causes of allergies Some people who come into contact with certainsubstances, organisms or when eating certain foods, an abnormal reaction of the immune system occurs. This is called allergy. When the allergen hits the human body, immunoglobulin of class E (IgE) begins to be produced. This leads to the release of chemicals and hormones (histamine), which affect the production of protective cells, on focal tissues and organs. These processes cause allergic reactions.

Factors affecting the appearance of allergies

There may be an allergy for a number of reasons:

  • genetic predisposition (if the parents or one of them had an allergy, the risk of its occurrence in the child is high);
  • reduced immunity of the body (with frequent exposure to allergens on the body, a protective mechanism may break and develop an allergy);
  • with frequent use of antibiotics (they disrupt the body's immune system, which increases the risk of allergy in contact with allergens);
  • with frequent contact with chemicals.

Nobody is immune from the development of allergies. It can appear at any age. allergy manifestation

What is an allergy?

By the mechanism of development, types of allergicreactions of immediate and delayed action. In the first case, the symptoms appear after a few hours, after contact with the allergen (anaphylactic, cytotoxic, immunocomplex reactions). Usually for 4-6 hours. The second type of reaction occurs only 1-2 days after the allergen has entered the body (cellular reaction). Everyone has a certain reaction of the body to the allergen. Different symptoms appear on the same allergen in different people. There are a lot of allergens, and they are divided into groups. Reaction to food The most common cause of allergic reactions are foods such as eggs, milk, fish, honey, fruit, chocolate and nuts. Eggs are an allergen, because it contains albumin (egg white). It is on him most often there are easy reactions. Some people have a hypersensitivity to the yolk, but this is rare. It's not for nothing that infants begin to accustom to the eggs with the yolk. Allergic to eggs should be excluded from the diet products that include egg white (mayonnaise, ice cream). Milk contains protein casein. It is on him that the human body gives a reaction. Someone can not consume all dairy products, and someone only originates from a certain animal (cow, goat). Most often, allergic reactions to milk are manifested in early childhood, because the digestive system of a young child can not yet tolerate it. Allergic reaction to milk can be expressed in the form of stomach pain, diarrhea, hives and shortness of breath. With the use of seafood, an allergy can manifest itself on fish (cod), shrimp, crab, crayfish, lobsters, as well as caviar and other products containing fish protein. Honey is considered a strong allergen. Most often, honey appears in children, as parents use it as a prophylaxis and treatment for colds. The composition of honey includes many components that can cause an allergic reaction of the body. It can appear on sucrose, pollen flowers or fructose. Do not use beekeeping products for people with allergies to them. Some fruits, especially citrus fruits, can cause an allergic reaction. Most often this happens when you use oranges, lemons, tangerines, red berries (raspberries, strawberries). Children are introduced into the diet as one of the last ones, since they are capable of provoking a very strong reaction, up to anaphylactic shock. Very many like chocolate, but when you use it, you may experience an allergic reaction. As with any food allergy, the body responds to the components of the product. Chocolate consists of cocoa, milk, nuts and other chemicals. It is to these substances that allergic people have hypersensitivity. Food allergy can cause nuts, most often peanuts. This kind of allergy can cause an anaphylactic shock in the person and even lead to death. In the presence of an allergic reaction to peanuts, it is necessary to exclude all nuts from the diet or use them with caution. In addition, do not eat foods that contain nuts or are cooked on the basis of peanut butter. allergic reaction to irritants Medicinal allergy Hypersensitivity tocomponents of medications can cause allergies and lead to undesirable consequences. In all instructions for medicines, the main contraindication is hypersensitivity to their constituents. Allergies can be caused by almost any drug, except for those that do not affect the immune system. If the drug enters the body, the reaction may occur immediately or after a few days. Allergies can flow easily, with minor symptoms. But with this type of allergy, anaphylactic shock and Quincke's edema may appear. Drug allergies can affect the liver, kidneys and lymphatic system. The danger is that in these cases the symptoms do not usually appear. Care should be taken when taking medication, especially if you have not previously used it in treatment. Be sure to follow the dosage indicated in the instructions. Hypersensitivity to animals Many people, especially children, dream of having a pet that can be taken care of. Most often these are dogs and cats. But it is with the advent of these animals in the house can develop an allergy. People believe that allergic reactions occur when contact with the animal's hair, and breed hairless cats and dogs. But the allergy still appears. An allergen is the skin of an animal and its saliva, which falls on the coat when the animal licks itself. Animal allergens can get on the bed, furniture or carpet, and even if the pet is given to relatives, the symptoms will remain. Before you buy a cat or dog for yourself or your child, it's worth checking if you are allergic to them. To do this, you can visit friends or relatives who have these animals. Watch for the well-being of your loved ones. If there are symptoms that are similar to allergy, then it is better to refrain from settling at home cats or dogs, and to have an animal that does not cause allergies. But if you still decided to take a kitty or dog if there is an allergic reaction to them, then you should constantly dry and wet cleaning in the house, get rid of carpets. Do not let the animal into rooms where there is furniture on which wool can settle, you can not let them sleep on the beds. It is necessary to regularly wash pets so that allergens do not accumulate. eye drops from allergies Insect bites With the onset of springthe number of people suffering from allergies is increasing. This is due to the fact that in this season there are insects. Bites of bees, wasps, hornets, fire ants can cause an allergic reaction. A normal occurrence is the appearance of redness, swelling and itching at the site of a bite. An allergy to insect bites is the body's reaction to poisonous and toxic substances entering it. Most often, it manifests itself with multiple bites. Allergies can be mild. But with an acute reaction of the body, anaphylactic shock occurs. People who are allergic to insects should avoid places where their huge accumulations. When the season of their activity comes, allergy sufferers should carry antiallergic agents. Dust, pollen, household mites The reason for an allergic reaction to dust lies in its composition. It includes various microparticles: scales of human and animal skin, flower pollen, cockroach and household mite particles, mold spores, fluff. They act as allergens. When inhaling air containing a lot of dust, allergy symptoms may appear. Pollen allergy is seasonal. When flowers start to bloom, pollen enters the air. It is carried by the wind to a large space. When inhaled air pollen enters the human body and causes an allergic reaction. Some chemicals can cause allergies. Allergens are washing and cleaning products, paints and varnishes, insect and parasite remedies, cosmetics and preservatives. In some people, allergic reactions occur even in cold or active sun rays. allergy treatment

Manifestations and symptoms

Each person has allergic reactions individual and diverse, but they are divided into forms:

  • respiratory allergy;
  • airway allergy;
  • allergic enteropathy;
  • allergic dermatoses;
  • allergic conjunctivitis;
  • anaphylactic shock.

Each form has the main symptoms of manifestationallergies. Respiratory allergy occurs when an allergen (dust, pollen, fluff, animal hair, etc.) hits the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. The main symptoms of this form are pruritus in the nose, abundant mucus from the nasal cavity, frequent sneezing, coughing. Respiratory allergy manifests as allergic rhinitis (runny nose) and atopic bronchial asthma. Allergy of the respiratory tract occurs when bacteria enter them. When the organs of the gastrointestinal tract are affected by allergens, allergic enteropathy occurs. This often occurs with food and drug allergies. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea (diarrhea). Allergic dermatosis occurs when a reaction occurs on the skin. They occur when there is a superficial contact with the allergen and when they get into the body through the digestive tract. The main forms of skin reaction to allergens are urticaria, skin itching, eczema, peeling, allergic contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis. This kind of reaction causes many allergens: drugs, food, insect bites, chemicals (paint, cleaning and washing). When the allergen gets into the eye mucosa, allergic conjunctivitis occurs. In this case, the body's reaction manifests itself in the form of itching, burning, redness and lacrimation of the eyes. The puffiness of the eyelids may develop. These symptoms occur immediately in both eyes. Anaphylactic shock is the most dangerous manifestation of an allergic reaction. It can be caused by medications, insect bites, and when eating certain food allergens. Fish products and citrus fruits can also cause anaphylactic shock. If this reaction occurs, consult a doctor immediately. The outcome of anaphylactic shock depends on timely and adequate treatment.

Treatment and prevention

With allergies you can fight. There are several methods to get rid of allergies or prevent the appearance of symptoms. Now you can buy quite a lot of antiallergic drugs in pharmacies. Special antihistamines (drops for eyes and nose, tablets) that block the action of histamine and reduce symptoms manifest themselves. When treating allergies, immunotherapy is used. The drug injects the drug, reducing sensitivity to certain substances. This method can not cure allergies, but to many people it helps to tolerate symptoms more easily. The method of desensitization is also used. In this case, the patient takes small doses of the drug that causes an allergic reaction. Gradually the dose increases. Thus, the human immune system gets used to the substance and the body stops responding to it. It is worth to carefully treat the lifestyle, do not expose yourself to excessive exposure to harmful substances and do not consume excessive amounts of food that can cause allergies.