Just yesterday, your baby was small, helpless andamusing. But time flies very, very quickly - the first smile, the first word, the first step and the trip to the kindergarten. After very little time - the first class, the first five are the first two. And recently you noticed that with your child there are strange changes. What it is? Do not be intimidated by the changes that are happening - most likely, your child has gradually entered during puberty. In order to help the child survive this difficult period in his life, parents should have an accurate idea of what is sexual maturation and how it should be normal. Do not forget that the sexual maturation of boys and girls is completely different. Sexual maturation of boys and girls begins at different times, proceeds in different ways and is also perceived by children in completely different ways. For example, early puberty in girls is a fairly frequent phenomenon, while boys are more likely to experience puberty. However, premature puberty of girls should not serve as an excuse for parents to panic. Both boys and girls have puberty about five years. As already mentioned above, the timing of the onset of puberty is very individual and can fluctuate strongly both in one direction and in another. If parents notice significant fluctuations, it makes sense to consult a pediatrician. The doctor is most adequately able to assess the state of the child's physical development, and, if necessary, he will refer the child to additional examinations, which will help to determine reliably the causes of deviation from the norm. However, serious problems of hormonal character are extremely rare and extremely rare. Almost always the cause of the deviation is a hereditary trait. If at least one of the parents at one time also had deviations in either direction, this increases the risk of similar deviations in children by 50%. Especially it concerns the growth of the child - if both parents are of low growth, do not wait for an intensive growth jump in the teenager. Modern medicine has established a framework in which the onset of puberty of boys and girls must fit. Early puberty in girls begins at age 8, in boys - from age 10, the deadline for the onset of puberty for girls is 12, and for boys, 14 years. If parents have any doubts, they should consult a doctor with a pediatrician or an endocrinologist. In no case express your fears or doubts about the presence of the child - it is capable of inflicting a rather strong psychological trauma with which you will have to struggle for a long time. Remember that the mentality of adolescents is very, very vulnerable.
The period of puberty in girls
Before talking about the period of sexualmaturation in girls, it is necessary to understand what generally implies the concept of "puberty." Sexual maturation is nothing more than a period of very intensive growth of the child, lasting approximately two years, which precede the onset of the sexual maturity of the girl. The onset of puberty in a girl is the beginning of the first menstruation. As has been repeatedly mentioned above, it is impossible to accurately name the age at which the puberty begins in girls. The average age of onset of puberty is about 11 years, respectively, the first menstrual cycle begins approximately in two years, that is, at 13 years. However, recently there has been a trend in which early sexual maturation is becoming more frequent, and begins at the age of about 9 years. In some cases, especially if the mother's puberty was late, the girl can begin at 13 years, respectively, the first menstruation - at 15 years. Occasionally, there are cases when puberty begins at 7 or 15, but this phenomenon is pathological and needs medical correction. In the event that premature puberty of girls worries parents, they should consult a doctor. If the deviations are not so cardinal, they should not scare parents. Most often deviations from the average static figures do not signal any malfunctions in the hormonal background of the child and malfunctions in the work of the hormonal glands, but only talk about the hereditary predisposition of the child. If you do not remember the beginning of your puberty, talk to your parents - they will surely be able to dispel all your doubts. Do not give the child any hormonal medications, unless they are prescribed by the attending physician - it can cause irreparable harm to the health of the child and even, in the future, lead to the infertility of the girl. So, what are the signs of puberty in girls? The main stages of puberty, typical for girls, are described below. At the age of 7 to 8 years, the baby grew by about 7 centimeters per year, and by 9 the increase in growth was only about two centimeters, as if nature slowed down the growth process. The same will happen during the tenth year of life - an increase in growth will not exceed 1 to 3 centimeters. But during 11 years of life there is a most powerful growth jump - within the next two years, the annual increase in growth will be about 10 years on average, and will also increase rapidly and its weight - instead of the usual 2 kilograms a year, the increase will be approximately 6 kilograms per year. However, it will not be visible in outward appearance, except that the girl will have a "brutal" appetite, because the body needs a lot of nutrients for such a rapid growth in growth. In the girl's body, significant changes begin to occur. Even at the very beginning of puberty, the beginning of the enlargement of the mammary glands is marked, proceeding as follows: the first is slightly enlarged the sucking nipple and nipple, slightly protruding forward, and only then the mammary gland itself begins to mutate. In the first year after the onset of puberty, the mammary gland looks like a cone, but about a year before the start of the first menstrual cycle it takes a more round, habitual form. Immediately after the growth of the mammary gland begins, the growth of hair in the armpits and in the perineal region begins. A modification of the figure begins, which acquires a more feminine outline: the girl gradually begins to expand her thighs, the waist is outlined. In addition, during this period the structure of the skin and hair changes dramatically, under the influence of certain hormones, which will be discussed later. At about the age of 13, the girl has her first menstruation. Remember that the formation of the menstrual cycle - the process is very long and can take a considerable time - up to one year. While the menstrual cycle is not established, menstruation can be extremely irregular. This is absolutely normal phenomenon, which should not cause parents any fear. With the onset of the first menstrual cycle, the growth of the girl slows down considerably, it will increase not more than 5 centimeters in growth. On menstruation, the girl's mother must pay special attention. Regardless of how much the girl has started the menstrual cycle - at 11 years old or at 15, this event always causes her to have a stressful condition. Imagine how much more stressful the girl will have that absolutely knows nothing about what is happening to her body? A girl can panic and not even tell her what's going on with her. That's why the mother is simply obliged in time, even before the onset of menstruation, psychologically prepare the girl for the upcoming physiological changes in her body, teach them how to use hygiene items and the rules of behavior during menstruation. Of course, a girl can learn about all this and from other sources, for example from girlfriends. But in this case, do not be surprised if the news about her first menstruation daughter will not go to you, but to her friend. In no case is it inadmissible to react excessively to the news of the offensive of the girl's menstruation and do not publicly inform relatives and friends about it - this can greatly embarrass the girl. It is during a sharp jump in growth that the "girl's teenager's" awkwardness ", familiar to practically all people, appears. The girl's parents should not worry about this - this disproportionality of the body is absolutely normal and is not a pathology. This period of "ugly duckling" will end very, very soon, and your little princess will become a real beauty. Be sure to talk about this with the girl, she needs to explain what is causing this change, and how soon it will end. And the reason for such changes is absolutely simple: during puberty, the skeleton of the girl grows most intensely, but unevenly. All bones grow with absolutely different speed, completely not synchronously - first of all the bones of the feet and hands are stretched, followed by the bones of the hands, and also the facial skull. And only in the last turn stretches the trunk. This explains the fact that a teenage girl often has too long arms and legs, maybe a slightly elongated face. In addition to all this, often the growth rate of a girl's muscles is much less than the speed of growth of bones, as a result of which the movements of a teenager are often clumsy and angular. As a rule, signs of puberty in girls are pronounced, so if there is premature puberty in girls, there may be psychological problems. The girl will certainly be embarrassed by the changes taking place with her, if her peers-classmates have not yet begun. If this question is painful for your daughter, you need to talk with the girl's teacher, who will check that the girl does not become a subject of ridicule in school. And it would be nice for you and your daughter to turn to a child psychologist who, most tactfully and with knowledge of the characteristics of the child's and teenage psyche, will explain to the girl that all the changes taking place with her are absolutely normal and natural. But to a greater extent, how a girl perceives the changes taking place in her body depends on how close and good her relationship with her mother is. Be sure to talk as much and often as possible with your daughter, answer all questions, even if they seem silly to you. Believe me, this will pay off with interest, because if your daughter will trust you, it will be much easier for her to survive her adolescence. However, psychological problems can be associated not only with premature puberty of girls, but also with late. If the girl sees that to her 13 -1 4 years with her there is almost no change, and all her friends and classmates have radically changed and grown up, she is uncomfortable and starts to worry, because the girl herself is still in that very slow stage of age, which precedes the onset of puberty. Of course, the girl, in comparison with her contemporaries, feels extremely awkward, she can develop the strongest inferiority complex, as she feels worse than all other girls. In this situation, only constant communication with the daughter can help, which needs to be explained and reminded again and again, that there is nothing wrong with what is happening and that sexual maturation is simply inevitable. Mom can set an example, even if the reality has to be slightly embellished. In especially difficult cases, if the mother does not cope on her own and sees that the daughter does not go to the contact, but closes in herself, it is recommended to consult a child psychologist. In no case can not ignore this problem, since such psychological trauma is very strong, and an inferiority complex can poison the girl's existence all her life. Sexual development of girls can have different variations, and not always only age. In some cases, the appearance of the hair is significantly different in its sequence. As a rule, first there is growth and design of mammary glands, then pubic hair appears, and only in the last instance hair appears in the armpits. However, sometimes hair in the armpits appears first, while the other signs of puberty are not visible. And sometimes, first of all, hair appears on the genitals, which becomes the first sign of puberty, after which all the others appear. In addition, doctors noticed an interesting regularity: the earlier the sexual maturation began in the girl, the faster it proceeds, and, consequently, the later, the longer the process of puberty. For example, a girl whose puberty started at the age of 9 does not last more than a year and a half, whereas if the girl started at 14, it will last about two and a half years.
Period of puberty in boys
Period of puberty in boys alsolasts for several years. It can be divided conditionally into several stages. Despite the fact that the erection of the penis in the boy is observed immediately after birth, in infants and early childhood the child is absolutely asexual and the erection of the boy has only the mechanical nature of occurrence, since he has absolutely no sexual underpings. The active period of puberty in boys, as a rule, begins at the age of about 11 years of life, which is active throughout the entire adolescence (from 13 to 18 years). In adolescence, sexual maturation is rapid. Passing all the stages of puberty in boys, it ends at the age of 18 - 19 years, after which puberty begins. The stages of puberty of boys go to that age, which is called pubertal (the word comes from the Latin word pubertas, which means puberty). It is in this period that the boy begins to appear secondary sexual characteristics and the formation of genital organs, and the full work of the sexual glands begins. The age of puberty in boys begins about 10 to 11 years. During this period, the boy has an intensive growth jump, and by the age of 13-14 years the bone system has been formed precisely according to the male type. However, the whole process of growth and change of the figure occurs only to 20 - 22 years, not earlier. Many parents are concerned with the question whether the age of puberty depends on boys and when it will end. In fact, when puberty is over, depends on so many factors, such as:
- General health of the child. In the event that there are any chronic diseases, or there was a serious injury or surgical intervention, it is possible to delay puberty in boys.
- An important role is played by the nature of the activity of both the nervous and endocrine systems. Failures in their work also often lead to the fact that there is a delay in puberty in boys.
- The constitutional features of the phenotype sometimes also lead to the fact that there is a delay in sexual development in boys.
However, the delay in sexual development in boys,as a rule, is not caused by serious reasons. In addition, it should be borne in mind that the onset of puberty in boys is as individual as that of girls. In some cases, early puberty in boys is observed, in other cases, on the contrary, later. Early puberty in boys is most often due to a genetic predisposition - if the father has started puberty early, the likelihood that his son will also go through exactly the same is about 80%. Premature puberty in boys is very rarely caused by any disease of the hormonal system, but if puberty has begun before 10 years, parents, for their own peace of mind, should consult a pediatrician who, after assessing the condition of the child, will refer it to the appropriate specialists who will conduct the necessary examination. Avoid visiting a doctor is not necessary, because, very rarely, but still premature puberty in boys can indicate the presence of a tumor process in the brain. The onset of puberty occurs as a result of the fact that the boy begins active, violent hormonal activity of the sexual glands, primarily the testicles. All the sex glands are in close interaction with the remaining glands of internal secretion, the correlation between which is carried out by the nervous system of the body of the boy. Parents need to know all the characteristics of puberty boys. This is necessary to answer the questions that arise in the adolescent, and also to notice in time possible deviations from the normal course of puberty. But it must be remembered that individual characteristics of sexual development in boys are possible, therefore, if there is any doubt for the parents, it is necessary to consult a doctor. At the teenager who is in a stage of active puberty, in an organism there is a number of cardinal changes, both somatic (physical), and psychological character. The beginning of the period of puberty in boys is considered to be the appearance of the first expressed secondary sexual characteristics: a significant increase in the penis, scrotum, the appearance of hair in the genital area and in the armpits, a change in the timbre of the voice. Approximately at the same time, simultaneously with the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics, the boy begins the appearance of an erection, which has a pronounced sexual orientation. In addition, this period is characterized by still poorly expressed and irregular nocturnal pollutions. There is a gradual increase in the size of the seminal vesicles and prostate gland, their functioning begins. Pollution is an uncontrolled, absolutely involuntary ejaculation, most often occurring at night and in no way connected with either sexual intercourse or masturbation. Nocturnal pollutions in adolescence - an absolutely normal phenomenon of a physiological nature, occurring on average three times a week. The appearance of nocturnal floods in a teenage boy testifies that the child has reached that stage of puberty, in which seminal vesicles have already started functioning. As a rule, pollutions occur during bright erotic dreams, but teenagers, as a rule, rarely remember them after awakening. Parents should show maximum tactfulness and pretend that they do not notice their son's nocturnal dreams. As mentioned above, in boys, the secondary sexual characteristics are not only the increase in the penis, but also the appearance of vegetation - both in the genital area and in the armpits and on the face. It is also worthwhile to pay attention to the fact that in men pubic hair does not grow in the same way as in women and have a different direction of hair growth. A man's pubic hair has a wedge-shaped growth line, while a woman, on the contrary, does not grow up her hair, but in the sides. If a boy has a tendency to grow hair on a female type, parents should show the child to the doctor - an endocrinologist. This can serve as a symptom of a malfunction in the endocrine system of the child's body. Features of puberty boys also include the changes that occur with his voice. The boy's voice gradually becomes much lower and more coarse. This phenomenon is associated with the medical processes that occur with the larynx of a boy under the influence of certain hormones: the thyroid cartilage of the larynx significantly increases in size, in addition, the ossification of certain areas occurs. The boy also undergoes cardinal changes in the development and structure of the musculoskeletal system during puberty. There is a significant increase in the mass not only of the bones of the skeleton itself, but of the entire skeletal musculature. The formation of the skeleton occurs according to the male type: narrow hips, broader shoulders. Boys are much less pronounced subcutaneous fatty tissue. If the girls at puberty subcutaneous fat in relation to the total body weight is 30%, then in boys this figure does not exceed and 19%. Of course, in some cases, the boy may have a surplus of fatty tissue, and his body will be unnecessarily roundish and similar to a female, however, more often than not, this phenomenon is very brief and quickly passes by itself. If you are faced with this situation and see that your son is concerned about this issue, be sure to talk with him and explain that very soon the situation will radically change. The structure of the pelvic bones also changes radically: in boys, the pelvis becomes longer and longer at first, and eventually the final formation of the pelvis takes place according to the male type. The trunk is significantly shortened, and the lower jaw, in contrast, becomes much more in the boy's body than in the girls. In addition to the fact that in the body of the boy there are cardinal changes in the somatic nature, puberty is also characterized by significant changes in the nature and behavior peculiar to the man, not the child. It was during this period that boys begin to show first interest in girls, they appear amorous, and also the first sexual attraction. This process necessarily enters the stages of puberty boys. Parents should be very, very careful, tolerant and tactful in communicating with a boy at the puberty stage. Unlike girls, the psyche and nervous system of boys during this period is very - and very labile. Frequent mood swings, increased impressionability, irritability and even unmotivated aggression, causeless depression - this is only a small "bouquet of delights" that accompany the puberty of the boy. And on how wisely parents will behave towards their teenage son, the character of the boy and the psychological atmosphere in the family will be determined. Remember that adolescents are very categorical in their judgments and often act very harshly and recklessly - one careless word can cause a lot of trouble, from leaving home, ending with an attempted suicide. During the puberty of the boy there is not only a physical change in the body, but also an active intellectual development of the adolescent. The young man seeks his place in the society, chooses his individual model of behavior - most often he has a pronounced desire for independence, reality in most cases, reality is perceived through a sufficiently powerful prism of criticality. It is during this period that the formation of tastes and perceptions takes place, and the formation of the character of man completely ends. Parents, both boys and girls, in no case should not lose sight of the important aspect of sex life. Despite the fact that your children seem to you quite still small, most modern young people begin to have sex at the time of puberty. Parents must necessarily talk with children about the danger of promiscuity and contraception, so that after not reaping the bitter fruits of ignorance of their children in matters of the sexual aspect. The main guarantee of your success should be the trusting relationship of parents and their child. The child should feel the trust and respect of the parents. This will cause the reciprocal respect and confidence in the parents from the side of the teenager. The child will know for sure that with absolutely any problem he can turn to you and get help and support, not reproaches and blame. We advise you to read: