acute pyelonephritis Kidney diseases are periodically hauntedabout two-thirds of the total adult population of the world. And most often there is acute pyelonephritis. What is this disease, what is it caused and how to fight it? This is exactly what will be discussed below. Doctors call pyelonephritis a non-specific inflammation of the kidney, in which the connective tissue of the kidney itself is affected, as well as the initial part of the urinary tract - the calyx-pelvis system. Nonspecific inflammation is called, because it arises as a result of the penetration of not some specific type of pathogens, but many different pathogenic bacteria. Pyelonephritis can overtake a person at any age, but most often people with age 20-40 face it. In women, kidney inflammation most often develops as a consequence of the inflammatory process that takes place in the bladder. In men, the pathogenic bacteria enter the kidneys with the blood flow.

Types of acute pyelonephritis

Doctors distinguish between two types of acutepyelonephritis - primary and secondary. In primary pyelonephritis, the disease is not preceded by any other diseases such as inflammation of the bladder. But in secondary pyelonephritis, the disease is preceded by other urological diseases that disrupt the blood circulation in the kidneys and lead to a violation of the outflow in the urine. Inflammatory process with pyelonephritis can be serous and purulent. Sometimes there is a complex pyelonephritis - first the process proceeds without pus, but in the event that the patient does not receive the necessary treatment, pus may occur. Also, sometimes with acute pyelonephritis, a large number of small abscesses form in the kidneys. There may also be several large foci of suppuration.

Causes of acute pyelonephritis

In almost all cases, acute pyelonephritisdevelops as a result of the penetration of the pathogenic microflora into the kidneys. As a rule, such microflora is an E. coli, streptococcus, staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus. To penetrate into the kidney pathogenic microflora can in various ways:

  • With a blood flow

Bacteria can enter the kidney with blood fromvarious infectious sources available in the human body. Such sources of infection can become such diseases as caries, chronic tonsillitis and other chronic diseases of internal organs.

  • Ascending way

In the event that a person hasinflammatory processes in the urinary tract or the bladder itself, for example, urethritis or cystitis, the infection can enter the kidneys along the ascending pathways. Most often, a similar path of infection occurs in women, because of the physiological features of the structure of the genitourinary system. Pyelonephritis has one more feature. In the event that the kidneys are absolutely healthy, an acute inflammatory process will not develop even if pathogenic bacteria enter them. In order for acute pyelonephritis to begin, a number of provoking factors are required. Such factors include:

  • Serious liver diseases. As is known, the liver and kidneys play the function of a kind of filter that cleans the body of toxins and other substances that are unnecessary to it. And if the liver does not cope with its function, the double load is placed on the kidneys.
  • Weakened immunity. In the event that the immune system is weakened, it can not give the necessary rebuff to the pathogenic microflora. As a result, acute pyelonephritis develops.
  • All diseases, one way or another associated with hormonal disorders or metabolic disorders.

In addition, very much depends on localpossessing factors. These factors include all kinds of pathological changes in the urinary tract, both congenital and acquired - especially those areas that are responsible for the passage of urine. Especially often, acute purulent pyelonephritis occurs in those patients who have violated the passage (passage) of urine. Acute pyelonephritis symptoms

Principle of development of acute pyelonephritis and its symptoms

In the event that a person develops acuteprimary pyelonephritis, pathogens penetrate into the kidneys with a current of blood, and in the bladder and urinary tract there were no inflammatory processes. In this case, the inflammatory process most often develops in one kidney, but sometimes it can be bilateral, albeit less often. The inflammatory process starts in the kidney's framework, the so-called interstitial tissue. It is in it there is a huge number of small infiltrates - a serous stage of inflammation. In the event that the inflammatory process becomes purulent, on a place of these most infiltrates there are abscesses. In the absence of timely adequate treatment, the inflammatory process continues to spread to the renal tissue itself. And in this case the disease takes on a particularly severe form of flow. In the case when it comes to secondary pyelonephritis, it is preceded by some disease, or a pathological change in the organs of the genitourinary system. Secondary pyelonephritis is most common in people who suffer from such diseases as:

  • Kidney stones and bladder.
  • Adenoma of the prostate gland in men.
  • Narrowing of ureters and urethra.

These diseases very often violate the outflow of urine,as a result of which trophic changes in the tissues of the kidneys can occur. As a result, the infection very easily penetrates the pathologically altered tissue, in which the inflammatory process develops. Incidentally, with secondary pyelonephritis, the inflammatory process is almost always purulent and requires more serious treatment. Pyelonephritis has quite specific and easily recognizable symptoms, according to which the doctor can easily establish a diagnosis. So, acute pyelonephritis, symptoms:

  • A sharp rise in body temperature to a fairly high figure.
  • Feeling of a strong chill.
  • Severe headaches that do not occur after taking painkillers.
  • There may be a feeling of nausea and vomiting.

In addition, a person who has become illpyelonephritis, there are pains of noisy character, then on one side of the back, then on the other. As a rule, the process of urination with pyelonephritis is not violated, but the volume of urine decreases. This is due to the fact that a sick person loses a very large amount of fluid with sweat, since sweating during illness is very abundant. As a rule, the course of secondary pyelonephritis is always much heavier than the primary pyelonephritis, because in almost all cases it acquires a purulent character. Also, very often secondary pyelonephritis is complicated by phenomena such as nephritis or kidney abscess. It should also be noted that most often secondary pyelonephritis is preceded by the strongest renal colic - the strongest cramping pain sensations. And although such symptoms are most typical for acute pyelonephritis, there are still several other diseases that can have similar signs. That is why the doctor appoints a number of additional examinations to make a more accurate diagnosis, which will help to avoid mistakes.

  • General urine analysis. In the first place, a sick person must pass a general analysis of urine. As a rule, in the event that a person suffers from acute pyelonephritis, there is a huge number of bacteria in his urine. Also in the urine a few days after the onset of the disease, white blood cells appear. And only active leukocytes have diagnostic value. Active white blood cells are those white blood cells that stand out directly from the foci of the inflammatory process. They contain absorbed bacteria.
  • Microbiological examination of urine. Also, microbiological examination of urine is very important for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. It is carried out as follows - the culture of urine is placed in a special nutrient medium in order to identify which pathogen caused the disease and to what antibacterial drugs the pathogenic microflora is sensitive.
  • General blood analysis. A laboratory blood test can identify the presence of an inflammatory process in the body, as well as the level of intoxication. As a rule, it is expedient to conduct a blood test not earlier than on the second - third day after the onset of the disease. Otherwise, blood changes may not yet occur.
  • Ultrasound diagnostics. In order to establish which form of pyelonephritis takes place - primary or secondary, and also to identify possible pathological changes from the urogenital tract, the patient is subjected to ultrasound examination of the kidneys and urinary tract.
  • Other types of research. If necessary, the doctor may decide to conduct additional types of research. Such studies include X-ray examination of the kidneys and urinary tracts, radioisotope study, excretory urography - a special contrast substance is injected intravenously for the patient, followed by an X-ray of the kidneys, cystography - the contrast material is injected into the bladder. All these types of research will help to identify possible obstacles in the path of urine flow.
  • Treatment of acute pyelonephritis

    Of course, pyelonephritis requires immediatetreatment. Treatment should be carried out only under strict medical supervision. All treatment is mainly medicamentous - anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anesthetic pharmacological preparations are prescribed for a sick person. The regime should be predominantly bedded, the diet is as gentle as possible. And, of course, we must not forget about the abundant drink. Ideally suited for fruit drinks and alkaline still mineral water. In the event that a person has secondary pyelonephritis, the goal of treatment is to restore the normal patency of urine. Also, he is given antibacterial drugs and drugs that strengthen immunity. In the event that the outflow of urine is hampered by the presence of stones in the organs of the urinary tract, they are removed. In especially severe cases, if the purulent process, despite the treatment, continues to progress, doctors are forced to resort to removal of the affected kidney. That is why it is necessary as soon as possible to seek help from a doctor, at the first signs of the disease.

    Diet with pyelonephritis

    For successful treatment of pyelonephritis is very importantobserve the right diet. In the acute stage of the disease, doctors recommend to introduce into the diet of a sick person those vegetables and fruits that have a pronounced diuretic effect - for example zucchini, watermelons and melons. After about three days, if the symptoms are not so pronounced, the sick person should comply with the dairy - vegetable diet. It is necessary to reduce the consumption of salt sharply and completely exclude the following products:

    • Canned food, pickles and smoked products.
    • Any seasonings and spices, especially sharp.
    • Coffee and caffeinated products.
    • Carbonated drinks.
    • Alcoholic beverages.
    • Mushrooms and mushroom broth.
    • Peas and other legumes.

    Preference should be given to such products asmilk - milk, kefir, yoghurts, vegetable - boiled vegetables, in a grated kind. All kinds of fruits that are rich in potassium - dried apricots, raisins, butter, salt-free bread. The diet for acute pyelonephritis is very important, but one should not forget about the need to observe the diet. The intake of food should be divided - in small portions, every two to three hours. In no case is it inadmissible to fry products - they must be boiled or stewed. We advise you to read: