In the middle of the last century doctors were describedA rare and unpleasant disease, called "aquatic urticaria". Nowadays this ailment is better known as an allergy to water, and the opinions of doctors about this disease differ, and effective treatment remains only a dream of allergies. Some experts believe that allergies to water as such do not exist, since the allergic reaction is caused not by water itself, but by the impurities contained in it. For example, on the hands may appear rashes from contact with tap water, in which case the reaction causes chlorine dissolved in water. There is also an allergy to sea water, and in this case the body reacts to the mineral and organic substances that saturated the sea water, rather than to the very combination of hydrogen and oxygen. And what is known in the people as an allergy to cold water, is a reaction to the cold, and not actually water. As a rule, if a child or an adult has an allergy to water, chlorinated from a tap or sea, the examination reveals an elevated blood content not only of histamine, but also of immunoglobulin E, which indicates a malfunction in the functioning of the immune system.
Symptoms of manifestation of aquatic urticaria
Allergic reaction can be manifestedredness of the skin, the appearance of rash, hives. Foci are located on different parts of the body: on the hands, on the stomach or thighs. The child can become covered with red spots of cheeks and neck, rashes are found on both the buttocks and under the knees. Hives are accompanied by a strong, literally unbearable itch. If contact with water does not stop, the symptoms intensify: the zone of rashes widens, the itching intensifies. Allergy to chlorine contained in tap water can cause a cough, and over time, chlorinated water can cause asthma. If in the water there is an increased content of another halogen, fluoride, the symptoms of a reaction to fluoride are supplemented, in addition to urticaria, with brown spots on the tooth enamel. Allergy to hot water, as a rule, occurs against the background of other skin problems. Hot water simply aggravates the manifestations of dermatitis caused by the body's reaction to other allergens. Fortunately, the allergic reaction to water is not accompanied by swelling and never causes anaphylactic shock. But the other symptoms of the disease are quite serious and unpleasant, especially in the child.
Treatment and prevention of aquatic urticaria
The first and necessary means, without whichtreatment is almost impossible, - the termination of contact with the allergen. Often the symptoms go away in an hour and a half after the skin of a child or adult is wiped and dried. Stain hives gradually turn pale, itching stops even if you do not take any medications. But in more severe cases without antihistamines can not do. In order for the treatment to be successful, it is necessary to conduct a complete examination of the body, since any allergic reaction is only a symptom of other disorders. As a rule, a history of a child suffering from allergies has information about kidney or liver diseases, disorders of adrenal activity. Often, an allergy to water appears after taking some drugs. The child became ill with ARI or sore throat, he was prescribed antibiotics, the disease passed, and after a while it turns out that cold or sea water causes the appearance of rash and itching. Known, for example, the case when the strongest allergic reaction to water appeared in the child, Australian Ashley Morris, after the girl was prescribed penicillin in a large dose for the treatment of acute tonsillitis. The treatment of tonsillitis was successful, but a large dose of antibiotic caused the appearance of an adverse reaction - an aquatic urticaria. The usual shower caused the child to have the appearance of very itchy red spots all over the body. Allergic symptoms disappeared after a couple of hours, but during this time the girl could comb the skin to the blood. A similar reaction caused contact with any water: tap, sea, cold, and hot. Currently, the girl has grown up, but with the disease so far can not cope. Every day, Ashley can spend no more than 1 minute in the shower, and even after this brief contact with water, symptoms such as hives and itching do not give her rest for several hours. I can not wash my hands, wash, or even allow myself to be without an umbrella in the rain. Doctors hope that over time the body will cope with the disease, but so far, effective therapy can not offer. Allergy to water can also be caused by the presence of helminthic invasion, therefore it is necessary to carry out a regular inspection for helminth infection and, if necessary, to carry out treatment with the use of anthelmintic drugs. A big risk to get an allergy of any kind exists in a child, whom the parents treat themselves without consulting a doctor giving him or her some medications. Treatment of any disease should be performed by a doctor, and after a detailed examination.
Recommendations of specialists
If at least once the symptoms were detectedallergic reaction to water, it is always necessary to have an antihistamine medication prescribed by an allergist specialist. After contact with water, it is necessary to apply antihistamine cream or ointment to the skin. Often, the manifestation of the disease is intensified under the influence of sunlight, in this case it is better to give up sunbathing and try to be in the shade. Symptoms can manifest themselves more from the use of cosmetics, so it is worth choosing hypoallergenic cosmetics.