No matter what plants are grownflower growers: some are captivated by the exotic beauty of orchids, others like to grow cacti. But there is not a single fan of domestic plants who does not like the violet room, care for which will not be difficult even for a beginner floriculturist.
We buy a violet
Senpia, or the Umbra violet, is primaroom floriculture. Infinite variety of its species and a luxurious palette of flowers attracts the attention of collectors and lovers of indoor plants. Even if you go to a flower shop or to insert flowers just like that, from idle curiosity, when you see a violet, you most likely can not resist not to buy this beauty. If this happened, then when buying a plant, first of all you should pay attention to its leaves. If you find on them a too tight point of growth or some suspicious stains, then this plant is probably affected by some disease. Not only will a newcomer find it difficult to go out and grow such a plant, but even to a specialist. Therefore, you need to choose a plant in which the leaves have a bright green color without the slightest signs of damage to diseases and pests. For reproduction, one must take a leaf from the lower second row. Cuttings from the bottom row also give children, but they are usually more exhausted, so their offspring will certainly be weaker. Be sure to ask the seller what kind of plant the plant, then not to find it out. When choosing a cut, it is very important that the leaves are not stretched. This indicates that the plant grew in conditions of lack of light. When buying a plant, you should make sure that there are no spots on the leaves. The growth point should look healthy, with no signs of decay. On the pot should be indicated the name of the variety, and it would be nice if the date of planting is also good. For transportation it is convenient to use cardboard boxes, plastic containers or other containers that will keep the cutting from damage. If there is no such box, then it is possible to inflate the plastic bag tightly by tying it. In this case, the cutting will not be injured during transportation. Undercooling of the root system can lead to the death of the plant, so if you agree in advance about buying violets, ask the seller not to water it three to four days before the purchase. To transport the plant in the winter time it needs to be packed in several layers of the newspaper, and then put in a plastic bag. You can wrap a plant with a downy shawl or put it on a heating pad. If during transportation, when you unpacked the home at home, it turned out that some leaves were broken, they should be removed carefully from the outlet. These leaves can be put in water and after a few months, when they become starter, they can be planted in the ground. Violets are light-loving plants, but they do not tolerate direct sunlight. The ideal place for their cultivation will be the windows facing east or west. On the windows facing south, they should be shaded. The best temperature for their maintenance will be 20-24 ° C. If you have a lot of violets, then it is better for them to equip a shelving with illumination. This will allow placing a lot of plants in a small area, optimally providing them with light.
Reproduction of violets by cuttings
Each florist chooses for himself a reliable anda convenient way of rooting a violet cut. At home, the best way is to take root in boiled water. If you want for these purposes, you can buy substrate components - agroperlite or vermiculite. A good way is to root a cuttings of violets in moss-sphagnum, which is finely chopped for this. Recently, the method of rooting cuttings in peat-humic tablets has become widespread. In them, the danger of rotting the cuttings is minimized. But no matter how you root the stem, there is a general rule - not to leave a long petiole. If the length of the petiole does not exceed four centimeters, then the babies will appear faster and will be larger. Cut on the cuttings well with a scalpel. When rooting the cuttings, it is necessary to ensure a room temperature of 20-24 ° C and high humidity. To do this, you can put the cuttings, which are planted for rooting, under a glass jar or plastic bag. Babies appear in a month and a half. When the children grow up and get stronger, they should be carefully separated from the leaf, maximally trying not to injure the roots of children. The baby should be planted in a separate pot, the diameter of which should not exceed six centimeters. If the sheet is strong, then it can be left to be reclaimed. Transplanting the baby, the bottom of the pot should be put drainage, which can serve as pieces of foam, moss sphagnum or small expanded clay. Soil for children should be nutritious and loose, for which 20% of vermiculite and 20% of perlite can be added to the substrate. You can add a small-cut sphagnum moss. He, too, puts up to 20% of the total. After the children are planted, they should be placed in a mini-greenhouse for two or three weeks, so that they adapt. Mini-greenhouse, as we have already said, can serve as a glass jar or plastic bag, dressed in a pot. Teplichku should be put on light, but preferably not the south window sill. On the southern window sill violet should be pritenyat, so that the leaves do not get burned. In winter, the window should be closed hermetically, and from the cracks should not blow, because the violets are very sensitive to the supercooling of the root system. Adolescent children should be accustomed gradually to the usual room conditions. To do this, aerate the greenhouse first for 10-15 minutes, and then increase the time.
Reproduction of violets by stepsons
Violets can be propagated not only by leafcuttings, but also stepsons. The stepson for successful rooting should have three or four leaflets. The stepson from the socket is separated with an awl or a sharp scalpel. When the stepson separates from the main socket, you should try not to injure her leaf cuttings. The stepsons take root in a pot with a substrate or in peat-humic tablets. For early rooting and better adaptation of the transplanted stepchild, you need to keep it in the greenhouse. In this way, as a rule, chimaera and fantasy varieties are propagated.
Care of the socket
Care for violets in the home will not deliveryou are in special trouble. But in the period of active growth young rosettes need a balanced soil and good lighting. The soil should be not too heavy and fat, but it is nutritious enough. In order for the socket to form evenly and symmetrically, it should be rotated by 45 ° every three to four days. If the cuttings and leaves at the rosette are strongly elevated, then your plant does not have enough light, and it should provide additional illumination.
Choice of dishes
When choosing a pot for violets,that its size is very important. The diameter of the pot for young outlets and children should be 5-6 centimeters, and for adult outlets should not exceed 10-12 centimeters. Ideally, for an adult rosette, the diameter of the pot should be three times smaller than the rosette itself. For violets suitable for both ceramic and plastic pots. With today's choice of plastic containers, flower growers choose plastic pots for growing violets, since they are more convenient and cheaper. To ensure that the water in the pot does not stagnate, it must be drained, which can be used as moss sphagnum, expanded clay or pieces of foam. Drainage should fill at least a third of the pot.
Top dressing and watering
Violet should be watered with water at room temperaturetemperature or a few degrees higher. Tap water for irrigation is better to defend or filter. You can water it from above, and pour water into the pan. When watering, water should not fall into the growth point and leaves. The water left after watering in the pan must be drained after 10-15 minutes. The soil in the pot should not be wet, but wet, otherwise the root system may start to rot and the violet will die. The frequency of watering depends on the temperature of the air in the room and the composition of the soil. As a rule, violets need to be watered once or twice a week. Do not water the violets with distilled water, because it actively adsorbs the salt. With regular use of distilled water for irrigation, all salts are washed out of the soil: not only harmful, but also useful. Due to lack of nutrients, the violet begins to grow worse and ceases to bloom. When fertilizing an earth clod, it should not be overdried. In principle, the substrate has all the nutrients necessary for the normal development of violets, so it does not need special feeding. In order to replenish the supply of nutrients, it is enough to transplant the violet every 9 to 12 months. If you feel that your violet is depleted, then it can be fed. For this, both liquid and granular fertilizers are used. When buying fertilizers, be sure to read the instructions. If the label is not listed, then it is better not to buy such fertilizer. If you buy a non-specialized fertilizer for violets, then it should be diluted two-fold. Feeding can be done once every three to four weeks. The nitrogen content in the fertilizer for young outlets should be greater than the content of phosphorus and potassium. To actively bookmark buds and lush, abundant flowering, fertilizer should contain more phosphorus. Filters "Fialochka" and "Phosphate" are suitable for this. Excess nutrients can do less good than harm. Therefore, violets should not be overfeeded with fertilizers. It is necessary to find out before feeding, what caused the unhealthy appearance of violets. If it was a consequence of a violation of agricultural technology or its cause was a disease, then fertilizing can only do harm.
Care for an adult rosette
Old leaves often lose color and startspoil the general appearance of the plant, so they must be removed. You can even remove the entire bottom row, and plunge the rosette from the bottom with moss or pour in a pot of soil. If a rosette is formed on the rosette, the violet must be transplanted, slightly dipping to the lower row of leaves. As we have already said, adult rosettes need to be transplanted every nine to twelve months, because the nutrients are depleted in the substrate. In this case, the diameter of the pot should be selected correctly - in a ratio of 1: 3 with a rosette diameter. That the violet looked always beautiful and did not suffer from dust, its leaves should be washed occasionally. It is best to do this once or twice a month in the cold season, and every week - in the warm. The outlet is washed under a weak stream of room temperature water. After this, the plant is dried in a warm place. If it is put after washing in a cool place, then the leaves can become covered with light spots. If the socket has stopped in growth, then it is necessary to check the soil - it is not condensed. If the soil is too dense, then the violets should be transplanted into a loose, light earth. If the soil is normal, then, perhaps, the violet lacks nutrients. Then it should be slightly fed. Another possible reason for stopping the growth of the rosette and its withering is the poor development of the root system or even its decay. If the leaves of the violet are small, dull, dull, you need to cut off the rosette at the base, remove the decayed parts, and then re-root it in water. If a violet leaves a lot of leaves and almost no flower stems are formed, then, most likely, the plant is overfed with nitrogen fertilizers. It is necessary to wait 4-6 weeks and feed it with phosphorus-containing fertilizers. If there are too many leaves on the rosette, you can remove a pair of lower tiers of leaves, remembering to sprinkle with coal powder the wounds. If the peduncles became short, the flowers began to grow smaller, and the leaves of the violets became brownish, the torus plant suffers from excess light, and it must be pritenit. Then the newly emerging leaves will eventually acquire a normal color. Brown leaves can be removed gradually. they will not restore their color. Blooming rosettes it is better not to transplant. If there is no other way out, the outlet into a more spacious pot is transferred, and not transplanted. After this, it is necessary to add earth at the edges and cut off the peduncles so that the plant is not depleted. If you comply with all of the above rules, the violets and care for them will give you real pleasure. Flowering senpolia will delight you with luxurious caps of gentle colors of various shades - from white and pink to lilac and dark purple. We advise you to read: