In the summer, owners of summer cottages and gardensweeds bring a lot of trouble and chagrin. These unsightly and useless plants grow wildly on any piece of land, under any weather and in any conditions, unlike most capricious agricultural crops. Weeds are able to turn the site into impenetrable thickets. And some of them are poisonous and can cause allergic reactions. Weeds and fighting with them are becoming a real calamity for the summer residents. Therefore for economy of forces and means we suggest you to learn about methods of struggle with them more in detail. Knowing the types of weeds, the specificity of the site and the ability to apply a variety of methods of control helps to effectively manage weeds. Weeds compete with planted cultural vegetation in the struggle for light, water, nutrients and living space. Moreover, some weeds produce phytoncides, which, falling into the soil, damage crop plants and inhibit their growth like herbicides. Weeds are able to destroy gardens, lawns and flower gardens. Weeds can also tolerate diseases and pests from one season to another. If there are weeds on the site, additional spraying with fungicides and insecticides may be required. Create weeds and other problems associated with the landscape. Some of them can disable tracks and coatings, germinating through them. In some people, weeds cause hay fever, skin irritation, trouble breathing. Weeds can damage bare feet and bicycle tires. Can be affected by weeds and pets - they fall into their ears and nostrils, causing infections and irritation. Often, veterinarians say that they have to remove the weed seeds from the respiratory tract.
Classification of weeds and their biological features
Classify the weeds by similar characteristics. And like all plants, they are grouped into families, species and genera. They are divided into a terrestrial group, aquatic or grassy vegetation. Often they are grouped according to the similarity of the life cycle, that is, from the viable seed to the final maturation of the plant, and then from the formation of the seed to the final withering of the plant. On these grounds weeds are divided into annual, biennial and perennial. Annual weeds As the name implies, they germinate, live and die for one season. For a long existence, annuals are forced to produce a large number of seeds. And many species successfully cope with this. In addition, the seeds of various weeds have a long period of rest, which contributes to their survival - this allows them to germinate even many years after maturation. Annual weeds are divided into:
- Annuals that pass the life cycle from the spring anduntil the fall. Such annuals are called sound. They make up most of those weeds that grow on lawns, in gardens and in meadows. These include various nightshade and shirin, chicken millet, maria, crabgrass blood, etc.
- Annuals that germinate in autumn, and thenWinters that resume winter and resume spring growth. They mature and die off either in late spring or early summer. These weeds are called wintering annuals. The most harmful wintering weeds are a fluffy fire, one-year-old grasshopper, various kinds of mustard, etc.
Biennial weeds Biennial for passagelife cycle is needed two seasons. In the first year they sprout and form a rosette, and during the next year they give a flower stem, buds, flowers, and then ripen, spread the seeds and die. Two-year-old weeds are not as common in orchards as annuals. But they can appear on the boundaries of the site, as well as in crops of perennials. Among the two-year-olds common on garden sites, mention can be made of burdock, clover, and thistle. Perennial weeds Perennials live more than three years and reproduce vegetatively and generically (sexually). Perennials that reproduce with shifts are exterminated more easily, while they are young. But if this is not done in time, then in a few months, or even weeks, perennials begin to vegetatively grow and receive the ability to reproduce. This feature makes the struggle with them very difficult. Perennials by the method of reproduction are divided into groups:
- Simple perennials. They have a long thick root or a fibrous root system. These perennials reproduce by seeds. But if you dissect its root, then each individual part can spawn a new plant.
- Creeping perennials. These plants are reproduced by creeping roots or simply by rhizomes, and also by seeds. A good example is a creeper and a grassy creeper.
- Bulbous perennials. They reproduce very quickly with the help of nut-like organs, bulbs, and also with shifts. An example of such bulbous perennials can be bluegrass.
Weeds and their control are essentiala headache of every summer resident. Therefore, knowledge of species of weed vegetation will be the first step in the successful control of weeds. In order to correctly identify a variety of weeds, it is required to study flowers, leaves, stem and roots. It is necessary to know this to identify the plant. It is also useful to know in what conditions and where various weeds are growing, and what measures are being taken to control them.
Ways to control weeds
Weeds and measures to combat them are distracting summer residentsfrom growing your favorite plants. Therefore, we should not only thoroughly know the weeds "in person", but also learn methods to combat them. Having determined the weed, it is possible to consider measures to combat it. Ways to influence only the weed - a phenomenon for science is unknown. In the fight against weeds, the most environmentally safe and effective integrated approach. At the same time, a combination of physical, mechanical and cultural measures is used to minimize the contamination of the site. A private landowner is available six methods of controlling weeds, which include precautionary, cultural and biological methods of struggle, as well as mulching, chemical and mechanical methods. Warning method This is the least costly and most effective method in combating weeds. Try to avoid the appearance of weeds in your area, carefully checking the planting material used on the site.
- Study well the seed packs and yourself.seeds in them. Do not purchase seed that contains weed seeds. If they are present among the seed material, return the seeds back to the supplier. Distribution and sale of weeds is a violation of the law. Keep in mind that some mixtures of wildflowers of unscrupulous suppliers also very often contain weed seeds.
- Inspect seedlings and seedlings before buying,to avoid the introduction of rhizomes and roots of perennial weeds along with them. Buy seedlings and seedlings only in reliable nurseries that sell "clean" planting material.
- Take care when using straw,mulch, fertilizer, compost or soil. With them you can bring seeds, stems, rhizomes, roots and bulb of weeds. If these additives are not processed, with their help, most likely, you will be able to bring to your site weeds. Selecting pure weed materials and refusing to clogged will give you, ultimately, saving money and energy.
- Weeds can be brought to your site usingtillage tools. Therefore, cleanse your garden tool from the seeds of weeds, parts of these plants and soil with the remains of rhizomes. Weeds can be brought in and with the help of irrigation water, if you take it from streams and canals. In addition, be sure to destroy the weeds and sources of their seeds around their garden and garden plots before the seeds from them get to your site.
Biological method With this method of combatingweeds use other living organisms. This is not the best way to control weeds in garden gardening, but still it can be used. Geese, for example, will help you get rid of vegetating weeds that are planted in strawberries, mint, asparagus, berry, fruit plantations in a state of temporary rest. Pigs will dig out any juicy weeds with the root on the floating field. Goats and sheep are able to destroy not only weeds, but also shrubby vegetation. But they are also very pleased with the cultivated plants. To destroy or suppress certain types of weeds, some diseases or insects can be used. But this method is not very effective and many gardeners are disappointed in the use of weeds against diseases and insects. Cultural methods of struggle These methods are beneficial and effective for homestead farming. Combining it with other methods of struggle, you can minimize the impact of weeds on crops grown.
- Choose competitive plants. This will reduce the multiplication and growth of weeds, and, consequently, the weediness of the site. Weeds stand out more competitively in front of garden crops, but only in the early stages of development and growth. During the first three to four weeks the weed is the leader and causes the greatest damage to the plantations. Subsequently, fast-growing garden crops are able to form a cover that obscures the weeds and makes it difficult for them to grow and grow. Uncompetitive and slow growing plants must be transplanted.
- It is necessary to take measures that willpromote the vigorous growth of cultivated crops on the site. To do this, it is necessary to ensure that their roots have access to moisture, leaving the weeds without water. To disturb the life cycle of weeds, diseases and pests, change the culture.
- To control weeds, you can change the timinggrowing, delaying sowing until the first wave of weeds comes off, then you can cultivate by removing all their shoots. And then plant the culture under optimal conditions. Sowing a lawn at the junction of summer and autumn is an excellent example of this method. In addition, apply fertilizer locally to maximize the growth of a useful crop.
Mulching This method is veryEffective against weeds around the house and in the garden. Mulching is the covering of soil with straw or plastic materials that cover the flow to the soil of light. While retaining moisture, the mulch changes the temperature of the soil and the microclimate. Mulch is natural or artificial. The natural is used against annual weeds. With its help, you can also reduce the competitiveness of perennial. Mulches from artificial materials eliminate all weeds. Mechanical method This method includes such techniques as weeding, hoeing, cultivation, mowing, burning. These techniques are more suitable against annual weeds. And the specific methods are chosen depending on the specifics and type of the clogged area. Perennials and biennials can also be destroyed mechanically, but once they become capable of recovery, the mechanical ways to deal with them become less effective. Chemical way to control weeds This method provides protection from weeds and saves effort. With proper use, the application of chemistry becomes a cheap way to control weeds. However, there are many shortcomings. Although very many like herbicides, weed control with their use destroys or damages cultivated plants. Using herbicides, be sure to study the label and make sure that the cultivated plants from your garden are present in the list of allowed for use of this drug. Always read the instructions on the package and follow it carefully. Herbicides can not always be used in gardens for several reasons:
- There is no single chemical that protects absolutely all vegetable crops;
- some types of herbicides may persist for some time in the soil and damage for the next year sensitive crops;
- even if you correctly use the herbicide, you need to consider everything - even the weather conditions. Because the demolition of a chemical by wind can spread it to cultivated plants that are sensitive to it.
Herbicides are grouped on the basis of their methodapplication and chemical properties. Also they are subdivided by terms of application. There are pre-emergence and post-emergence herbicides, as well as selective and herbicides of continuous action. Carefully study the consequences of herbicide effects on the environment - its potential danger for both humans and other plants. When studying the consequences, it is necessary to find out how the herbicide moves in the soil, decomposes, evaporates and binds to the soil, as far as it is toxic to animals and fish. The manual contains most of this information and guidance on the use of the chemical. Following this instruction, it is possible to minimize the negative impact of these drugs on the environment. Additional information on the interaction of herbicide with plants and soil, toxicological properties, precautions and questions of use can be obtained from a specialist.