Once famous teacher Sukhomlinsky said aboutthat the child's mind is at the fingertips. And it turned out to be not just beautiful words. Psychologists and speech therapists do not tire of repeating that it is very important to engage in the development of fine motor skills, first, for developing the child's speech, for coordinating movements, and also for preparing hands for writing, needlework, drawing, etc. That is why exercises for the development of fine motor skills are given so much attention. Otherwise, the baby can have serious difficulties, especially when he goes to first grade. To great regret, recently such children are becoming more and more. It is possible to argue for a long time, what is the reason of such mass violation of fine motor skills - whether ecology, or something else. However, there is absolutely no sense in these disputes. Therefore, it is much more reasonable to pay attention to the development of fine motor skills from the very birth of a crumb. There is a huge number of very different exercises with which parents can both prevent possible development of problems and eliminate existing ones. Most importantly - do not put this case in the back box, as with the passage of time, violations of fine motor skills will only worsen. And much more serious adjustment programs will be needed. Therefore, exercise small motor skills in a timely manner.
The child of the first year of life
Skilful and dexterous fingers of your baby ispledge of full-fledged mental development (thinking, attention, imagination, visual memory). And in order that the child would not be bored, invented various games and toys for the development of your baby. From 3-4 months the child starts to miss everything that comes in his way, squeeze and release, see what will come of it. The grasping reflex helps him to study the world around him. Therefore for this age different rattles, not only from plastic, but also from fabric, wood and other materials, are suitable. Tactile feelings help the child to develop more fully, including improving and fine motor skills. From the age of 6 months the child can be interested in a soft developing book. A more ambitious version of this book will be a developing mat. Usually it is equipped with additional details, for example, pshchalki and rustling, soft springs, with which your baby will be happy to play. From 9-10 months the child can already get a developing center. It is attached to a crib or mounted on a table. The development center is a panel with various buttons, pens and disks, which can be rotated, rotated, pressed, etc. As practice shows, such centers have the most beneficial effect on the development of fine motor skills.
Children from one year to three
For children of this age of development methodsfine motor skills are much more. And all these ways are perceived by the child as an exciting game, which is also important. Mom! Be prepared, after some such activities, it is likely that you will have to do the cleaning, so prepare a clean cloth in advance. Water games. Practically all babies love these exercises. Of course, if they are positive about water:
- Find me!
Pour the baby into the basin with clean warm water,seat it beside it and put a few small plastic or rubber toys in the water. Ask the crumb to get them - as a rule, even a one-year-old kid can easily cope with this task. Then slightly complicate the exercise - add a small amount of dark gouache to the water. Water becomes cloudy and toys on the bottom of the basin are not visible. In order to get them, the kid will have to work a little. And if the baby is approaching the age of three and is able to understand your instructions, ask him to get some definite toy from the bottom of the basin - believe me. His fingers will work very hard, because the baby must know the toy by touch. Of course, you can not conduct such activities in a cold room or in the event that the crumb is sick.
- Ah, this foam!
Another favorite pastime is a game of foam. Gathered to bathe the baby? Make a little more foam than usual. Show your child how from ordinary foam you can make snowballs, squares and other figures. For sure after that, taking a bath will become a favorite pastime of crumbs, and the benefits of such a game with foam are very tangible.
Draw like all the kids. However, up to 4-5 years, the tassel does not want to obey the little fingers. But it does not matter! After all, specially for these crumbs, fingerprints were invented. You can draw at least the entire palm of your hand at once. Buy these colors are easy, they are in almost any office store. But do not forget to buy the sheets of Whatman - a landscape leaf for the creative flight of the baby will obviously not be enough.
- The most common children's plasticine
Of course, it is unlikely that your baby will create masterpieces, butthe simplest geometric figures are quite within his power. And molding develops small motor skills very effectively. But be very careful and do not leave a child alone for a minute - he can pull clay in his mouth. By the way, to avoid this, experts recommend for babies modeling of dough.
Child from three to six years old
For classes with children older than three years, specialistsrecommend using finger gymnastics. It is at this age that the child is already able to consciously repeat the exercises after you. However, strictly follow the fact that the classes were held exclusively in a play form and the child did not do anything under compulsion should not do. Otherwise, you can discourage his desire to learn for life. Pay attention - all exercises should be performed by the baby sitting at the table.
- Greeting fingers
Ask the child to put the palm on the table andmove your fingers, connecting and pushing them apart. By the way, with any such warm-up, absolutely any exercise should begin. After that, your "fingers, hello!" Replies. The child is supposed to connect the thumbs of both hands to the "one" account, to the "two" account - the indexes, to the "three" account - the middle ones, to the account "four" and "five", respectively, the nameless and little fingers.
- Who is faster?
Invite the child to imagine that the fingers -it's men and make competitions on the run. To do this, the toddler must quickly rearrange the index and middle finger of the right and then left hand on the table surface. After the child is well mastered this exercise, you can complicate the task and use both hands at once.
- Goat - Trees
A similar game is surely remembered by all adults,because she is as old as the world. True, the "goat" is most often made to small children. But for the development of fine motor skills in preschool children, it will have to come in handy. Only to fold fingers, depicting a goat, should not be a mother or grandmother, but the baby himself.
Remember the fable "Monkey and glasses"? Why not make it staged? Especially since the monkey you already have - sitting at the table. It remains to make glasses. Ask the child to connect the forefinger and the thumbs on both hands-rings will be obtained. It remains to attach them to the eyes and glasses are ready!
- Little Gray Rabbit Trouser
Turn off the top lighting and direct the lighta table lamp on the wall. Show the baby rabbit. Remember how you do it? Put up the index and middle fingers, and the little finger, the ring finger and the thumb connect. Bring it to the lamp and on the wall you will see a shadow of a bunny. After that, offer the kid to make a bunny.
At the expense of "one" the child should put the palms on the table, at the expense of "two" - squeeze the cams, and on the "three" - put the palms on the edge. This exercise should be repeated at least five times.
Ask the child to raise his hands up, and thento turn palms to itself. Blow on the hands of the baby, portraying the wind. And the kid let him move his fingers like a tree with branches. This exercise should be repeated for two minutes.
Ask the baby to stretch out his arms in front of him, to reduce all the fingers, and large, on the contrary, to expose. This exercise should be repeated at least five times.
Do you have a toy bird? So, the kid is sure to make a nest for her with pleasure. For this it is necessary to fold the palms together, touching the ribs. By the way, speech therapists sometimes call this "boat" exercise. But the essence of this does not change - the exercise is very effective and should be repeated no less than five times. All these exercises for the development of fine motor skills are very effective, but only if you are engaged with the child regularly, at least three times a week. Training should last at least 10 minutes, but not more than 15. We recommend reading: