Pneumonia is a disease that is betterknow only theoretically, as well as about any other. Especially when it comes to childhood pneumonia. It is unlikely that one of the parents knows exactly what this disease is. However, according to the disappointing statistics, three out of five kids had pneumonia at least once in their life. Most often, this disease lies in wait for the baby at the tenderest age - about two to three years. And pneumonia symptoms in children is a bit different than in adults. It is about her and will be discussed below. So, pneumonia: symptoms and treatment. Timely diagnosis of the disease and its treatment are very important, as pneumonia threatens not only health, but also the life of the child. Inflammation of the lungs at the very beginning of the disease can be confused with acute bronchitis. However, in fact, they are radically different. In pneumonia, the tissues of the smallest parts of the lungs, the alveoli, undergo an acute inflammatory process. Alveoli are small bubbles that are located at the very ends of the bronchi. It is into the alveoli that air enters the process of breathing. In the alveoli there is a major process - the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen, necessary to ensure that all cells in the body are fully saturated with vital oxygen for them and get rid of carbon dioxide. When pneumonia is the same, or as it is called in the people, pneumonia, the causative agent of the disease penetrates into the alveoli, as a result of which the strongest inflammatory process develops. In the alveoli begins to accumulate exudate - a liquid that hinders the flow of a normal gas exchange process. In the body of the child, oxygen supply sharply decreases. As a result, the child develops hypoxia (oxygen starvation) of all vital systems and organs, which can not but have a negative impact on the health of the child. And the cardiovascular system of the baby suffers most of all. This is why if a child has acute pneumonia treatment should be started immediately.
Causes of the disease with pneumonia
Causes of pneumonia in children andadults are different. In adults, pneumonia almost always develops as a completely independent disease. In children, 90% of all cases of pneumonia are complications of recent infections, such as acute respiratory infections or influenza. As you know, in the nasopharynx of any person, both an adult and a child, all the time there is a pathogenic microflora. While the human immune system functions properly, this pathogenic flora in no way manifests itself and does not cause the body any harm. But in the event that a child falls ill with an acute respiratory infection, or something else, and even just under hypothermia, this pathogenic microflora is sharply activated. If, in addition to it, the child receives also microbes from the outside, the situation is greatly aggravated and, as a result, the weaker children develop pneumonia. The state of the child's immune system greatly affects whether infection will develop into pneumonia or not. In addition, the very important role played by the age of the baby. The younger the child, the higher their risk of developing pneumonia, and even the course of the disease in infants is much heavier than in older age. This fact is explained by the fact that the younger a child, the stronger his age physiological features, which make the risk of pneumonia significantly higher. Especially strongly on the course of the disease is influenced by such a factor as the development of the respiratory system. The child is born with an insufficiently formed and mature respiratory system. Pulmonary tissue of crumbs is not ripe, and the airways are narrower and thinner. Because of this, the gas exchange in the child's body is much less intense. And this circumstance contributes to the development of all kinds of pulmonary infections, in particular, pneumonia. The mucous membrane lining the respiratory tract is very tender and abundantly provided with numerous blood vessels. When attacking pathogenic microflora, the mucous membranes instantly swell, thereby violating normal ventilation of the lungs. Ciliated epithelium, which lines the surface of the mucous membrane of the lungs, is particularly affected. The purpose of the ciliated epithelium is the removal of sputum arising from diseases of the lungs. And with pneumonia, this ability is completely lost, and sputum stagnates in the lungs. This significantly worsens the condition of the sick child, making the disease worse, since sputum is an excellent nutrient medium in which the pathogenic microflora is perfectly well and actively propagates. This is what aggravates the course of the disease. In addition, there are a number of diseases that increase the risk of developing pneumonia and worsen its course. To such diseases doctors include:
- All kinds of hypotrophy.
- Iron deficiency anemia of any origin.
- All kinds of rickets.
- Any diseases affecting the central nervous system.
- All kinds of heart defects.
- All kinds of deficiency of the immune system.
Types of pneumonia in children
Despite the common causesinflammation of the lungs and the principle of its course, doctors distinguish several varieties of the disease. Depending on what part of the lung is affected, and distinguish the types of pneumonia. We will not bother the reader with the description of the detailed anatomical structure of the lungs. In general, the structure of the lung looks like this: each lung is divided into equal parts, and the shares are divided into segments.
- Focal pneumonia in children.
In focal pneumonia, a small area of the mucous membrane of the lungs, a diameter of not more than one centimeter, occurs.
- Segmental and polysergmental pneumonia.
Segmental refers to the pneumonia thatoccurs as a result of the defeat of the inflammatory process of the whole segment of the lungs. In polysegmental pneumonia, respectively, inflammation immediately affects several segments of the lungs.
- Croupous pneumonia.
When croupous pneumonia suffers a whole lotlung. It goes without saying that the more a part of the lung is involved in the inflammatory process, the harder the disease goes and the more the child feels. In addition, right-sided and left-sided pneumonia is divided. Here everything is simple - depending on which side, with the right or left, the inflammatory process develops, pneumonia is right-sided and left-sided.
Lately, parents are hearing more and more oftena definition such as SARS in children. However, what this is and how this disease differs from a typical pneumonia, not everyone knows. By the way, atypical pneumonia is more typical for children, but adults are practically not affected by this disease. These types of pneumonia differ in the first place by those pathogens that cause diseases. By the way, in different age groups of children, the pathogens of pneumonia generally differ greatly. So, for example, in children of the first six months, most often the inflammatory process in the lungs is caused by such pathogens as E. coli, staphylococci and pneumococci. In children from 6 months and up to about five years of age, the development of pneumonia, in addition to the above pathogens, can provoke mycoplasma and chlamydia. It is those pneumonia that have been caused by chlamydia and mycoplasmosis, and doctors call it atypical. Their course and treatment proceed differently than in the case of ordinary pneumonia. Chlamydia and mycoplasmal pneumonia manifest themselves as symptoms similar to those of a normal respiratory disease. The child has a copious rhinitis, a sore throat, sneezing. And even a typical high-temperature pneumonia may not be at all, and all blood test parameters remain unchanged. The child suffers from a dry, debilitating cough, more typical of acute bronchitis, and not for pneumonia, which very often makes it very difficult to diagnose the disease. And the character of wheezing in the lungs is not typical for traditional pneumonia. Treatment of such atypical pneumonia also has its own peculiarities. The causative agents of the disease do not react to everything, but strictly to certain antibiotics. To determine the sensitivity to antibiotics, a special sputum examination is necessary. Only in this case, the treatment of pneumonia with antibiotics will be successful.
Symptoms of SARS in children
Before you talk about the symptoms of inflammationlungs, I would like to remind our readers that they vary depending on what kind of agent was and age of the child. So, in children of the first year of life symptoms of the strongest intoxication of an organism most strongly manifest themselves:
- A significant increase in body temperature - up to about 39.5 degrees.
Peculiarities of pneumonia include the fact thatall attempts to lower the temperature bring either a very short-term result, or are completely useless. Although pneumonia in children without temperature also happens.
- Changing appetite.
With pneumonia, almost all babiesrefuse to eat. The baby can often ask for breast, but it is unlikely he will eat, he needs the breast only as a means of comfort. Lack of appetite among the youngest children should become a signal for my mother to have serious health problems and a reason to immediately seek medical help.
- Violation of the central nervous system.
Behavior of a child who has contracted pneumonia,varies very much. The child can become sluggish, sleep much more than usual. But can, on the contrary, become very excited, a lot of crying and capricious. But typical symptoms for inflammation of the lungs, such as cough and chest pain, are almost completely absent in young children. Moreover - even the most experienced doctor - a pulmonologist in the first 48 hours of the disease simply does not hear wheezing in the baby's lungs, and carrying out an X-ray examination will also not reveal the focus of inflammation. Because of this, early diagnosis of the disease is not possible, which subsequently adversely affects the course of the disease and greatly complicates the treatment of the child. However, despite all this, it is still possible to suspect the presence of pneumonia in small crumbs. A careful mom will notice changes in her baby's condition. If your child behaves unusually - constantly sleeps, or, on the contrary, he is capricious, his temperature has risen for no apparent reason, you should be alert.
Signs of pneumonia in a small child:
Treatment of pneumonia in children
Doctors have standards for treating pneumonia. Treatment of pneumonia in children has the following objectives: complete elimination of the inflammation focus and elimination of all the symptoms of pneumonia, the so-called symptomatic treatment. It is about the treatment of pneumonia and will be discussed below. However, remember that all information is only general in nature and in no case should be for parents a guide to action. All treatment should be prescribed only by your child's attending physician - after all, he knows exactly how to treat pneumonia in children. And even more so it is inadmissible to use popular recipes for the treatment of pneumonia. This is explained by the fact that the treatment of pneumonia with folk remedies will not bring any effect, but the precious time can be irretrievably lost. To eliminate the focus of inflammation, doctors use a course of antibiotic drugs. Of course, very few parents will be delighted to hear that the child has to undergo antibiotic treatment. However, in the case of pneumonia, it is simply impossible to dispense with antibiotics. What exactly antibiotics are necessary for pneumonia in children, and in what dose only the attending physician will precisely determine for your child. Symptomatic treatment aimed at eliminating the symptoms of the disease and alleviating the state of health of the sick child is also very important. As pharmacological agents for symptomatic treatment, the doctor prescribes to the child mukalticheskie means to facilitate the departure of sputum, as well as antipyretic drugs. By the way, speaking about the temperature, I would like to remind parents once again of the old beaten truth - do not bring down the temperature immediately, as soon as the mercury column passes for a mark of 37 degrees. Elevated temperature is a way to fight the organism with a pathogenic microflora and, knocking it down, you reduce the protective forces, thereby helping to reproduce pathogenic bacteria. The temperature of the child must be knocked down only if it exceeds 39 degrees. An exception to this rule are only very small children under the age of one year old, as well as those children who previously had subfebrile seizures. The purpose of prescribing mucus drugs to a child is to facilitate the excretion of sputum from the bronchi. In addition, very many modern mucosal preparations greatly enhance the effect and activity of antibiotics used to treat pneumonia. We will not give the name of the used mucolic drugs, since they should also be prescribed only by your child's attending physician. Despite the apparent harmlessness of such drugs, their misuse can lead to the most unpredictable consequences.
In the hospital or at home?
Hearing that the child has pneumonia, the firsta thought that visits parents - "is it really a hospital?" When deciding whether to hospitalize a child or possibly treating pneumonia at home, the doctor takes into account several key factors:
- Age of the sick child.
As a rule, in the event that the inflammationlungs a child who has not reached the age of three, the doctor offers mother treatment in the hospital. This is explained very simply - at such a tender age, the complications of pneumonia can be the most unpredictable, up to the stopping of breathing. In order to prevent this, the child must be under round-the-clock medical supervision until a full recovery. Pneumonia in infants is a serious threat to the life of crumbs.
- General health of the child.
In the event that pneumonia becomes illa child of an older age, taking a decision on the need for hospitalization, the doctor takes into account the general condition of the child. If he suffers from any chronic diseases, or if his immune system is simply weakened, the doctor may also prefer pneumonia treatment in the hospital, despite his older age.
- The severity of the course of the disease and the type of pneumonia.
No less important role in choosing a place of treatmentplays the kind of pneumonia. So, for example, treatment of focal pneumonia in the home is not particularly difficult, but to treat at home croupous pneumonia at home is simply dangerous. Also, the doctor will assess the overall condition of the sick child, as all children are very different - someone has croupous pneumonia is quite easy, and someone and simple focal pneumonia causes an extremely difficult condition. About the treatment of pneumonia in newborns t can not speak - just an immediate hospitalization.
Child care at home
Most often the child receives the necessary treatment inhome conditions. However, in addition to the medications needed to treat pneumonia, the child also needs to receive the right care, nutrition, and drinking regimen that he needs so that he can recover. All these measures will help the baby to get on his feet as quickly as possible. This is exactly what will be discussed below.
- Diet of a sick child.
Despite the fact that a sick child mustto get light food, which does not contain any difficult to digest products, it should still be full and high-calorie. It is advisable to include in the diet of a sick child lean meat, for example, chicken or beef, a variety of fruits and vegetables.
- Drinking regimen of a sick child.
The right drinking regime is very important forsick with pneumonia of the child. Firstly, due to the high temperature, dehydration is very likely to develop, which will significantly worsen the condition of the child and make the course of the disease much more difficult. And, secondly, a large amount of fluid in the body increases the excretion of phlegm and facilitates its withdrawal. A child over three years old, who has pneumonia, should drink at least three liters of fluids per day. As a drink, all kinds of fruit juices, alkaline mineral water and ordinary milk are very useful for the child. However, please note that mineral water intended for small children should be non-carbonated, otherwise the risk of intestinal colic development is very high.
- Feeding of infants with pneumonia.
The fact that a child with pneumonia shouldas much as possible to drink, is fair also in relation to kids. Children under the age of one should drink at least 150 milliliters of fluid per day for each kilogram of the child's weight. Although, in fairness, it is necessary to say that only the mothers of children who are on artificial feeding can trace the amount of liquid they drink. Mom, breastfeeding, it is practically impossible to track the amount of milk that her child drinks. The only way can be control weighing, but it is unlikely that a sick crumb, whose well-being leaves anything to be desired, will like constant re-laying on the scales. Therefore, with regard to babies, another principle of determining whether a liquid is sufficient is another. If the child is actively sucking, he does not have shortness of breath, and urination is normal, so the baby gets enough milk. If the child is sluggish, apathetic, does not want to suck, it means that the mother needs to get a tiny bit from the spoon. However, given that such tiny children are treated in a hospital, the doctor will strictly monitor the child's condition, and if necessary, the fluid will be injected by intravenous infusion. Also, for successful treatment, it is very important that the child during the whole period of the disease observe bed rest. Of course, keeping a child in bed is not so easy, but you should try to do it. In addition, watch for the cleanliness of both bed linen and underwear - after all the sick kid sweats a lot. Also, make sure that the room temperature is comfortable enough for the child - about 20 degrees. Regularly ventilate the room in which the sick child is, but avoid drafts.
Therapeutic exercises with pneumonia
During the course of the disease pneumonia is extremely positiveimpact on the condition of the child is able to provide breathing exercises. It not only speeds up the child's recovery, but also avoids the many complications that often lead to pneumonia. With this gymnastics you can cope with the kids, starting at about the age of three. Therapeutic gymnastics begins with the simplest - with the turns of a sick child in bed. They must be started already from the first hours after the onset of the disease. Most often pneumonia is accompanied by intense pain in the chest area, on the side with which the affected lung is affected by the inflammatory process. And children intuitively prefer to lie all the time on the opposite side to reduce the intensity of pain. However, this lying on one side is fraught with the development of adhesions and, as a result, the formation of pleural adhesions. It is necessary to constantly turn the child from one side to the other, and also periodically put on the back. Do not rely on the child in this matter, even if he is already a teenager - try to control the process yourself. Approximately on the third day after the onset of the disease, it is necessary to begin the second stage of gymnastics - respiratory. The child should put the handles on his stomach and take deep breaths. Repeat the exercise should be at least fifteen consecutive times. After the child begins to recover from the disease and get up, you need to start doing the following exercise. The child should take a deep breath, slowly raising his hands, dropping his arms, the child must exhale. You need to repeat this exercise at least ten times.
Duration of treatment of pneumonia. Forecast
What will be the duration of treatment for pneumonia,depends on very many individual characteristics of the child's organism, including age, type of pneumonia and the severity of the course of the disease. As a rule, in uncomplicated cases of pneumonia, antibiotics continue on average 7 to 10 days. If pneumonia occurs in severe form, accompanied by various complications, or it is an atypical pneumonia, the treatment can take quite a long time. This can be two weeks, and even a month - the duration of treatment can only be determined by a doctor who is treating your child. With the timely application of medical care, uncomplicated course of the disease and proper treatment, the prognosis of pneumonia is generally favorable. Complete recovery usually occurs in a month. But in the event that medical care is not provided in a timely manner, the consequences of pneumonia in children can be quite serious. Summarizing the conversation, it is worth reminding parents of the basic rules: parents should seek medical help at the first signs of even an ordinary respiratory infection, especially if it is a very young children under the age of three. But even older children should receive medical assistance as soon as possible. But we hope that all the information you learn today will never come in handy in practice. We advise you to read: