are usually prescribed - diuretics. In some cases, these measures are not enough. And the sick person still has to be hospitalized in a hospital for more intensive treatment. In the same case, if pulmonary edema is caused, for example, by any serious infection, active intensive antibacterial or antiviral therapy is necessary. If the problem is in the kidneys, all measures should be aimed at eliminating renal failure. Only under condition of complex therapy it is possible to cope with renal failure. In the case of the development of acute edema, doctors are forced to resort to intensive therapy. In almost all cases, inhalation of oxygen is carried out, and in particularly severe cases, artificial ventilation of the lungs. This measure alone will not help to eliminate swelling of the lungs, but will give doctors time to find out the cause and start the necessary treatment. Very often, these watches, won by doctors, help to save a person's life. Before the arrival of the ambulance brigade, you can try to give the sick person first aid. It consists in providing free access to fresh air to a sick person. Open all the windows, unbutton the collars, free the person from the pulling clothes and straps. This is the only thing you can do on your own in such a situation. But very often this simple measure helps to save a person's life.
How to avoid pulmonary edema?
Pulmonary edema is extremely dangerous not only for health,but also for human life. In the event that the edema will last very long, the risk of developing severe hypoxia - oxygen starvation is great. And in the first place, the brain and the central nervous system suffer very badly. And the more everything can turn around - it's easy to guess: from mild vegetative disorders to severe lesions of the nervous system. Therefore, all doctors unanimously urge people to try to minimize the risk of such a complication. Of course, it is impossible to completely exclude the possibility of developing pulmonary edema, however, some measures are still worth taking. First, if a person suffers from cardiac disease, he must be under constant medical supervision. It is unacceptable to neglect the use of medicines and follow the recommendations of doctors. Do not forget that in some cases, the cause of pulmonary edema can become one or another allergen. Therefore, a person who knows about his allergic predisposition should avoid contacts with allergens in every possible way. Otherwise, the risk of pulmonary edema increases many times. By the way, allergy sufferers should always have antihistamines with them in case of a sudden allergic attack. In the event that a person works in harmful conditions associated with the inhalation of various chemicals, he must also take precautions - work in a respirator, comply with all rules and regularly attend preventive examinations. At the first symptoms of pulmonary edema, a person should consult a doctor as soon as possible. And finally I would like to remind you of such a danger as smoking. Very often with pulmonary edema, doctors find the root cause - inhaling poisonous fumes, infections, heart diseases. However, almost no one connects this phenomenon with the fact that a sick person regularly smokes. But nicotine is the most real catalyst for all pathological processes, not only in the human lungs, but in the whole body. Therefore, in the event that a sick person has at least the slightest prerequisites for the development of pulmonary edema, he needs to get rid of such a pernicious habit as quickly as possible. Of course, quitting smoking is not so simple, but it's quite real. There would be a desire. After all, human health is the most precious thing that is. And a person very often with his own actions worsens well-being.