Restless legs syndrome is aquite often occurring in the modern world neurological disorder, characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs, as a result of which there is a desire to constantly move them. Most often this syndrome develops after 40 years, but can be observed in children and adolescents.
Restless legs syndrome can be primary andsecondary. Primary disorder mainly occurs before the age of 35 and is hereditary. The degree of manifestation of the disease is determined by the activity of the genes. However, this syndrome is a multifactorial pathology and is therefore conditioned by a complex of genetic factors and environmental factors. Secondary restless legs syndrome, also called symptomatic, occurs in people over 40 years of age. It develops against a background of some disease. Most often, the syndrome occurs when:
- iron deficiency.
Women in the situation are at riskthe occurrence of restless legs during the 2nd and 3rd trimester. After giving birth, the syndrome often passes by itself. However, in some cases, he can remain and bother the rest of his life. Uremia (high urea in the blood) develops mainly in individuals with renal insufficiency. It is in such patients who undergo a course of blood purification that the incidence of restless legs syndrome is very high. In addition to the above conditions, the causes of restless legs syndrome may be:
- post-poliomyelitis syndrome;
- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis;
- essential tremor;
- diseases of the spinal cord;
- venous insufficiency of the legs;
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- pathology of the thyroid gland;
There are cases when the cause ofRestless legs syndrome is a genetic predisposition, provoked by unfavorable factors of the external environment. The latter include excessive coffee consumption, iron deficiency or polyneuropathy. Therefore, the boundary between the two forms of the syndrome in this case is conditional. Obesity increases the risk of the syndrome by almost 50%. A special category includes obese people under the age of 20 years. In neurological patients, the disease can arise as a result of the coincidence of 2 pathologies, as the consequences of taking medications, with the coincidence of common links in the development of diseases. In persons with a primary syndrome, the results of a neurological examination usually do not reveal abnormalities, but in persons with a secondary syndrome, neurologic or somatic pathologies are most often found.
Symptoms and manifestations
In the restless legs syndrome, a person does notexperiencing pain. Suffering delivers the crawling crawling, pressure, burning, twitching in the thighs, calves, legs and feet. These unpleasant feelings involuntarily cause the patient to make moves with his feet, constantly stir them. Sometimes walking around the room weakens or completely removes discomfort. These restless conditions in most cases occur in the evening, at bedtime or in the first half of the night. By the morning discomfort passes and does not make itself felt until noon. The patient can not sleep properly, he has insomnia, he becomes irritable, quickly tired. In a similar condition, some can not even go to visit, to the theater or other public places. In other words, those suffering from restless legs syndrome can not live a full life, since in the literal sense of the word they can not find their place. Sometimes this condition exhausts the nervous system so much that it can lead to disability.
Diagnosis of the disease
Diagnosis of Restless Leg Syndrome is notcomplicated. It is based on several criteria, based on complaints of the patient. The following four criteria are sufficient to accurately diagnose:
If a person gives a positive answer to each of the 4 questions, then most likely he has restless legs syndrome. During the diagnosis, questions can be asked either verbally or in writing.
Treatment of the syndrome
To treat restless legs syndrome should be based onMoreover, the primary pathology is secondary or secondary. In a secondary syndrome it is necessary to identify the disease, against which he developed, and to begin treatment activities. It is advisable at the same time to check whether the patient has an avitaminosis. When it is identified, it is necessary to eliminate the scarce state. Most often, the syndrome is associated with iron deficiency. In such cases, treatment is performed using iron preparations in tablets, or intramuscular and intravenous injections. At the same time, the level of ferritin in the blood should be monitored. The use of such drugs as neuroleptics, lithium drugs, antidepressants, adrenomimetics, adrenoblockers, calcium antagonists, antihistamines, leads to an increase in the symptoms of the disease. Therefore, in the treatment of the pathological state of restless legs, these drugs should preferably be excluded or replaced. The primary restless leg syndrome should include symptomatic treatment, that is, aimed at relieving or eliminating discomfort in the patient. At the same time, a medicamentous and non-medicamentous form of treatment is isolated. The use of dosage forms is advisable only in the case of ineffectiveness of non-drug treatment and a serious decrease in the quality of life. In this case, groups of drugs can be used, such as: opiates, anticonvulsants, dopaminergic agents, benzodiazepines. All these drugs affect the nervous system, so they should be used exclusively under the supervision of a specialist. The following can be attributed to the non-medicamentous form of treatment:
From a timely appeal to a doctor in many waysdepends the effectiveness of treatment of restless legs syndrome. Therefore, with his first symptoms, you need to go to a specialist and as much as possible detail the existing feelings.