the first symptoms of HPV HPV (or human papillomavirus) is a commonThe name of the virus, which includes DNA viruses that affect epithelial cells. This group of viruses includes more than 150 different representatives and causes various diseases of the skin and mucosa. More than 30 types of viruses cause the development of genital infections. The greatest danger of this virus is that it is oncogenic and can cause various tumors and squamous cell carcinoma. The greatest danger is the human papilloma virus for women. Men do not suffer so much from the consequences, so they are called vectors.

General information and risks of infection

The most common method of infection issexual intercourse. And the risk of infection is directly related to the number of sexual partners: the more partners, the greater the likelihood of infection. Modern medicine believes that infection by household means is possible. This issue has not been fully studied yet: it is very difficult to determine the time of infection, because the incubation period can last up to several years, depending on the state of immunity, and the carriage is asymptomatic, a person for a long time may not even guess that he is a carrier. You can get infected through a kiss (if the papillomas are located on the lips). In medical practice, cases of infection of newborn infants from infected mothers during labor were recorded, but the risk of such infection is estimated as low and is 3%. The amount of the virus depends on the immunity of mucous membranes and skin. With a decrease in the latter, the virus actively begins to affect human cells, accumulate on a small area of ​​the skin. Accumulated in sufficient volume, the virus begins to change the function of epithelial cells. Cells begin to divide uncontrollably. This causes the growth of the skin area and the appearance of various formations (papillomas and condylomas) on the human body. Depending on the type of virus, the diseases that it caused are also different. Therefore, the symptoms will differ. treatment appointment

Skin formations

Warts - bulging, rounded or irregularforms compacted painless skin formations of small size. Are located, as a rule, in the most traumatic places - on elbows, fingers, knees. Sometimes they can suddenly disappear. They cause aesthetic discomfort, especially in women. Papillomas (the most common sign of HPV) are soft, rounded, flesh-colored (sometimes closer to brown) formations that are attached either on a wide base or on a stem. Most often located on the face, underarms, on the neck, in the genital area. An important sign is that the papillomas rapidly expand: their size and quantity increase. Pointed condylomas are peculiar warts that appear on the mucous membranes and genital organs. The favorite places of their appearance can be called the perineal region, the mucous membrane of the labia, the vagina in women. In men - the skin of the prepuce and the head of the penis. The number of papillomas can vary - from 1 to several hundred in a small area. In medical practice, there is such a thing as draining pointed genital warts - the fusion of several genital warts into a single whole, resembling cauliflower in appearance. Bovenoid papulosis - rashes in the form of compacted plaques of yellowish, pink or white color on the skin of the genitals. Sometimes it flows into skin cancer. Flat warts of the cervix (dysplasia of the cervix) are a precancerous condition, very often degenerate into a cancerous tumor. Visually I represent a colony of papillae covered with cornified epithelium on top. In order not to miss this disease, women need to regularly visit a gynecologist every six months.

Course of infection

In the process of infectious infection, 3forms of the human papilloma virus: latent, subclinical and clinical. Latent form - the absence of any signs of illness. The virus can be detected only when researching the presence of DNA VCG in the human body. Subclinical form of infection - there are signs of illness in the form of small condylomas or atypical changes in the cervix. But they are so small that they can not be seen with the naked eye. Identify only when carrying out special research methods. Clinical form - visible to the naked eye skin formations of all kinds. The human papilloma virus, according to the results of research, is in the body of 70-90% of people of reproductive age. But in most cases, human immunity alone is struggling with the disease, and the virus does not develop further than the latent form. Basically, this happens at a young age (up to 30 years), and then to expel the virus from the body takes up to 2 years. In more mature age, the human body is much more difficult to cope with the virus. diagnosis of the disease

Diagnosis of the disease

The diagnosis and treatment of HPV in women isgynecologist. Diagnosis begins with the clarification of complaints (even in subclinical form, women may have complaints about discomfort during sexual intercourse) and general examination. For women, examination of the cervix and vagina by mirrors, cytological examination or Pap smear (PAP test) - analysis of cells taken from the cervix and cervical canal, colposcopy - visual examination of the cervical epithelium with the help of a special device - colposcope. If there is a suspicion of oncology, a piece of cervical tissue or a piece of condyloma can be taken for biopsy (diagnosis), as this allows to identify oncology in the early stages. One of the most reliable methods of investigation is PCR diagnostics (polymerase chain reaction) - DNA diagnosis of the virus for oncogenicity. But the method has a serious drawback - a false positive result is possible. To date, the most accurate method of diagnosis can be called Digene-test, which allows not only to detect the virus, but also to determine its DNA affiliation and the degree of malignancy. Nowadays, the combination of the Digene test and the PAP test is the diagnostic standard for the diagnosis of cervical pathologies in women.

Methods of treatment

Since in our time there are no drugs yet,the action of which could remove the virus from the human body, modern treatment is aimed at removing clinical manifestations of the disease. It includes 3 stages: destruction of papillomatous foci (destructive methods), immunological treatment, restorative therapy. Destructive methods. Depending on what disease the virus caused, there is a difference in medical tactics. The main methods of treatment: physical (cryo-, laser-, electrotherapy, radio wave surgery), surgical and chemical. Immunological treatment includes stimulation of cellular immunity with the help of antiviral agents and drugs, to stimulate the overall immunity of a person. These drugs include interferons, amixin, isoprinosine, podophylline, cycloferon, neovir, lilupid, immunomax, gepon, etc. It should be noted that self-medication is unacceptable. Any drug should be prescribed by a doctor. Of the non-medicamentous agents, ozonotherapy can be noted (the use of ozone solutions to stimulate immunity). A positive result of the use of this group of drugs is not achieved in all people. And none of the methods of drug treatment does not guarantee a complete cure for the disease. General strengthening therapy. This includes vitamin therapy, sedatives (stress has a very negative effect on immunity), restorative therapy, normalization of metabolism. methods of treatment

Preventive measures

Since in most cases this diseasetransmitted sexually, unprotected sexual acts should be avoided. However, the condom will not give you 100% protection (since it can not cover the entire area of ​​the affected skin), although it will significantly reduce the risk of infection. Limit the number of casual sexual contacts. The only 100% method of preventing the disease is sexual intercourse with one partner and mutual preservation of fidelity throughout life. Vaccines have been developed to prevent cervical cancer and severe forms of dysplasia in women with HPV. According to the health data, it is clinically proven that vaccination protects against several types of papillomavirus that can cause cervical cancer. According to the research, women are most often infected, in the first 3 years since the beginning of sexual activity, and the vaccination is most effective if it is done before the onset of sexual activity. In this regard, as a rule, it is appointed in advance, at 12-13 years. In Russia to date, there are 2 vaccines against human papilloma virus: Cervarix and Gardasil. The latter protects against several more viruses that can cause sexual warts, as well as from viruses responsible for the occurrence of penile cancer in men. The course consists of a three-time vaccination according to the scheme of 0-1-6 months. The vaccine is introduced into the deltoid muscle of the shoulder. Cervarix is ​​used only for women 10-25 years of age. Gardasil is also introduced to men. The cost of vaccinations at the beginning of 2014 is about 5,000 rubles per 1 dose. Of course, it's up to you whether it's expensive or not, whether it's worth the inoculation or not. But, according to official figures, in Russia 18 women die before the age of 40 every day from cervical cancer.