causes of HPV in women To date, probably every womanhas heard of such a serious and dangerous disease as cervical cancer, which has one of the highest mortality rates in the world. However, not everyone knows that the causes of this malignant tumor in the female body consist in the ingestion of the human papillomavirus (HPV) virus, which is a DNA virus that leads to uncontrolled cell division, resulting in the appearance of genital warts, papillomas, and others on the skin external symptoms of infection. This virus is especially dangerous for women, since it can provoke cervical cancer. According to statistics, this happens in 80% of cases. There are more than a hundred different types of HPV, of which 35 affect the mucous membrane of the genital organs. Some of them provoke the appearance of warts and other neoplasms, others can cause cancer. Types of human papillomavirus are classified according to the degree of cancer risk: for example, viruses with a low probability of oncogenic risk (6, 11), medium risk (31, 33) and high risk (16, 18, 45) are distinguished. Papilloma is a benign tumor, its main element is the connective tissue papilla, which contains the vessels and is covered with epithelium. Papillomas develop from the flat epithelium and can appear in the oral cavity, on the genitals, as well as on the mucous membrane of the nose. The human papillomavirus in women is more common than in men. In general, HPV is transmitted to a person during sexual intercourse. However, there are other ways of infection: through household items, with a handshake. There is a risk of catching this infection in public places, for example, when visiting a swimming pool or a bath. The virus penetrates the person through small wounds and even cracks on the skin. Most often, the symptoms of human papillomavirus infection do not appear long, its incubation period can last for an average of 3 months. Especially the human papillomavirus is dangerous for women, as it may not let you know about yourself for a long time and is accidentally detected by gynecological examination. diagnosis of papillomavirus in the doctor

Factors that increase the likelihood of a papillomavirus infection in women

Let's consider in more detail who of the women is at risk for the emergence of the human papillomavirus. The following factors can contribute to this.

  • A woman often changes her sexual partners.
  • Tobacco smoking.
  • Decreased immunity.
  • Early sexual life.
  • If a woman had sexual intercourse with a partner who had contact with a carrier of HPV (she had condyloma, cervical cancer).
  • Alcohol abuse.
  • Metabolic disorders.
  • The presence of gynecological diseases.
  • Frequent visiting of a sauna, a bath, a pool (it is places of the raised humidity).
  • Presence of gastritis.
  • Manifestation of HPV in women

    In women, HPV often manifests itself as follows.

  • The appearance of genital warts, whichare a kind of condylom and look like small formations with uneven ragged edges that are located on a wide base. Often, condylomas do not show any symptoms, with the exception of itching in the genital area and soreness with urination or sexual contact. Osteoporotic condylomas (also called genital warts) are small outgrowths that have a color of human skin, appearing most often around the anus or on the genitals. For the first time these formations are manifested only a few months after infection. Genital warts are localized mainly on the cervix, in its canal, in the vagina, around the anus. The appearance of genital warts on the cervix or in the cervical canal significantly increases the likelihood and development of a malignant tumor of the cervix.
  • Cervical dysplasia (when the uterus is inprecancerous condition) is a disease caused by HPV of high oncogenic risk (HPV 16 and 18 types). With a normal gynecological examination is not diagnosed. It is revealed as a result of cytological and histological studies.
  • Flat condyloma of the cervix is ​​the most dangerousmanifestation of the human papilloma virus, since its appearance means that a viral infection has been in the body of a woman for a long time and causes changes in epithelial cells of the cervix for a long time.
  • Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm caused by human papillomavirus (mainly 16 and 18 types).
  • In addition to the above manifestations of papillomavirus infection, in women there are other neoplasms that cause human papillomavirus of various types.

  • Plantar wart. A wart is a benign neoplasm on the human skin caused by different types of HPV. Typically, warts are rounded skin rises that arise from the strong growth of the surface layers of the epithelium. Plantar warts are formed in the zones of strong pressure of shoes, the risk of their occurrence is increased in women with increased sweating. Usually they are very painful, hard and cause considerable inconvenience when walking.
  • Keratopapilloma is a horny papilloma,It has a spherical, conical or multi-lobed shape. There are different colors: brown, flesh-colored or blue-burgundy. Appears mainly on the neck, under the arms, on the face.
  • Fibropapilloma is a benign tumor,Nodular formations protruding above the surface of the skin. Fibroapilloma can be of different sizes and forms. Formations may be brownish or pale pink in color. Most often appear on the head and torso.
  • Seborrheic wart is benignan epithelial tumor that can form for several years. It has mainly brown color. Over time, its surface is covered with cracks, and it itself grows in size and can reach a diameter of 5-6 cm. It is localized usually on the neck, face, limbs.
  • Flat papilloma. The causes of the appearance of papillomas of this species are HPV types 3 and 10. Flat papillomas are smooth, flat knobs of corporal color polygonal or round in shape. Symptoms of the appearance of flat papilloma are redness, itching, inflammation of the affected area of ​​the skin.
  • papilloma removal by surgical method

    Diagnosis of human papillomavirus in women

    To diagnose this infection, women use the following methods.

  • Examination by a doctor-gynecologist. The cervix is ​​examined by the doctor with the help of a gynecological mirror for the presence of genital warts and warts.
  • Colposcopy. This method allows you to carefully examine the surface of the cervix with a colposcope - a special device that can magnify the image many times. With his help, the doctor conducts certain tests that help to see places affected by HPV: a test with acetic acid (genital warts manifest themselves under the influence of a 3% solution of acetic acid), samples with a solution of Lugol. They are painless and very effective.
  • Examination of cervical scrapings (othername - Pap test or cytological smear). It is carried out by studying under a microscope of smears taken from the mucous membrane of the cervix and the cervical canal. In the event that the infection is present, the cell of the cervix is ​​modified. In addition, the method of cytological research helps to detect cervical cancer in the initial phase, even before the absence of signs of this disease, visible to the naked eye.
  • Digene-test for today hashigh sensitivity among all methods of diagnosis of HPV. Its technology is based on the phenomenon of hybridization (which means DNA binding to the RNA probe) and capture of the resulting hybrid on the solid phase with monoclonal antibodies. After that, the hybrid is bound by antibodies labeled with the enzyme. The test is completed by chemiluminescence. The material for the study can be tissue obtained from a biopsy, scraping of epithelial cells taken from the vagina or cervical canal.
  • Cervical biopsy is the method by which a sample of the cervical tissue is taken and examined under a microscope.
  • With the polymerase chain reaction, the DNA of the human papillomavirus is determined in the body by taking a scraping from the uterine cervical canal.
  • cryotherapy for treatment of HPV

    Treatment of HPV in Women

    Currently, HPV is being treatedvarious methods, but it is completely impossible to get rid of it. All treatment of this virus is reduced to the elimination of its clinical and subclinical manifestations. In each specific situation, treatment is selected individually. Treatment of papillomavirus in women should take place simultaneously in several directions.

    • Local treatment. Provides removal of altered epithelial sites by different methods: traditional surgical procedure, cryodestruction, radio wave method, diathermocoagulation, laser radiation, chemical removal.
  • Surgical treatment means removing the affected areas with a scalpel. It is used mainly in the presence of extensive lesions of tissues, with suspicion of malignant formations.
  • Cryodestruction involves the freezing of neoplasms with the help of liquid nitrogen.
  • Peaked condylomas are eliminated using radio wave coagulation. A radio wave knife is used for this.
  • Diathermocoagulation is a procedure for excision of genital warts with high frequency radiation or an electron knife.
  • Laser radiation - elimination of neoplasms withusing a laser. It is the only procedure suitable for pregnant women to remove condylomas. But treatment with this procedure does not exclude the formation of scars.
  • Chemical removal refers to the elimination of formations by the application of acid-containing preparations to them by the application method.
    • Purpose of antiviral drugs. It is carried out for the purpose of conducting anti-relapse therapy, as well as during the acute phase of the disease. Such treatment is necessary because of the prevention of malignant neoplasm.
    • The appointment of immunomodulators, vitamins and minerals. Treatment of the human papilloma virus, thus, helps to restore and strengthen the immune system, which is important in the fight against HPV.

    garlic for the treatment of HPV folk method

    Human papillomavirus during pregnancy

    This infection is very dangerous duringpregnancy, both for the future mother, and for the child, the causes of its danger - a high probability of transmission of the virus to the baby during childbirth or during fetal development. Before planning pregnancy, all women should be examined for HPV. If a virus is detected during the examination, doctors are usually advised to wait until the child is born and to treat infection first. In cases where the human papillomavirus is detected already during pregnancy, doctors recommend postponing the treatment to 28 weeks - all the organs of the future baby are already formed by this date and will not suffer from the negative effects of medicines. Women are not recommended to give birth alone, if the condyloma is in the vagina, because in this case the risk of infection of the child increases.

    Prevention of papillomavirus in women

    There are several ways to prevent HPV in women.

  • Use of a special preventive vaccine. Currently, the trade network knows two varieties of vaccine, used to prevent cancer of the cervix and other genital organs - this is Cervarix and Gardasil. It is worth noting that these vaccines are only applied to healthy women, that is, to those who have no human papillomavirus.
  • Using condoms during sexual intercourse.
  • Refusal from smoking and excessive use of alcohol.
  • Increased immunity.
  • Regular visit to the gynecologist. Periodic visits to the doctor will help to detect human papillomavirus in women in the early stages of its manifestation, and this is the key to a more successful treatment.
  • No one is immune from HPV infection. However, adherence to simple preventive measures will help to reduce the risk of infection to a minimum. But if in your body the human papilloma virus has been found, start a timely treatment. Remember that in this case you care not only about your health, but also about the health of your future children!