All citrus plants belong to the familyand belong to the subfamily of orange, genus - citrus. Lemon is an evergreen plant that blossoms several times a year. Flowers of citrus have a bright, sour smell, and the fruits are formed, as a rule, on fruit trees, on branches of the fourth order. The ripened fruit can remain on the plant for up to two years, gradually changing its color to greenish, after which it again becomes golden. Room lemons have a more delicate skin than ground, and their fragrance is brighter and more saturated. Today we will consider how to properly care for such an exotic tree. But first let's figure out how to choose a home-made lemon. Remember, this tree should grow exactly under the same conditions in which the seedling was grown. It is obvious that the tree brought from the southern countries will be adjusted for our climate for a very long time - acclimatization is always tolerated by lemons painfully. Sometimes plants do die. Therefore, try to choose the varieties that are adapted to the maximum of our climate. Reproduction of indoor trees occurs due to vaccination or through cuttings. Therefore, getting the seedlings from hand, ask what kind of approach a particular seedling has. For example, in Armenia and Georgia, citrus fruits are usually grown in open soil, but trees on Trifoliate can also be planted there. This makes it possible to tolerate wintering well in greenhouses or in premises like a winter garden. However, for the cultivation in the room such saplings are unsuitable.
Basics of lemon care
Temperature mode Taking care of the lemon,pay attention to the fact that he did not lack light and heat. The process of budding and flowering, as well as fruit setting, is most effective when the average temperature of the soil layer and air is between 15 and 18 degrees. In winter, keep lemons in a well-lit, cool room at 12-13 degrees. If during the wintering the indoor lemon grows not at the temperature shown, this can lead to the fact that the tree does not fertilize. In addition, the plant is sensitive to sudden changes in climate. If you live in a private house and decide to put a tree on the street, then because of such a sharp drop in the temperature regime, it can not just not discard the leaves, but even the fruits. This can affect the future fruition. Proper lighting The lemon needs bright diffused light. It is good, if you arrange a tree or near the east, or near the western window. The plant needs to be shaded from direct rays in spring and summer, with the onset of the hottest hours. Citrus fruits are plants from places with a climate of short daylight. This means that in the case of a long daylight day, the period of their fruiting is prolonged. In summer, to create the most optimal and high-quality lighting, move the pot with the tree deep into the room, but in winter, on the contrary, put the lemon closer to the window. Lack of illumination threatens with a lining or loss of bright decorative appeal. In addition, the fruits of a plant grown with a lack of light, will be distinguished by a particular acidity. But if the tree, on the contrary, received an excess of light, the fruits will have burns in the form of dark spots. How to water a lemon? Proper watering is something without which complex care is impossible. The plant, like man, needs to update the water balance. Citrus fruits must be watered with pre-settled water - chlorine must necessarily be eroded. Watering is carried out twice a day in summer and spring with the use of warm water. In winter, watering is more moderate, about twice a week. It is very important to ensure that the earth does not overdry in the winter. This can cause the leaves to twist or fall off. The same applies to fruits. But try not to overdo it - from abundant watering a room lemon can die. With the onset of October, temporarily stop watering - this will ensure the root system free breathing and at the same time prevent stagnant liquid in the pot. Along with watering, do not forget to loosen the upper soil layer. Humidity Spray the lemon regularly during the hot summer season. In winter, the plant needs spraying only if they are kept in a room with central heating. If the lemon grows where the air is dry, they can be attacked by mites and scabs. Therefore it is extremely important to observe the necessary humidity. In the case of a lemon, the optimum value is from 60 to 70%, if the temperature does not exceed 20 degrees.
Transplant a lemon
Young indoor lemon is transplantedperevalki, from year to year. Transshipment should be carried out when the root system of the tree has not yet plaited the entire pot. In this situation it will be sufficient to change the drainage layer, as well as the upper soil layer in the pot. Fruit-bearing trees, as a rule, are transplanted thrice a year, before the beginning of their active growth. Once the growth is completed, the plant should not be transplanted. Try not to damage the soil layer during transplants. It is also very important to provide quality drainage. Note: it is necessary that the root neck in the new pot should be about the same level as it was in the previous pot. Do not change the tree when it flowers and fructifies - all this can lead to the fall of foliage and fruit. Soil Layer Provide a lemon tree with good soil, which must be easy. If the tree is too large, then the soil should be heavier. Its acidity should be between 6.5 and 7 pH. If the room lemon is young, then for it the soil must consist of two parts of turf and one part of leaf land, as well as part of humus based on cow manure and a share of sand. More adult lemons require such soil: three parts of the turf ground and one leaf, a humus content based on cow manure and one part sand in combination with a small amount of clay greasy. This moment requires a careful approach, because if the soil does not fit the plant, its cultivation will not be effective. Fertilizer and top dressing At the beginning of the summer period, a room lemon needs watering in combination with fertilizer additions. It will increase the sugar content of the fruit, while reducing the bitter taste that all citrus, grown at home have. Here there is a simple principle: the older the plant, the greater its need for fertilizing and fertilizing. You need to apply fertilizers after you have watered the plant. If you use additional lighting to grow lemon, then fertilizer must be carried out in the winter. Then the tree will bear fruit, and the lemons will have a pleasant taste and the right citrus smell.
How the crown is formed
Caring for a lemon implies its periodiccircumcision and crown formation. All this can be spent a whole year, but it is better to do it in the spring, somewhere in April-May. It is necessary to give the grafted lemons the shape of the tree. In order for the shoot to grow straight, it must be tied to a stick, put in a pot. Based on the height of the trunk, today distinguish high-stems with a trunk height of 30 cm, medium-toothed (20 cm) and low-stems (about 15 cm). To properly form a low-molded lemon, it is necessary to prune the vertex as soon as the plant reaches a height of 15 cm. Crop immediately before the start of active growth (February-March). Leave about 5-7 sheets. Then from the lateral buds the development of shoots will begin. From 5-6 we leave somewhere 3 shoots, which grow in different directions. In trees that have already formed, further pruning is carried out in order to maintain the correct shape of the crown, as well as to remove fatty shoots that can drown it. This is also necessary for the rejuvenation of plants. By the way, a room lemon is required to rejuvenate at the age of 14-20 years, that is, when active fructification decreases. To do this, cut branches up to 5 order - this causes an increased growth of the kidneys that are in a dormant state. Already rejuvenated plant is transplanted into another dish, shortening the roots by 1/3.
Reproduction of lemon
As a rule, citrus fruits are multiplied bygrafts, cuttings, seeds and layers. At home, the most optimal method is cuttings, however, in order to obtain a variety adapted to indoor culture, the lemon must be removed from the seed planted in the room and grown there immediately. Seeds, planted at home, usually rise days through 35-40. Lemon seedlings do not tolerate the picking process at a young age: they can develop an excessively long root, which is not recommended for picking when picking. The core should be pruned only when the planted seeds have at least 4 leaves. If it is not cut, then it will not branch, and its growth will pass in length, curling on the bottom into rings. If the seeds are planted in boxes, then the root pruning should be done without taking out the plant itself, and after 15 days after this carefully move the transplant into the dishes, where the lemon will grow constantly. If the seeds are sown one by one in the pot, then their seedling does not undergo a transplant, but it is absolutely necessary to cut the root root. Root cutting is carried out using an acute long knife, about 10 cm deep. To do this, enter the knife into the ground for 8-10 centimeters from the seedling, with the angle to the ground should be 45 degrees. Enter the knife slightly away from the direction of a certain seedling, then gently, in circular motions, trim the axial root. If you are not sure whether you cut the root or not, then repeat the operation again by entering the knife in the same way, but a couple of centimeters closer to the plant itself. If the room lemon was removed from the seeds, its fruiting will begin not earlier than in 8-10 years, possibly even later. Initially, they will not yield very much fruit, but for breeding purposes, growing in this way is simply necessary. Sometimes, in order for the fruiting process to pass faster, seedlings are planted, using as a scion of shoots from fruit bearing lemons. In this case, the lemon will bear fruit for the third year, maybe even a little earlier. Now let's talk about propagation by cuttings. Room lemon, as a rule, multiplies in this way. Cuttings must have several developed kidneys. At the same time they are taken from a fruit-bearing plant, good and healthy. The cut of the cuttings is made from twigs, the wood of which is still soft and which can be bent. Cuttings from young shoots are slightly flattened, and their rooting is much weaker. Cuttings of citrus fruits can be carried out throughout the year. If the cuttings are carried out in the spring, then the branches of the autumn growth are used, if in the summer - the branches of the growth of the spring one. This is also the case with room lemons, and with oranges. By the way, orange produces the best results in the process of propagation. Rooting takes place in pots, hotbeds and greenhouses. However, it is possible to take root in ordinary water, it is only necessary to keep a glass with cuttings in a well-lit place. Room lemon can multiply and by vaccination. Here, the stock can be used by plants grown from seeds, and we bring in - some sorts of lemon, which are specially planted for good fruiting of trees of certain varieties. Do not use wild three-leaved lemon, which is also called trifolate, as a stock, since a plant so grafted can discard leaves in winter. Use an evergreen rootstock, which can be purchased in almost all specialized stores.
What difficulties can arise?
Lemon, like any houseplant, canto experience some difficulties - taking care of it requires your special attention. For example, it happens that the new foliage melts, and the old one - falls off or turns yellow. There may be no flowering, and the fruit does not have to be tied up at all. This indicates that the plant needs a good nutrient supplementation. Perhaps a transplant is required. You may notice small yellow spots on the leaves or yellowing of their edges. Perhaps premature their fall. As a rule, this is caused by excessive watering. Make sure that the room lemon received a moderate amount of liquid - not overdried, but did not suffer from its excess. If the plant affects the pests, then it manifests itself in the dryness and pitting of the leaves. Usually a mite or a scab is attacked on a lemon, for the control of which phytocomplexes are used; You can buy them in ordinary flower shops. If the lemon is contained in improper conditions, namely, if it lacks air or it is too dry, leaves may turn and brown spots appear. This can also contribute to the rare spraying and lack of fluid, damage by ticks. Do not forget to wipe the leaves of the tree using a soft sponge soaked in slightly soapy water. And do not be lazy to take the plant out into the yard or on the balcony - the indoor lemon perfectly feels in the fresh air. Proper care implies the following rules:
- Illuminated sunny location;
- Moderate soil moisture;
- Rare winter watering and moderate spring-summer;
- Optimal moisture of the soil layer;
- Filtered water for irrigation;
- Watering the lemon with melt water at room temperature in the winter;
- Weekly fertilizer from March to August;
- Extra-root winter top dressing once a month due to spraying with a solution of potassium permanganate;
- Wash the lemon leaves;
- Careful pruning and transplant.
Observe the above rules is not so muchcomplicated. Lemon - not the most demanding houseplant, it does not require any special expenses for its maintenance. You only need a little time and patience to wait until your indoor lemon will bear fruit and blossom.
About the benefits of lemon
We have already discussed what should be the rightcare for room lemon. And to complete the conversation, we want to talk about the advantages that the owners of this exotic plant get. Everyone knows that lemon is the richest storehouse of vitamins, primarily vitamin C. Lemon is an effective remedy for colds and sore throats, pharyngitis and flu. If you are sick, it is the lemon tea that will come first. It strengthens the immune system, gives strength and improves overall health. No less useful are lemons with beriberi and rheumatism, scurvy and gout. Healing lemon juice contributes to the almost instantaneous healing of wounds and speeds up the fusion of bones, improves metabolic processes. It shows the use of lemons in fever. It is an indispensable cosmetic product that underlies many creams, tonics and masks; yet this is an excellent whitening agent. Essential oils are obtained both from the flowers of the plant, and from its bark and fruits, as well as foliage. They are often added to liqueurs, confectionery and dishes. Growing room lemon, you will note how pleasant the air in the room will become. All because the leaves of all citrus fruits produce phytoncides - special substances that help to purify the air from various kinds of microbes. By the way, those who have citrus trees growing at home are less likely to get sick and do not suffer from depression, because this pleasant lemon flavor tonic affects a person, and also relieves fatigue and increases efficiency. Growing a lemon, you will see that this is not just a wonderful decorative tree, but a real exotic miracle!