teamwork A friendly and well-working team is a dreamany leader, since the organization of teamwork takes a large percentage of his time. However, this often does not save the company from tensions, conflicts and, as a result, a decline in the quality of labor. The main criterion for the organization of successful teamwork is, of course, a qualitative solution to labor problems. Efficiency of any activity is estimated according to the following formula: productivity * quality * resource costs * reliability. It is believed that teamwork is more effective than working alone. However, in doing so, it causes much more negativity and fear. This phenomenon is not due to the shortcomings of teamwork as such, but to the inability to organize it. Therefore, in this article, we tried to collect the most interesting and important information that reveals the principles of successful teamwork.

What is a team?

Organization of effective team workbegins with the organization of a good team. But not every group of people working together can be called a team. A team is a small number of people with complementary skills, united by a common goal, striving for common goals and sharing responsibility for their achievements. In the team, everyone's interests are secondary. Each member of the team must have a high professional level, be able to make decisions and effectively interact with other people. The members of the team depend on each other, more precisely, the work of one depends on the work of the other. Therefore, equality and constant exchange of information take place in the team. Team members share the responsibility for achieving the goal with each other. There is such a phenomenon as team accountability - these are certain promises that generate trust and guarantee the achievement of the result. To the great regret of managers, it is impossible to take and immediately build a good team. To this end, a group of people working together must undergo a number of important stages in its development. Here's how the team is organized:

  • Adaptation - there is mutual information andanalysis of tasks. People cautiously communicate with each other, pairs and triples are formed. They seem to check each other and work out norms and principles of mutually acceptable behavior, which results in some vigilance in the team. The effectiveness of teamwork at this stage is low.
  • Grouping - small subgroups are created bysympathies and interests. There are discrepancies between personal motivation and the goals of teamwork. Team members can counteract the requirements of the task - this determines the level of allowed emotional expression. For example, the secretary throws the papers and looks at how they will react.
  • Cooperation - team members realize their desire to work on the solution of the problem. This open and constructive communication first appears with the pronoun "we".
  • Normalization of activities - norms and principles of teamwork are developed. There is a sense of trust, interpersonal communication is at the highest level.
  • Functioning is the decision-making stagefor the constructive solution of problems. Everyone has a role to play. The team openly manifests and resolves conflicts. Now it is already possible to talk about a true team that has common goals for all members of the collective, joint activities to achieve these goals, the existence of a good and adequate organizational structure, a good psychological climate. The organization of effective team work at this stage can be considered successfully completed.
  • Psychologists describe a number of phenomena that arise in the group and are relevant to the effectiveness of teamwork:

    • volume effect - the results of activities depend on the size of the group (the effectiveness of a very small or very large group will be the smallest).
    • effect of the qualitative composition of the group - the resultsteamwork depends on the homogeneity-heterogeneity of the composition (the best group will work together, whose members are of different sex and age, but almost identical in social characteristics).
    • conformism - behavior or beliefs of membersgroups change as a result of real or imaginary group pressure. The role of public opinion is very high for each member of the team, and everyone respects the principles worked out by common efforts.
    • deindividualization - loss of self-awareness and fear of evaluation in situations of anonymity that do not focus on a particular person.
    • phenomenon of risk shift - the group takes the most or the least risky decision, rather than taking its members separately.
    • "Oglupnenie" thinking - all members of the group are engaged solely in the search for a solution that suits everyone and discard the realistic options.
    • social laziness - if responsibility is divided into group members, then all begin to work "through the sleeves."

    You can talk about some signs of organizationgood team. In it, participants consider themselves to be part of a working group. There is a balance between effective teamwork and cooperation. Members of the group feel competent, perform tasks independently and are responsible for their implementation. Between them there is an ongoing discussion to improve cooperation and increase the effectiveness of teamwork. Each person freely offers his ideas and criticizes others. Team members know about each other's tasks and have an idea of ​​the talents and abilities of each, which means interest and respect for each other. In the air there is an atmosphere of open and constructive communication, everyone goes to open dialogue. Information is constantly, quickly and purposefully transmitted to each other. There is an openness to the outside world and the organization of constructive cooperation with other teams. teamwork in the organization

    Who are you - the inspiration or critic?

    In a good team, each member feelsthe correspondence between what he gave to the group and what he received from her. This is achieved due to the fact that each person takes his optimal place in the team. Performing his function at this place, he feels a balance between what he can and what he wants. Studies have shown that in order to organize the most effective team work in a group, nine roles should be present. They do not need to be played by nine people - some team members can combine performing certain functions, playing more than one role, and two or more. Here are the roles:

  • "Working bee" This is disciplined and veryreliable person. He is conscientious in interpersonal obligations through constant internal control. He is practical, trusting and tolerant towards his colleagues, conservative and internally conflict-free. He works for the team, not focusing on his goals. Acts on the principle: "work is a moral duty". It is the "working bees" that transform the decisions and strategies of teamwork into concrete tasks - sort the goals and build the logic of their achievement. But the principles of organizing effective team work are such that teams consisting entirely of "working bees" (even if they have a very high level of intelligence) do not achieve results above the average, because they do not have valuable ideas and they do not have the flexibility - they get stuck when changes are needed.
  • "Leader" This is emotionally stable,calm and confident person. It is characterized by the organization of developing a strategic vision, integrating and coordinating the efforts of the team to achieve the goals. Is able to find for each respective role in the team. He can listen without prejudice, consider and evaluate the merits of all proposals, as a result of which the opinion of the whole group is formed. Instead of creative thinking, he has a strong character. He is strongly motivated to achieve results, has an average level of intelligence (116-132), because people who have too much intelligence, go into excessive reflection. Well sees the strengths and weaknesses of others, a good communicator, knows how to listen. As his shortcomings, it can be noted that he is inclined to fall under the influence of other people or may be inflexible in assessments. He can not infect with enthusiasm and effectively manages only in stable conditions.
  • "Motivator" It's very energetic, "running aroundskipping "the person. He does not get along very well with managers, and when he gets bored, his boss "eats". He is restless, inclined to domination, dynamic, has the pressure and courage to overcome obstacles (they tone him up). For him, life is a challenge. If the leader is a social leader of teamwork, then the "motivator" is the target leader responsible for the individual project. He quickly learns information, is shy and timid, and is prone to disappointment. As weaknesses, one can note his irritability, impatience, propensity to discontent.
  • "Idea generator" This is a creative, giftedrich in imagination, a creative person capable of solving complex problems. He is more concerned with the image entirely than its details. He is subject to the organization of the development of new projects, but other methods will be used to implement these projects. Such people are trustful and unprotected from attacks of society. They can make silly mistakes, because they devote much time to creative energy, ideas, but do not take into account the needs of the group or do not contribute to the achievement of the team's goals. He needs leadership support. If the "generator of ideas" is criticized, he can refuse cooperation altogether. This is its drawback - the organization of effective cooperation does not care much for him.
  • "Producer" This is a resource researcher,extroverted, full of enthusiasm. He is sociable, develops contacts well and uses other people to his advantage, skilfully directs the business conversation to a useful end for himself. He leaves the group and brings information, ideas, materials necessary for the group. His shortcomings: in solitary work, he is ineffective, he needs the enthusiasm of others. Can spend time on things that are not relevant to the goal. He is not able to work in monotonous and monotonous situations. That's why he often quarrels with "working bees". It protects teamwork from stagnation and gives the group a sense of reality.
  • "Critic" This is the person who carries outmonitoring and analysis of what is happening. For him, the correct organization of labor is more important, the task is more important than people. He is very reasonable and intelligent, well predicts the situation. His criticism does not offend people, because it is built on the principle of "nothing personal." He is a strategically thinking and insightful man, he considers all options and draws unmistakable conclusions. Its main function is to evaluate ideas. He is able to substantiate his position and sees the strengths and weaknesses of any project.
  • "Analyst" takes into account all the factors and leads the teamto make the right decision. Its shortcomings are that it pays little attention to people and is not able to motivate, it lacks warmth and cordiality. Due to increased attention to detail, it may lose its strategic purpose. Analysts do not show themselves brightly, so they should not be collected together. They best interact with the "leader", with the "motivator" and with the "idea generator", so the organization of their work should go exactly in this direction.
  • "Inspirer" This person is the "soul of the company"team player. Responsive, calm, receptive, diplomatic, able to listen to another. It prevents friction, regulates conflicts, calms - in general, ensures a good moral state of the team. He is able to have a delicate effect on the conflicting, to find common ground for the disputants, to give the team extra strength during the crisis. It is easy for all team members to interact with it, because the "inspirers" themselves treat any problems as costs of work. As flaws, it can be noted that the "inspirers" are indecisive, ill-equipped to act and are influenced by other people. For them, the task is nothing, the main thing is the team. They can not manage, they work best with the motivator.
  • "Controller" This is the co-ordinator, the "finisher" of the projects. He is organized, conscientious, disciplined, worried about the result. Is able to bring any case to completion. "Controller" is capable of intense effective work for a long period. It's bad if his activity is accompanied by perfectionism - then the completion may be delayed for a long time. "Controller" can be picky about others. He reluctantly delegates authority. Works well with "supplyers", "idea generators" and "motivators" - they offer ideas, and controllers implement them. They are respected by "worker bees". Worst of all, they interact with "analysts".
  • "Specialist" This is a member of the team that has rareknowledge and skills. Expert in any narrow professional field. I need a team to solve a very specialized task. Others are perceived critically, because it seems a bore. The organization of this man's labor is characterized by the fact that he can get carried away with small details to the detriment of the main goal.
  • All this does not mean that the team mustall nine people must be represented. But depending on the problem being solved, you need a certain set of roles that will avoid competition between similar roles and achieve results with minimal costs. principles of teamwork

    How to make the team work efficiently?

    Achieve high quality indicatorseven from one person. But what if you have a whole team in your submission and the effective organization of its work depends on you? There are a number of errors that reduce the effectiveness of the team:

    • The discrepancy between the leader, the team and the type of task being solved.
    • Unsuccessful selection of employees in the team.
    • Poor socio-psychological climate.
    • Lack of a clear goal or criteria for achieving it
    • Low productivity of teamwork

    These errors are the most common,but they can be avoided. Motivation of almost any person's work consists of three components: payment, interest and social significance. And if the first two elements are all heard, then the latter is often forgotten. But it's wrong - the team members should be convinced that they are carrying out an important project, the implementation of which will bring significant benefits to the company. This should be repeatedly discussed and shown at the meetings of management and the team. And yet the foundation of any team is people. On the one hand, they must have quite a lot of additional knowledge and skills necessary to realize the goal. And on the other hand, they should be easy to learn, because teamwork itself represents an educational process, during which the qualification of the worker increases. A special role among employees is played by the team leader. A competent leader, in addition to management, planning and control, must organize and motivate the work collective for joint activities, as well as develop self-government in it. Because of the characteristics of the human factor, this is often more difficult than fulfilling other of its duties: the machine works as long as programmed, and the person is always in different ways. The most important criterion in choosing a leader is his clear idea of ​​the organization of the team's work. The main mechanism of influence is negative and positive feedback. In addition, he represents the team in interaction with others and removes external obstacles. A good leader can be considered one whose work as a member of the team is not obvious to the other participants. As already mentioned above, at the initial stages of the formation of the team, the psychological climate inside it is distinguished by increased conflict sensitivity. The top management should take this into account and be loyal to the team in a similar crisis period. Reduce the number of collisions can be through training, brainstorming and work on interesting projects, during which the team will feel like a single whole. In order to reduce the number of conflicts the team needs clear rules and principles of work. And these conventions should be formulated and accepted by the team from within. Violation of these rules should be punished, and not "descend on the brakes." As a rule, the team feels for the first time as a team only when teamwork brings first success. Therefore, the most optimal first goal for the team will be a difficult goal, but achievable in a relatively short period of time. This will significantly raise the team spirit. It happens that the team, immersed in the work on the project, loses its connection with reality, which can negatively affect the effectiveness of its activities. To ensure that this does not happen, the manager must organize an influx of external information to and from the team. This will help her participants stay toned. As it was already written above, a special role is played by the organization of group interaction in teamwork. For intensive personal contact between team members, a time and place are needed where the team could work and communicate peacefully. Also, meetings will be useful in off-hours - especially in a crisis situation. Thus, in order to maintain effective teamwork, it is necessary to: define the requirements for the team leader and search for them based on these requirements, knowledge and consideration of the principles of forming a highly effective team, understanding the stages of team development and taking into account the limitations of teamwork. It is often impossible to take into account all the subtleties. In any teamwork there are weaknesses, and only in a successful team these weaknesses are compensated by strengths. In any case, working in a team is a risk. But who does not take risks, he does not drink champagne and does not reach the highest peaks. We advise you to read: