In recent years, more and more parents have beenbefore him the task of growing from his child a real genius. And they begin to deal with their baby almost from his birth. The development of speech in young children, logical thinking, the simultaneous study of several languages, mathematics and the humanities. And the load on the child directly depends on the ambitions of his parents. For someone, a four-year-old who recites the poems of Agniya Barto is an occasion for sincere parental pride, and someone is not happy that the three-year-old is sometimes confused in fractions. In the early development of children there is a lot of both supporters and opponents. Some parents and teachers say that everything needs to be invested in the child, starting from the earliest childhood - this will ensure that the child will grow up to be an educated and gifted person. And other parents argue that such a fascination with various methods of early development completely deprives the child of childhood and has a very negative effect on the state of his psyche and on the entire nervous system. It is difficult to say unambiguously which of them is right, but one thing is clear. A child is not a beautiful garden flower. For its development, it is not enough simply to provide the physiological needs of the organism - food, sleep, clothing, health. In any case, for the successful and harmonious development of the child with it should be dealt with. And parents should be engaged in it. Believe me, no developing telecast or computer program is capable of helping a child to reveal all his abilities. Of course, we do not urge you to start studying the Uruguayan language with a six-month-old crumb, or to explain what integrals are to a three-year-old. However, some basic knowledge and skills to give the child parents are simply required. In order to understand the validity of this statement, parents simply enough to remember themselves in childhood. Yes and. in principle, not only in children - because the feelings do not depend on whether you are big or small. Surely, almost every person at least once in his life was in a situation when he had to feel extremely uncomfortable because of something he does not know. Embarrassment is one of the least negative emotions in a given situation. But in fact, if for some reason these situations happen regularly, the probability is very high that the child will develop a set of losers from the earliest childhood and any self-confidence will disappear. And given the fact that most modern parents begin to deal with their children very, very early, it is unlikely that a child in a children's morning performance will be able to surprise anyone with the poem of Agnia Barto. This article is designed to help you understand the huge variety of various developmental techniques for children to those parents who want their child to be fully developed, which means that he felt confident in any situation. In addition, we should not forget that well-developed and self-confident children are much easier to adapt in society, learn to clearly identify their goals and achieve them. Such children and in adulthood will be much easier and more comfortable than their peers, who as a child spent their time in front of the TV.
Why up to three years?
Why is it so important is the early developmentchild? Maybe it makes sense to not load crumbs from the very first year of life, or even earlier, and wait at least until the first class? However, numerous studies by scientists and child psychologists have reliably proven that the best time to perceive and assimilate new information is precisely the age of up to three years. At this age, the child's brain is able to perceive and remember the amount of information that an adult person can never cope with. Are you still frightened by the prospect of depriving your child of a happy and cloudless childhood? Perhaps you are right about something. But try to answer the simplest question: what exactly is a happy childhood about to three or five years old? It is in the natural cognition of the world. And it is on the shoulders of parents that the task is to give the child answers to all his numerous "Why", "Why", "Where", "What" and "How". You can brush away from the child, justifying themselves to constant employment and fatigue, or to get rid of the baby with monosyllabic mean answers. And you can spend quite a bit of time and not just give an answer, even if detailed, but teach the child to analyze and independently find answers to certain questions. But, of course, the child must remember that you are always there and will always come to his aid. And just in order to form a crumb of a similar way of thinking, and the methods of early development of children are needed.
Where to begin?
Have you finished reading this place? Obviously, you have made a decision that you and your child need early development. And there is absolutely logical question - with what to begin? After all, the child's development is very serious. And this means that it is necessary to approach this issue with all responsibility, because incorrect actions of parents can only bring harm - a child in general may lose interest in knowing the world around him. That's why psychologists and educators advise parents not to engage in amateur activities, but to take advantage of one of the many professional techniques that have been proven and well-proven. Sometimes it's very, very difficult for parents to do it themselves to inexperienced parents. Of course, below we describe in more detail each of the techniques. But if something remains incomprehensible to you, or you can not give preference to one or another method of early development of a child, you should seek help from psychologists and educators. To date, there is a huge number of very different psychological tests and other very reliable methods that allow psychologists to reveal the propensities, abilities and mindset of even very young children, starting at about six months of age. With this information, parents together with a psychologist will be able to choose the most appropriate method for the development of the child. And one more important detail, about which no one not only does not speak, but, as a rule, absolutely does not take it into account - the state of the child's health. Of course, that in the event that a child often catches a cold, to give up early development is at least silly. But in the event that the crumb suffers from this or that serious disease, you should not load it too much. In this case, it will be most reasonable to consult the doctors who are treating the crumbs, who are able to objectively assess the situation and the possible harm that can cause the child excessive mental strain. Of course, parents in this case may be upset, but do not do this. Whatever it was, but the health of the child above all else - it should be at the head of everything. And development will not go anywhere - your child in any case continues to actively develop every minute of his life. And you will surely catch up, even a little later. After all, the fact that the information is best absorbed before the age of three does not mean that after this age the child has no chance to catch up with those kids who started studying earlier. You just have to spend a little more time and effort on it, but nothing is impossible and unreal in this task.
The Glen Doman Method
The very first system of early development of the child, owhich will be discussed below - is the methodology of one of the founders of the Institute for Early Childhood Development, located in Philadelphia. And she is named in his honor - the technique of Glen Doman. Like almost any other method of early development of the child, it has both ardent admirers and equally ardent opponents. For many years teachers, children's psychologists, parents have been arguing about this method, various media have been writing. However, despite all the numerous disputes and disagreements, both sides unanimously admit that this method is one of the most effective today. And the first thing that parents need to know is the fact that initially this technique was developed as an effective system of teaching children, somehow lagging behind in emotional and mental development. However, if the methodology itself is to your liking, this should not be frightened. It's not the first year this system around the world with tremendous success is used for the early development of perfectly healthy children. Therefore, do not abandon a really good method only because of some prejudice. On what is the principle of this method based? It is on the fact that small children have developed the best - on visual perception. In order for you to start studying with your child, you need special cards. These cards can be bought already ready - they are sold in many specialized stores selling goods for children's development and creativity. And you can go on a more complex path and make them yourself. To do this you will need white paper, or, even better, cardboard - it is much stronger, which means that the cards will be much more durable. For the first month of employment, 15-20 pieces are enough, then, as the child learns the material, the amount should be gradually increased. How to increase, you will understand by your child. To begin, select the topic of the lesson. On a rectangular sheet of cardboard it is necessary to paste an image corresponding to the chosen topic. After that you will need a ruler and a red marker. Circle the image marker, taking it in a kind of frame. And under the image in red block letters write the name of what is painted - this is an indispensable condition, practically the basis of the whole technique. What are they for? It's very simple - thanks to the frame, the child's attention is focused precisely on the picture. Although in the case if the drawing is sharp enough and contrasting, you can omit the moment with the frame and do not draw it. Why red? The answer is also very simple - scientists have long been able to prove that red is stronger than the rest is irritated by the receptors of the human eye. So, on the cortex of the brain, the effect of red color is also times more intense. It is thanks to these factors that information in the child's brain will be deposited much easier and, importantly, much faster than if any other color were used. These cards with the image of various objects must be shown to the child, allowing them to be fixed on them for no more than a few seconds. At this time, an adult who engages with a child should clearly call out the name of the object depicted on the card. The picture can depict anything - everything depends on the imagination and preferences of the parents. Perhaps you just want to introduce the child to the world? Then the pictures can be anything - dishes, furniture, clothes. And maybe you dream about that. To grow a young biologist? Then on the cards can be depicted various flowers, mushrooms, animals. A young chemist? Yes, in general, it is also quite realistic, just make sure that the name of these or other chemical elements on the cards was written correctly. But seriously, with the help of this technique, you can teach your child not only to recognize and name different subjects, but also to write and even count. You can buy or make cards with the alphabet, or you can immediately with different words, consisting of four to five letters. The same goes for the numbers - you can draw on the cards just numbers, and you can small items, in different numbers on different cards, with the number below. Please note that in order to achieve the desired result, several fairly simple conditions must be observed. Firstly, it is possible to start studying with a child as early as parents want - almost from the end of the first week of life, when the kid learns to focus on a particular subject. But there is also no deadline - this can begin to be done in three years, and in five years. In practice, a positive result will be visible. Secondly, pay attention to the mood in which the baby is at the time of the next session. In no case do not start an activity with a crying or just a capricious baby, in case he is tired, wants to eat or sleep. In this situation, any information the kid will still not be able to absorb, but negative associations with cards can be fixed in his mind with a very high probability - and as a result, parents will get the effect completely opposite to the one they aspired to. Thirdly, the duration of the classes should also be strictly limited. And in each specific case this duration can be very different - for someone it will be equal to two minutes, for someone - five, and for someone and twenty there can be a little. Although, of course, the latter option is extremely rare - almost none of the children are able to keep the concentration of attention for so long. And it is necessary to finish the studies immediately, as soon as the child begins to show the first signs of fatigue or discontent. Strictly speaking, the principle of the operation of this technique is very, very simple - the child sees an inscription and a picture, then there is a soundtrack. As a result, both the name and visual series of what is seen are fixed in the child's memory. As a rule, such activities are very popular with children, regardless of their age - because to look at interesting colorful pictures like every child without exception.
The next technique, which deserves to be,to speak of it - is the system of early development of Maria Montessori. This technique is interesting in its own way, because it is based on a very unusual approach to the early development of the child. Its main principle and motto is "Help me to find out everything myself!". Simply put, its developer claims that the most optimal variant of the child's development is independent development, initiative, the identification of their needs and interests and, accordingly, their independent satisfaction. But, of course, independently, without the help of an adult learn this for the child is almost impossible. Therefore, the paramount task of parents is not only to create an appropriate environment for the development of the child, in which he can achieve the desired, but also to teach him a certain independence. This technique excludes situations when an adult does something instead of a child, allegedly thereby showing him an example. From the point of view of the author of this technique, adults should build relationships with the child in such a way that the child can independently come to the decision of all tasks assigned to him. This will help the child very quickly and fully realize that the child is an absolutely independent personality, able to solve these or other issues on his own. It is very difficult to describe all those materials that are used for child development using this technique. However, they are all focused only on the fact that the child himself can determine the goal before him, or reach it, or independently understand that he is doing it wrong, and why he does not get it. A vivid example of such materials are toys of the Sorter series. They certainly are in every family with young children: the toy itself, which has some form - cars, little animals, houses. And in them there are slits in which it is necessary to insert small figures in the slots. Strictly speaking, Montessori's early development system is rather a way of life for the family than a teaching technique. Teachers and parents who use this system argue that every child is an absolutely unique personality, requiring on the part of an adult not only respect, but relations on an equal footing. And all children develop in completely different ways, which means that the attitude and approach to each child should be individual. By the way, recently more and more state pre-school institutions - kindergartens. Developing benefits are equipped with rooms for classes, and the main task of educators is to help the child in organizing his activities in such a way that all the natural inclinations and abilities of the child could be fully revealed. As already mentioned above, the whole principle of this system is based on the fact that the child himself learned to find his mistakes, analyze them and correct them. Separate several areas in which a child develops:
- Personal space
For the harmonious development of the child, he mustYou can get to know more closely with such older and complex concepts as, for example, order and personal space. And for this, adults do not have to make a special effort. First, it is necessary to explain to the child a simple truth - each thing has its place. Always ensure that the child puts all his things strictly in certain places. Believe me, very soon the child will do this always and automatically, since he will form the connection "thing - place". In addition, adults should remember that the child, along with any adult person, has the right to his personal space. The child ideally should have his own room or, in extreme cases, his playing area, where the child can take refuge, and no one should bother him there. At the same time, parents should teach the child to think that parents have their own personal space, and respect their right.
- Practical skills
No less important direction in this techniquedevelopment is the development of practical skills that the child will need later in life. Of course, all parents teach this without exception, but the question is - at what age? Supporters of the Montessori method teach basic skills of self-service - lace up shoes, clean shoes, button up buttons and zippers, cover on the table - already a year and a half crumbs. No one is telling them - you are still small, you will not succeed, it is dangerous. Adults simply teach babies to correctly handle a particular subject. And do you know what is most interesting? Of course, not the first time, but almost all the kids quickly master all the necessary skills, than many happy parents and amaze relatives, friends and others. And pay attention - success is possible only if the child's education is done with real objects. A fallen cup with real water, and a wet floor that a crumb can touch with a foot, will teach it to be more accurate than a plastic toy with imaginary water much faster. It is not worth scrabbling to pull a pair of scissors, a needle or matches from the child's hands. Approach the baby, squat to be with him on the same level, and in a quiet calm voice ask him for the forbidden thing. As a rule, the baby is lost and submits resignedly. After that, take the finger of the crumb and prick it with a needle or sharp tip of the scissors, hold a couple of seconds above the flame. We have a presentiment of that storm of indignation, which our readers have been called by these words. However, try to calm down and think for yourself - we do not need to be stabbed to the blood and burn to the blisters of an unhappy child. Just give a little feel on yourself, what unpleasant sensations can deliver dangerous objects. Believe me, no exhortations and suggestions for a child under five or six years old will not make any impression - in fact for them the concept of "death" is still very, very abstract. Therefore, even if your little one looked at you with his eyes and said: "Yes, Mom, I understood everything", do not expect it. It goes without saying that in any case it is inadmissible to leave dangerous items in places accessible to the child. However, it is impossible to fully vouch for the fact that the child will never get to forbidden things, it is worthwhile to turn your back on just for a second. And do you imagine the possible scale of the catastrophe if the child gets to them without your supervision? Therefore, it is much more sensible to let the child understand all that danger, and that at his age the most important thing is all those unpleasant sensations associated with these objects.
- Sensory development
Probably, it is not worth repeating again,how much tactile sensations are important for the development of the child. But the spectrum of tactile sensations that is available to a child in everyday life is extremely small. And with the help of this technique, you allow the child to get acquainted with the whole gamut of sensations. In addition, the child gets the opportunity to develop not only tactile sensations, but also taste, olfactory, temperature, get acquainted with the different sizes of objects and their weight. And it's not so difficult to do it. To develop tactile sensations, various pieces of fabric - leather, fur, knitwear, silk, and the like, pieces of twine, objects from various materials - wood, plastic, iron, stone - will be very useful. In this situation, the course can go absolutely all the materials at hand - household items, various natural materials. Just turn around and look around carefully - you will surely find something suitable. In addition, do not forget about such a wonderful developing material, like water. It represents a very wide field for flying fantasy. You can give the child small containers with different temperature water - so the child will get to know such a concept as cold and hot. Water can be placed in a mold and left for a while in the freezer - so the child learns that water has different properties and conditions. And if you buy gouache, water and will almost become an inexhaustible source of inspiration - you can give it different shades, and the colored ice cubes can delight absolutely any kid. This stage of development of the child is extremely important not only for his general outlook, but also necessary for a smooth and successful transition to the next stage of development - mathematical. About it will be told a little bit lower. Why is sensory development the previous stage? Everything is very simple - sensory development inevitably entails the development of logical thinking, the ability to absorb accurate information. Thus, for a child, mathematical concepts will not become anything supernatural, beyond the scope, difficult to understand.
- Mathematical development
As a rule, with the help of this technique the childvery quickly accustomed to mathematical concepts. To do this, parents should almost from all sides surround the child with numbers. First, constantly consider together with the baby - with children under the age of three, teachers are advised to add and subtract within ten. Secondly, the child should constantly surround cards and pictures with numbers - visual memory also perfectly promotes the memorization of figures. And, thirdly, - try to build events so that the child was forced to constantly produce simple mathematical calculations. For example, instruct the crumb to share candy between family members, or ask him to bring a certain number of forks or spoons. It is generally believed that the mathematical mindset, and accordingly, the successes in mathematics are most often typical for boys. However, this method entirely refutes this theory - the success of girls, provided the development of mathematical thinking by this technique is no less amazing than the successes of boys. Incidentally, these children do not have any problems with mathematics in either primary school or high school.
- Language development
Of course, we can not ignore thisan important area of the early development of the child, as a linguistic one. The child is primarily a native speaker, which means that the language development for him plays no less, and, perhaps, even greater role than all other directions. Pay attention to the children around you - the higher the vocabulary in a child, and the more correct and literate speech, the higher his level of intellectual development. And in this situation, you have to start with the child as early as possible - almost from the moment of its birth. First, always talk to your child, even if you are sure that he is too young and does not understand you. Explain to him every action. Do you wear crumbs? Tell him why you chose this particular suit, what color it is, and what kind of baby is beautiful in it. Do you bathe the baby? Tell him that the water is warm and pleasant, soap smells like strawberries, and after bathing the crumb waits for a big, cozy and warm fluffy towel. Tell the kid a poem, sing a song to him, tell me how much you love him. And do not think that these conversations to anything, because the baby is not yet able to understand a word. Most importantly - your love - he will certainly feel. In any case, the words will certainly be postponed in the child's mind. And when the time comes, the kid will speak, already possessing a good vocabulary. In addition, children of the senior year advocates of this technique are advised to begin to familiarize themselves with the letters. And they argue that the best effect will come from the way letters are learned, directly related to tactile sensations. You can buy in the store embossed letters that are attached to the magnetic board, or they themselves cut out of the so-called velvet paper. When learning to drive with your finger crumbs on these letters, pronouncing each of them out loud. By the way, the following management is very useful. Spread on the table or semolina, or sugar or flour in a uniform layer. Show the crumb how fun to draw a finger on a similar "field" - he will surely gladly pick up your initiative. Believe me, there will be lots of fun, however, moms should be prepared for the fact that cleaning will be a mandatory chord. As the child memorizes all the letters without exception, you can begin to study syllables and even short words. By the way, teachers, practicing this method of early development, say that it is best done on a magnetic board. So if you have not yet acquired such a magnetic alphabet, now is the time to take care of the purchase. Find it completely easy - they are sold in virtually any bookstore, or in the office of office supplies.
- Natural Sciences
As a child grows up - aboutafter three years - parents should pay attention to those areas that have been ignored so far - history, geography, the structure of the universe, in the end. Without this information, the further harmonious development of the child becomes almost impossible. However, it is very difficult for parents to do this themselves. Therefore it is much more reasonable in this situation to seek help from specialists. This visit will be extremely useful even if you do not have the opportunity to take your child to classes in specialized groups. The teacher will help parents understand in which direction he should move on, and how best to convey the necessary information to the child. Finishing the story about the Montessori method, it is not fair to say that despite all its positive aspects, it is in itself very far from perfect. As mentioned above, it is rather a way of life for the family and the principle of building relationships with the child. However, it itself is sometimes insufficient for the all-round development of the baby, so to achieve the best result it should be combined with various other methods of early development of the child. These can be Doman's cards, Montessori toys, and even Zaytsev's dice. As a rule, integrated development brings more benefits. In addition to these described methods, there are other methods for the development of children. What exactly is suitable for your child - it's up to the parents. And it does not matter, it will be one of the popular, or not - attention from the parents will still not be wasted. And your baby will necessarily be the most capable and intelligent - after all, the early development of children for this and there! We advise you to read: