Depression, what is your mystery? This condition is not for nothing considered an insidious disease, eating away the soul and absorbing all the good things in a person. Unfortunately, it is familiar to very many people by no means by hearsay, and in order to overcome it, it is necessary to understand the origins or causes of depression. Almost anything can be this very reason - that's why we distinguish them different groups.
Biological causes of depression
More doctors of antiquity, for example, Hippocrates,noticed that some people can lie for a long time, the grimace of sadness does not come off their face, nothing can interest or occupy them. He called this state "melancholy," and by description it was very close to what we now describe by the term "depression." The sources of her Hippocrates were incomprehensible, however, as a true doctor, he believed that they lay in some painful processes inside the body, and offered his patients to be treated with tinctures of opium and mineral waters, in which lithium, magnesium and bromine ions were later discovered - known antidepressants. Even then it was clear that body health and disturbances in his work can cause changes in the mental state, often negative. It is this set of problems in the body that is usually called the biological causes of depression. A modern person is able to "climb" to sufficiently deep levels of the body, and what was once a mystery is now a scientific fact. Many scientists agree on the biological causes of depression: its source lies in the imbalance of hormones and neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. The body produces an insufficient number of them, and at some point it begins to manifest itself in an unaccountably longing melancholy, sadness, apathy and inhibition. This depression is usually called endogenous (in the translation from the ancient Greek "coming from within"), and it is usually corrected by a simple intake of appropriate medications. Not always the biological causes of depression are directly related to the "chemistry" of our body. Everyone knows how the human body needs sunlight. And you must have noticed how in the fall and winter a gray, sticky spleen is piling on you. This is not accidental, because sunlight is involved in the synthesis of important substances, for example, vitamin D, which, in turn, affects the general state of the body. It is also important in other bodily processes, and its deficiency can cause depression - it is still called seasonal. Sometimes depression is not primary, but secondary, that is, arising from some other underlying disease. In this case, it is one of his symptoms. Examples of such diseases may be respiratory depression in sleep, central nervous system infections, hypothyroidism and other endocrine diseases, beriberi, hypercalcemia, etc. ... In order to get rid of this depression, you need to go to its root cause. All that was said about biological causes refers to clinical depression - a serious mental disorder. In case you suspect yourself or one of your relatives this disease, you should immediately contact a doctor - a psychiatrist or a psychotherapist. He will clarify the diagnosis and prescribe the necessary treatment.
Social causes of depression
Did you have to worry about the fact thatis happening in modern society? Certainly. But depression differs from simple experience by its depth and tightness. The social reasons for this phenomenon are that society is organized in such a way that many of man's desires, his nature, are suppressed. And so he is sad and can not realize himself. But first things first. The pioneer in this direction was the father of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud. "How? - you ask - He's a psychologist! ". And you will be right, but only in part. Freud, of course, made a considerable contribution to the development of psychology, and he was particularly interested in issues related to the person of man. He believed that each of us has an unconscious, which is the container of various instincts. These instincts are absolutely selfish, asocial and immoral, and represent the stream of the most perverted desires. Living in society, a person can not satisfy these desires - this is what causes him depression or neurosis. So we must either live in the forest, or learn to transform the energy of these desires into something more peaceful - for example, in creativity. Emile Durkheim, one of the founders of sociology, studied the problem of suicide, which is inextricably linked with the emergence of depression. He believed that their reasons could be a deliberate breakdown of ties with society, excessive control of society over each particular person, as well as a state in which the cultural norms and values necessary for a happy life are lost. Thus, any events in a society in which a person is detached from him or morally crushed can be the cause of depression and, as a consequence, suicide. Agree, in our lives this is not such a rare phenomenon - especially they affect young, inspired and temperamental people. Eric Fromm - another well-known psychologist - believed that society, or rather the features of life in it, is also to blame for the occurrence of depression in a single person. Look at the typical day of a resident of a modern metropolis: he gets up light, not dawn, drinks coffee alone, goes to work, where he spends nine hours, then from work, dinner alone and deaf sleep. On the one hand, he is always in the crowd, and on the other - constantly feels lonely. A person begins to escape from this loneliness and responsibility by all available means:
- Man strives metaphysicallymerge with all other people through their management. He begins to strive to occupy a high post in a large company or go into the army in order to follow the orders of others and distribute them himself. Thus, he ceases to be lonely.
- Destruction A man strikes aggression. Subconsciously, he is pursued by the desire to destroy the world, until he destroyed it. And sometimes a person begins to destroy himself, because then the world will cease to exist. Such people hit in alcohol, drugs, crime, and their lives resemble the script of some "chernushnogo" movie.
- Conformism What is the "best" wayto feel oneself alone? To be like everyone else. A person becomes like everything else in others and does not stand out in any way - so he loses his individuality. It becomes easier for him, because you do not have to decide anything - just do what everyone does around, and live peacefully. Only here melancholy sometimes rolls ...
- Positive freedom There is an opportunityto overcome depression within yourself is an opportunity to be realized in work and love. Such are the highest spiritual needs of man. If a person loves and creates something for others - he will never be lonely and unhappy.
By and large, life in our stateso unstable that the causes for depression can be found a lot: high unemployment, low wages, corruption, poor quality of roads, the dominance of the bureaucracy. However, this is the daily encounter of all our fellow citizens, but few can feel depressed. So, most likely, it's not just the negativity that reigns around us, but also some personal characteristics.
The psychological causes of depression
Finally, we came to the biggest and most importantPlast - psychological causes of depression. As we know, life is black and white: bad and good alternate, and their numbers are approximately the same. But some events and phenomena can dislodge any, even the most seemingly impenetrable optimist. They are attributed to the psychological causes of depression, which in these cases is also called reactive - coming as a reaction to some grief or disappointment. The first point in the long list of these reasons is the loss of a loved one. Life inevitably leads to death - no one will argue with this fact. However, from his awareness it does not become easier when you lose someone important and dear. If a person has enough mental strength, he is more or less experiencing: first denies, then sad, but slowly comes to his senses. Sometimes a person gets stuck in a depressive phase, and he needs additional support from others. Do not forget to provide it. Parting is a special case of a person's "loss". In the case when your relationship with someone ends, it just disappears from your life, only the reason here is somewhat different: perhaps not so fatal, but everything is still final. Divorce is on the second or third place in terms of the level of depression after the death of loved ones, and this is not accidental. You have lived with a person for a long time, it was an important part of life, and when this part is "torn out", it becomes very bad and painful. Not always for the emergence of depression, there is some extraordinary event - often its role is performed by usual boredom. Yes, yes, she is! Remember your feelings when you are bored? Apathy, laziness and melancholy - this is far from a complete list of characteristics of the bored state. Very often boredom comes from experiencing emptiness in life and doing nothing. The way out in this case is simple enough - take yourself up with something! Call your girlfriend, go to a party or find an interesting hobby - do something to make the depression run away from you with your tail tucked. Another reason for the onset of depression can be considered not reaching important goals or, as psychologists say, "frustration." Do you remember your feelings when something is not working for you? First it's anger, a lot of anger. However, if something does not come out for you for a very long time, this anger becomes depressed. And some people start to feel sad immediately. Especially it concerns some global goals, for example, the desire to become a ballerina or to marry a loved one. The absence of something important in life is a reasonable occasion for sadness, but the options for dealing with it are usually obvious. The personal crisis is one more reason for depression, although very controversial. Psychologists have not yet decided on their views on the problem of personal crisis: someone thinks it is far-fetched, and someone - very real. According to the data available to date, it is customary to call a crisis a situation when the old version of the behavior becomes impossible, and the new one is not yet available. And a person finds himself in a psychological impasse, the finding in which brings him considerable mental suffering. He has nowhere to wait for support, and it remains an opportunity to rely only on himself. But there is also a joyous moment: the onset of the crisis means a high level of maturity of the individual, and is also an opportunity for growth. To survive the crisis is not given to everyone: it is incredibly great temptation to hide somewhere from all these negative feelings or somehow distracted. This can not be done! The crisis is for that and given to man that, passing through this test, we grow up and become better. The main thing is not to get stuck on the negative, but to move on, albeit with small steps. Sometimes such a step can be a deepening of experiences, and sometimes - a way out of them. Problems at work are another inexhaustible source of depression and bad mood. It occupies an important place in the life of each person, respectively, and the frustrations associated with it are frustrated seriously and for a long time. Shouts of the boss, a failed project, dissatisfied customers - all this can drive anyone into depression. Usually, the mechanism of depression is associated with prolonged stress: the resources of the human body do not have time to recover, and it is depleted. In order to get rid of fatigue and apathy, you need to learn to rest, no matter how trite it may sound. Quarrels and conflicts have a negative energy. This is due to the fact that friends of our lives disappear for the time of the conflict, and with our anger at them, and with apparent impotence change something. When we argue with someone, we lose support and love, namely they are the best remedy for depression at all times. It is no accident that communication with friends and girlfriends in psychology is called "psychotherapeutic." Therefore, if you want to reduce the amount of negativity in your life, seek urgently ways of reconciliation with all those with whom you have quarreled, as well as ways to live peacefully with other people. Health problems are the last on our list, but not the last major source of depression. This is particularly true of deadly diseases, when depression is one of the stages in the adoption of such a forecast. But even the most common illness can cause a worsening of mood: you are bad, the snot is flowing, the whole body is aching, and you are incapable of anything other than lying on the couch. Anyone will fall into anguish from such a picture! More serious health problems cause a whole chain of negative experiences that activate depression: the inability to work, the large bills for doctors, the huge time spent fighting the disease, the dependence on others - all this does not add optimism. But the paradox lies in the fact that it is the positive mood that is so necessary for an early cure, which, in turn, will erase the depression from your life. This is not a complete list of possible causes for depression. It is not necessary that any of these events will cause serious melancholy for you, dear reader - all people are different, and many are coping quite successfully with a variety of life's misfortunes. We hope that you will be one of them, and our article will be useful to you only for general development. We advise you to read: