Ficus can be classified as unpretentioushouse plants. It grows well in apartment conditions, and the basic requirements for caring for it do not differ radically from the requirements for the content of other plant species. But, despite being unpretentious to the surrounding conditions, the ficus, like other indoor flowers, is prone to various diseases. And mainly ficus diseases are associated with such obvious reasons as the lack of prevention, infection from other neighboring plants and non-compliance with the conditions of detention.
How to prevent ficus disease
With enough competent care, the ficuses will befeel comfortable and will please you with their strong health. But, unfortunately, it is possible to catch an infection or get infected by pests from other plants, when transplanting into new soil or when staying outdoors. Therefore, in the first place, it is always necessary to follow preventive measures:
- For the "recruit", the content in theweek quarantine. Ideal option - isolated from other plants room. If after the quarantine you do not find any signs of disease, the ficus can be placed among the other colors.
- Daily inspection of the ficus for signs of diseases and pests.
- Monthly rubbing of leaves with a soap solution. This procedure must be carried out after a long stay of the ficus on the balcony or in the garden.
- Regular cleaning of pallets and pots; disinfection of the soil with the help of a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- Observance of the necessary distance between plants: you can not put pots of flowers very close to each other. In excessive crowding, infectious diseases and pests are easily transmitted.
The main task of flower growers for a favorableficus development is the creation of optimal conditions. Illiterate color content contributes to frequent defeats by pests, fungus and viral infections. Causes of diseases Ficus diseases can also be associated with unfavorable conditions of its maintenance:
- Incorrect lighting and temperature in the room where the ficus is contained;
- Insufficient air humidity;
- Unsatisfactory plant watering: lack or excess of moisture;
- Weak mineralization or overfeeding of fertilizers;
- Unbalanced soil composition.
It should be noted that most often occurcomplaints related to wilting, yellowing or falling of leaves, and it is prudent to change the existing conditions first: first, to increase or, conversely, to reduce the amount of watering, to change the location of the ficus from the shade to the sunny side, or, on the contrary, to move away from the sunlight, transplant the plant in new soil and the like.
Diseases of leaves
Let's find out what diseases of the leaves there are in this plant.
- Leaves turn yellow.
A frequent cause of yellowing of the leaf in the ficus isdry air in the room. Especially often this happens in the winter period in plants located next to the heating batteries. Hot air drains leaves, they gradually turn yellow, wither and fall off. If a large number of leaves are lost, the ficus may die. What to do? The best way to solve the problem is to transfer the flower to another, more suitable place for it, and install an air humidifier. If there is no such possibility, cover the battery with a thick veil and spray the plant more often. Another cause of leaf yellowness can be stress associated with the frequent movement of the ficus from place to place. Try to immediately determine the favorable location of your flower, taking into account your comforts so that in the future not to disturb it with all sorts of permutations.
- Grinding or falling of leaves
Such a sign as the crushing of new leaves,yellowness and falling of old, speaks about a lack of nutrients. What to do? Transplanted into a new balanced soil. Transplanting the flower in a new pot, you need to prepare the right substrate. It must necessarily include peat, sand and leaf land in equal parts. After transplanting the ficus, the soil needs to be watered sparingly. The appearance of yellow spots and the yellowness of the edges of the leaves, their lifeless appearance and falling off, is likely to be associated with an excess of moisture in the soil. The main rule of watering the ficus is to let the ground dry until the next moistening. Overabundance of moisture will lead to decay of the root system and further destruction of the plant. If, however, the soil has been filled, it is necessary to wait for the complete drying of the soil. And in case of a sharp fall of the leaves, transplant the flower into the dry soil, removing the decaying roots. Unfortunately, and the meager watering of the plant can have negative consequences - dry and shriveled leaves. In this case, not only the leaves, but also the roots of the ficus are dried out, which, accordingly, can also cause the death of the flower. The appearance of brown spots on the tips and edges of the leaves is associated with a high temperature in the room, a lack of moisture or frequent fertilizing with fertilizers.
- Falling leaves at the bottom of the trunk
In most cases, the ficuses of tree formsthe fall of the lower leaves is of a natural nature associated with aging. However, the trunk must not be denuded. This sign indicates the need for ficus transplantation, or, perhaps, that the transplant was made into an unbalanced substrate, or additional fertilization of the soil is required.
- Leaf decay
Severe disease, which is associated with moreserious problems: infection and pest damage. In this situation, you can not do without insecticides. For a proper diagnosis of the disease, a thorough examination of the leaves and stem is necessary.
Pests of ficus
Shield Symptom: the appearance of brown convex spots, mainly on the inner side of the leaf along the veins, but it is possible that the appearance on the trunk and leaf surface. Shields suck the juice from the plant, leaving behind a sticky coating, which, in turn, leads to the appearance of black fungus. Control measures: First of all, it is necessary to manually clean the leaves with a soap solution. Then three times within two or three weeks, treat the plant with the composition of the actinic. Powdery mulberry outer resembles pieces of cotton wool, inside of which a pest of brown settles, sucking out the juice from the leaves, while retaining the growth of the plant. It is easily and quickly transferred from flower to flower by wind and draft. Most often settles in the axils of the leaves. Control measures: mechanical cleaning of leaves from the worms and "cotton wool", three-time spraying with soapy water or tobacco solution every week. In severe cases, treatment of the plant with a confidor in two divided doses at intervals of ten days. Spider mite: yellow and red A favorable condition for the appearance of a spider mite is dry and warm air. The scraper damages the surface of the plant, gnawing at the tender leaves and sucking out the juice. It leaves behind gray-brown spots. This pest reproduces very quickly. Large colonies form a cobweb on the flower, the leaves wither and fall off. Control measures: increased air humidity, frequent spraying of leaves, a periodic shower for the flower and treatment with soapy water. To treat the plant, you can also cover the plant with polyethylene for three to four days, and then sprinkle with ground sulfur or infusion of garlic. If any treatment is necessary, use any insecticide. Trips Settles in small groups along the veins on the inside of the leaves. Leaves behind a dark brown spots. Active growth of thrips is promoted by high temperature and high humidity. The leaves appear uneven yellow-white color, then they dry up and fall off. In addition, this insect pest spreads viruses. Control measures: repeated spraying of the ficus with a solution of pyrethrum or preparations Aktara, Aktiklik, Tanrek, etc. Repeat procedure is extremely important, since insecticides are effective only at a certain stage of thrips development. Aphids Aphis is dangerous not only for its intrusiveness and activity in the spring-summer period, but also for the very rapid infestation of other plants due to its ability to fly. Basically, it is collected in groups on the underside of the leaves. The affected leaves turn yellow and twist. Control measures: rinse leaves with soap or diluted pyrethrum. Nematodes A clear sign of nematode damage is the appearance on the roots of beads, nodular growths with peas. Toxic secretions of these microscopic filamentous worms through the root system penetrate into the trunk and leaves, discoloring them, and the ficus gradually withers. Disease is dangerous because at the initial stage of infection it is impossible to notice any changes in the development of the ficus. Such a plant can no longer be used for vegetative reproduction. If only cut an ideally healthy leaf and grow a new ficus. Fortunately, almost all pests can be destroyed in one way or another with the help of insecticides. It is much more difficult to heal the plant from serious infectious and fungal diseases. In most cases, it is not always possible to detect signs of disease at an early stage, and in neglected cases, treatment is rendered useless. But still there is always a chance to save your favorite flower.
Gray rot Outwardly manifested in the form of graymold, covering the leaves and the stem of the ficus. If you shake the sheet a little, it easily takes off, forming a cloud of soaring dust. The affected leaves darken and die. The consequence of the appearance of this fungus is damp and warm air. Control measures: Strongly remove all affected parts of the ficus. Often to ventilate the room, reduce the frequency and volume of irrigation. Be sure to let the soil dry out during the day. The sooty fungus Favorable environment for the formation of black fungus - sticky pest allocation: scabbards, aphids, etc. It looks like a gray-black coating on the leaves. Powdery mildew, on the contrary, has a characteristic white color and is easily erased. Control measures: treatment of the plant with a sponge moistened with soapy water. If the area of the lesion is large, then it is necessary to remove all the infected leaves, and spray the leaves and roots with a solution of fungicide. Fungi on the leaves of Cercospora are black spots of small size. In severe cases, the leaves turn yellow and die. Anthracnose - rusty spots, burn areas along the edges of leaves, turning into a ulcerative condition. The consequences are identical - the sheet dies. Botritis - spots of yellow-brown color, increasing in size. Characterized by a visible black-brown areole. Methods of struggle: remove all affected parts of the plant and treat with fungicide. Root rot The consequence of the appearance of this fungus is the constant waterlogging of the soil. Ficus gradually fades, acquiring a grayish appearance. On the stalk and roots foci of decay are manifested. Control measures: do not exist, the plant must be discarded with the pot. This infection can be in a state of waiting in the soil for a long time. The causes of diseases of room ficuses can be not only fungi and bacteria. Saturated watering can, for example, cause such a popular trouble as dropsy. Externally manifested in the form of slugs on the inside of the sheet. Cure such a sheet is no longer possible. Control measures: do not exist, remove all affected leaves. How diverse are the diseases of figs, the reasons for their origin are just as primitive. Observance of elementary rules of care, regular prophylaxis and love of houseplants - these are the basic conditions for the successful and favorable maintenance of your ficus.