child development after one year It seemed that very recently you were wearing your ownthe kid under the heart, without even imagining how it will look, whose features will inherit more - one or two parents. The time after birth for each woman flies imperceptibly: in daily worries, sometimes the newly mummified mothers do not even notice how summer replaces autumn, and spring - winter. Naturally, at first it is difficult for almost everyone, only some take difficulties for granted, enduring them enduringly, while others are nervous, experiencing and undergoing a complex process of adaptation. And this is normal, because with the birth of a child, the family's habitual life turns on its head - instead of rest and settled life, sleepless nights, feeding, bathing, crying appear. However, a person gets used to everything, especially since in three or four months the mother already feels her child, understands that he (or she) wants and because of what he is capricious. The first conscious smile, agukanie, gentle hands and feet - all this brings joy and fills life with meaning. And now a very small child has grown up: trying to pronounce words, understand requests, perform simple "instructions" of parents. After a year, the most interesting begins: it is the time of knowing, acquiring certain skills to the baby. Let's take a closer look at the development of the child, what to expect and what to prepare for, and what lessons should be done with it.

The child learns the world: intellectual development

It must be understood that the development of each childespecially individually - what one manages to do by twelve months, the other will be able to master somewhat later. Therefore, do not panic if in all benefits for young parents it is said that a year the kid should already walk, and your child is just trying to do it. Have patience and just wait - everything has its time! In addition, scientists have long proven that the development of girls is much faster than that of boys. So, the latter make their first steps two or three months later, and if the little charmer starts talking to two years, then the future gentleman will do it after it - the time difference can be from 16 to 24 weeks. No wonder they say that ladies should give way! So the development of children is an individual process, but there are generally accepted indicators from which physicians are repelled to determine the normal neuropsychiatric as well as the physical state of the child. Parents should also know about this in order to prevent possible anomalies and to detect any deviations in time. As they say, who is forewarned is armed! So, let's look at the development of children after the year, what are the features and what is worth paying attention to, that your baby grows healthy. As experts mark, the stable indicator of high-grade development of the kid is its growth. By the age of twelve months, the body of a growing boy or girl grows by about 25 centimeters, respectively, the average growth of a one-year-old child is about 75-76 centimeters. It is at this time that a very intensive development takes place, both physical and psychomotor, conditioned reflexes are actively formed. As a rule, after eleven months, many children begin to utter monosyllabic words, every day, increasing their lexicon more and more. Usually about a year the kid makes the first unsteady steps, periodically falling, adhering to objects that are nearby (table, leg of a chair or chair, sofa, crib and so on). Gradually, his skills are improved: soon you will notice how the crumb moves and runs quite independently. One-year-old child has a great desire to know the world around him: he happily contacts new people, touches everything he sees, uses many objects during the game and already knows their significance. Kid remembers the names of all close relatives - parents, grandmothers, brothers, sisters, grandfathers - and responds to his. After twelve months, the desire to see and get acquainted with the surrounding reality is a strong motivation for independent movement, so at this time it is necessary to closely monitor your child. Since the still fragile legs of the baby sometimes can not obey him, which often causes injuries and injuries. At the child in the age of about one year and eight months the vocabulary at times reaches to hundred words and more. As he gets to know the world around him, he learns the skills of walking, speaking, gradually the active development of memory is taking place - the kid easily remembers people, objects. Therefore, at this time with him should be as much as possible to communicate, answer all his questions and explain the meaning of objects, actions and so on. Flexibility of thinking, intellectual and creative abilities of the child help to develop various games that do not require adults to distract from everyday affairs. You can play them anywhere: on a walk, at home kitchen, in a car or public transport and so on. For these games, you do not need any additional acquisitions or preparations. They require only a good imagination. So, the game develops creatively the child's creativity called "Who am I?" It consists that the adult, having represented sounds, gestures, mimicry, for example, the car or the beetle, asks the child to guess who it is. If the solution does not cause trouble for the baby, you can invite him, in turn, to represent someone, and guess his riddle already. You can show anything, if only this subject was consistent with the age-related understanding of the child. In fact, there is a huge number of interesting, and most importantly, useful lessons that can be spent with the baby after a year. But we will not go too far ahead, we will consider these methods a little later. development of the child after a year by months

We are developing actively: first steps and independent actions

The development of the child is affected by many factors: atmosphere in the family, living conditions, meals and much more. The more time you spend on your crumb - playing with him, walking, talking, reading books out loud, explaining the meaning of those or other objects - the more extensive he will have the vocabulary, the better memory. Children after the year are incredibly mobile, often in a good emotional state, they often laugh, are happy with new people, are responsive to any manifestations of attention, both from adults and peers. After fourteen months, the child actively develops objective activity, in the process of which he gets acquainted with the surrounding world - he remembers the meaning and names of objects, their properties. At this time, the baby absorbs information like a sponge, so parents should be directed and trained as much as possible. To do this, it is not necessary to use any special techniques - do it in a playful form. So, for example, when a little child grows up, you can invite him to play the game "Find the right color." With its help, children after 2.5 years are taught to recognize colors. To play it, you need to choose a color, show it to your baby and ask to find exactly the same color in what is around. And the thinking abilities of children at this age are well developed by the game "What do I do?". For her, you need to picture some action that your smart kid knows well-drawing, ironing, sweeping, brushing your teeth, and so on-and asking him to guess what kind of action it is. Thus, in the process of everyday communication, games and antics, the child gradually expands his vocabulary, digests information about the objects and their meaning. Mental and physical development in each kid can occur in different ways: mobile and active personalities are interested in everything, communicate with peers, pay attention to adults. They move around a lot, everyone sees and everyone hears, it's natural that such small "lighters" often start talking early. However, if your child is calm and modest in nature, he is reluctant to contact other children and after a year still stubbornly remain silent, do not worry - you will hear from him a lot of interesting, only a little later. Direct it in the game, show what you can do with this or that subject. The thing is that such shy individuals have a fairly long time of monotony in their movements and actions: some parents notice that their child constantly shifts the toy from one palm to another, monotonously rolls the machine and the like. By the age of twelve months the child has the ability to remember, and also to repeat the actions made by another person and seen before. It may happen that by showing the baby how to play with the new machine, you will not see any reaction, the little one will not respond. However, within a few days, you will be surprised, cleverly coping with the same subject. Children after a year understand and remember everything, but some need time to understand everything. The development of the child occurs in such a way that the information about what he has seen and heard is accumulated gradually. But, nevertheless, when he observes daily the same repetitive actions (for example, washing the floors, ironing, washing), over time, there is a desire to imitate them. After a year and closer to two years young newly mummies can breathe a sigh of relief - the child begins time of independent games. Now the kid needs solitude, often engaged in "his own affairs," for a long time there is one. But this does not mean that he does not need your attention and care - from time to time contact the crumb, offer your help. After about a year and nine months, many children begin to "determine" their territory, fixing things for things. Therefore, if the baby was originally accustomed to the order, had the opportunity to observe how the parents do the cleaning, then subsequently there should be no problems with this. Child development is natural, but, nevertheless, a difficult process, so if you want it to happen painlessly, be attentive and patient with your baby. Children after three years are very emotional - laughter can be sharply replaced by crying, unreasonable whims and insults are not uncommon. In this case, the main thing is not to be nervous, because you will not achieve anything by shouting and swearing. If such a situation arises, you should distract the child, switching his attention from one emotional state to another. For this puzzles, drawing, modeling, cubes - in general, everything that your child is interested in, will do. Such activities not only help to calm the baby, but also have a beneficial effect on his intellectual development. So, for example, various designers contribute to the formation of a child's sense of recognition of objects by color, shape, subject, size and so on. And in order for the kid to have an excellent "working" imagination, you can use a game called "On the contrary." The adult calls a word and suggests the child to pick up an antonym to him - "light dark", "wet - dry" and so on. Words need to be selected, focusing on the life experience of the baby, that is, to call what he understands. To develop the thinking in the child was more active, doctors recommend to deal with it not only by special methods, but also in a game form. Thus, the game "Who was?" Forms well in children of four to five years of age. The child is offered the names of some objects or phenomena, and he should say who or what these objects or phenomena were before. For example, the rain was a cloud, the chicken was an egg, the shirt was a cloth, the stool was a tree. It is desirable that there are several answers to the question asked. correct development of the child after a year

Awareness of yourself as a person: the child's social development

So, what can and what children are capable of after a year:

  • Approximately ten to twelve months of crumbsbegins to take the first cautious steps and closer to two already running with might and main. However, as mentioned above, all this is strictly individual, in addition, often the development of girls is somewhat faster than their own peers male.
  • As you grow up, the child comes to an understanding of what is needed for this or that thing, he recognizes the form of objects, learns to treat them.
  • Development of the speech apparatus for each childoccurs in completely different ways. Some already by ten months pronounce the first word, while others do not speak up to a year and a half years or more. If your child belongs to the second category, do not worry much, because sometimes a crumb, stubbornly silent for a long time, subsequently not only catches up, but also surpasses in its development even those who began to babble at nine months.
  • After a year and 36 weeks, children gradually withdraweach thing "own" place. They become more independent and already in need of parental care. A kid can play alone for a long time, and he will not be bored.

At the child after a year and nine ten monthsformed a sense of independence, so often the dining table turns into a real battlefield. The process of studying food, its properties, pampering with food in a plate has already been passed: the crumb gradually eats more and more accurately, tries to keep the spoon and cup, while the movements are conscious. However, some children invent "their own" ways of communicating with food, "dandy", smacking, trying to eat the back side of the cutlery. When this situation arises, experts recommend not to focus on this: as a rule, if the parents do not show any emotion, such experiments very quickly come to naught. After two years, the child is quite active social development and adaptation:

  • As the child grows up, the interests change: if before he liked to mess around with cars or play dolls, then today he may be interested in a monotonous measured exercise, for example, the collection of puzzles, the designer. However, the "transitional" object still does not lose its important role: a beloved dummy, toy or other object soothes it in moments of sadness, when it is frightened or upset.
  • Since the year and six months, many childrentry to help moms and dads: "wipe" the dust, "wash", "wash" the dishes, "iron". Naturally, at first their movements are uncoordinated and inept, but this gradually passes.
  • Social development is most activeafter two years. In two years the child is already familiar with the rules of behavior on the street, at home and understands what can be done in such places, and that is strictly prohibited. At this time, children with interest and great desire to contact with their peers.
  • As social development takes placethe child, and improve his communication skills. With regard to "sandbox companions", the child has several lines of behavior after a year and eleven months: playing in the "side", "on, give" or contemplating.

Development of the first communication skills betweenchildren from one year to three years are based on certain items - often toys. Since the kids are already clearly delineating by this time, where "their" and "someone else's", there are often mini-conflicts. For example, when one took a toy to play, and the other too became interested in it and wants to pick up a toy. In this case, parents need to remember that this is just a transition period, during which you need to show the correct manner of behavior. However, if your child flatly refuses to share, do not criticize him too much and hang a "greedy" label. After all, children only learn to communicate with each other. In three years the child has a kind of age crisis: he feels himself as a full-fledged person, the need for independent actions sharply increases. The kid wants to tie his shoelaces himself, to dress without resorting to the help of adults. It is at this time that the predominant development of one hand over the other is determined. Therefore, it is very important to pay close attention to physical exercises with the baby, which should be carried out, starting from the first months. After all, this is the foundation, the foundation of the future health of the crumbs. It is recommended to do gymnastics, first of all considering the nature of the child. Inactive and insecure can be interested in a beautiful toy, periodically encouraging and encouraging.

A note for parents: developing games

Child upbringing should take place in a complex way: along with physical exercises, it is necessary to pay attention to his intellectual as well as mental development. Then the baby will not have problems in communication, he will grow up to be an integral and interesting person. In addition, when the crumb turns three or four years old, you can easily begin to prepare it for school, no matter how ridiculous it may sound. Believe me, time will fly by quickly, but afterwards the child will adapt to the lessons much easier, because in his stock there will already be a certain "baggage" of knowledge that will help keep up with peers, and maybe in some ways even surpass them. According to the researchers, undeveloped intellectually young children face with learning in elementary school with great difficulties. A child who has not been taught to independently learn any questions, is not able to solve problems that do not correspond to his interests. Therefore, throughout the preschool period, children need to develop their readiness to cognize and shape their own view of the world. This is facilitated by certain exercises. Now, as promised, let's talk in more detail about what activities develop in crumbs creative thinking, imagination and attention. All of them are performed in a game form, so they will not cause the child to react negatively.

  • On a walk with a child of four to five years, you canplay the game "What does it look like?". The kid points to clouds, trees, bushes, puddles and ask what they look like. If he finds the original idea, it should be noted, praising the child for his ingenuity.
  • Excellent development of attention in children of six years of play"Forbidden words." It consists in the following. Select some forbidden word, for example, "black", and then the child is asked a question, the answer to which contains this word. Answer the kid can do anything, but at the same time in his sentence there should not be a forbidden word. If he still says it, he becomes the lead in the game.
  • For the development of memory with children six to seven years old, you canplay the game "Pairs of words." The child is called a few words (to start with enough five or six), connected to each other in pairs. For example, "the boy is a ball", "the road is a car", "the sky is the sun" and so on. The kid must remember the second word in each pair. After that, the adult calls the first word from the pair, and the child should remember the second, corresponding to the first. The game can be made more complex, composing a pair of words with a distant semantic connection.
  • With a child who knows the letters of six or seven years, you canplay in the game "Anagrams". The kid is offered several consonants and vowels and asks him to compose one or more words from them. The game is complicated by increasing the number of letters. During her time, the adult and the child change roles.

These developmental games form the thinking of childrenunobtrusively, in the form of entertainment. They develop imagination, attention, memory and imaginative thinking, stimulating the growth of the child's creative abilities. We advise you to read: