"Of what, what, what are our girls made ofand boys? "- sound the words of a well-known children's song. And they are applicable to the story of what a psychological structure of a person is. Many well-known scientists (and not just psychologists) puzzled over the answer to the question of what a person consists of, his personality and character. Someone said that out of needs, someone as such a unit pointed out some kind of line, and that is why practically every well-known psychologist has his own thoughts on the structure of the individual. In this article, we offer to your attention only the most interesting and applicable in real life.
The structure of personality in the writings of Z. Freud
The founding father of psychoanalysis could notworks to ignore such a basic problem as the psychological structure of the individual. In many respects it is from his reflections on this topic that other psychoanalytic discoveries are starting - personality types, its development, etc. ... Freud describes the following components of the personality:
- "Id" or "It" - the oldest education in the psycherights. It contains numerous instincts inherited from animal ancestors. The most famous are the instinct of life (together with their subspecies sexual instinct) and the death instinct (together with the craving for destruction and aggression). In our souls they appear in the form of desires and their unpleasant emotions. The main feature of these desires and emotions is their selfishness and self-centeredness. This is due to the fact that they reflect the biological and instinctive nature of a person, which includes exclusively bodily, hormonal and physiological needs. There is nothing social or cultural in these desires; for example, if a male wants a female, he beats her with a club on the head and drags him into the cave, without asking anything (although some women sometimes want such animal behavior from a man). Man by nature is deeply uncivilized, like his desires, which he constantly tries to satisfy. But, when he is in society, the realization of such "animal" desires becomes impossible, and a person begins to suffer. Freud believed that one of the few ways not censured by society to meet the instincts is fantasy - a person imagines the embodiment of his desire, but in reality nothing happens. True, it is always impossible to do with imagination alone.
- "Ego" As you enter into society, a person beginslearn to behave intelligently, and the person slowly develops the "Ego" - it separates from the "Id", but continues to take from there energy (there is nowhere else, because there are raging instincts, namely they are a source of tension and energy resources). The "Ego" includes thinking and perception, memorizing and actions related to the satisfaction of instincts. It controls the nervous system and musculature responsible for movement. But before the action itself, a person always decides whether or not he will do something, and if so, what exactly. "Ego" controls the relationship between "Id" and "Super Ego", which are in a state of perpetual conflict. Thus, the "Ego" helps the needs to find their satisfaction in the external world and, if possible, in the least destructive ways. For example, I want to satisfy a sexual instinct here and now, but the "Ego" whispers to us: "Wait until evening, when you can find yourself a partner in a nightclub ...". Due to its existence, attempts to realize the desires of a person become really effective. But, despite its relative civilization, the "Ego", like the "Id", works on the principle of pleasure, the essence of which is to strive to get rid of tension.
- "Super-Ego" It includes the rules, rules,behavior stereotypes are all ever invented social laws that a person assimilates and that help him to live in a society. "Super-Ego" and partly "Ego" are guided by the principle of reality, when external circumstances determine the behavior of a person. It is his voice we hear when we think about how to behave, about bans or about some rules. Based on how the personality structure was represented in the mind of Freud, he described various psychological problems, psychosomatic disorders, neuroses, etc. ... The reason for their occurrence is the conflict between "Id" and "Super-Ego": they are too different and constantly struggling with each other. "Id" is an animal origin, and "Super-Ego" is a cultural one. Because of the structure of society, many of man's desires can not be satisfied, which generates a neurosis. That's why many of us have different personal problems - we just can not be really happy with life, because Our animal has always been suppressed by society in one way or another. This is our payment for culture, civilization and security.
To the part, Freud describes one mechanism thatcontributes to the partial satisfaction of our secret desires. If we crave something shameful and antisocial, then we can try to replace the object of our need with a more accessible one within the framework of society. A person is constantly engaged in similar searches: for example, when he wants to destroy and kill, he goes to the gym or draws a picture. As a result of such compromises, we are able to shift energy to socially useful things, such as work, creativity, scientific achievements and the desire for power. This process is called "sublimation". Unfortunately, it is not able to completely remove the tension accumulating in a person, so the remaining and accumulated energy becomes the basis for anxiety and neuroses.
The structure of personality in the works of KG Jung
One of the most famous disciples of Freud (and at the same timebeing a renegade from his theory) Karl Gustav Jung is the author of his own theory of personality structure. Of course, it was strongly influenced by classical psychoanalysis, but it still remains interesting and original, and that's why we offer it to your attention. The personality structure of Jung includes the following levels:
"Consciousness". It includes two archetypes - "Persona" and "Ego". The person is the most superficial layer. It includes the masks that we "carry" in society, the social roles that we play for other people. Particular importance at this level is given to the symbols of clothing, any kinds of occupations (computer, portfolio, tools) or the status we occupy in society (Ph.D., designer accessories, car). All these symbols can find their manifestation in our dreams. For example, a person who has a "strong person" can dream a dream in which he is covered with ten layers of clothing. Even more important role in human life is played by the "Ego". It, in fact, is our consciousness, which arises from our experience. "Ego" creates a sense of coherence and continuity of the flow of thoughts, actions and emotions. The collective unconscious is a key concept in Jung's theory. It has an innate character: these are traces of the life and memory of our ancestors. Despite the fact that the collective unconscious is an inheritance from all mankind, it manifests itself in the psyche of every particular person in the form of archetypes. Archetype is a characteristic of all people and an innate mental image or structure that is recognized in human experience. Jung compares it to the river bed, in which there is no water. In fact, this is the form given by our ancestors for thinking, the imprint of collective experience. Archetypes find their manifestation in dreams, in creativity, in human activity. They can appear in the form of some images in which our ancestors tried to convey what was with them (heroes of myths, folk art, fairy tales and folklore, some traditions and rituals) or in the form of some specific symbols (Buddhist the wheel of life, uroboros - the snake biting itself by the tail, the cross, etc. ...) The individual unconscious. It includes several archetypes: "Self", "Anima and Animus," "Shadow." Shadow is all that a person thinks is immoral, ugly and unpleasant. It is the center of the individual unconscious. Unlike Freud's ideas, Jung's "Shadow" is not just a collection of disparate and repressed instincts, but something integral - "the bad I". It often comes to us in our dreams in the form of someone dangerous, dark or hostile. It is very important to recognize her presence: "Shadow" is part of the personality and emphasizes the dual nature of man and the variety of features present in it. For example, we can be good and evil, brave and timid. Pushing off the "Shadow", we generate internal conflicts. "Animus" in women and "Anima" in men - a collection of all the undesirable ideas about themselves as a man and a woman, respectively, who were forced out of consciousness. Something like "every man has a little female, and vice versa." Most people are embarrassed or reject the features of the opposite sex. Parents in many ways determine the formation of "Anima" and "Animus", and those in turn affect the choice of romantic partners. "Self" is the center of the individual unconscious. It symbolizes the order and integrity of the person's conscious and unconscious existence, unites them. Unlike Freud, Jung believed that the unconscious and consciousness do not fight, but, on the contrary, complement each other. It is like the principle of "yin and yang" - harmony, reconciliation of polarities and dynamic balance. The main goal in a person's life is the development of his "self"; Unfortunately, many people have not developed it so much that they do not even suspect its existence and consider consciousness to be the center of their personality. "Self" is realized only when harmony comes into the human soul, and this rarely happens before middle age. The development of "self" does not mean an end to the "ego": it still remains the center of consciousness, but at the same time it is connected with the "self". This is the essence of the process of self-realization. As a symbol of the self, Jung described a point or circle. Agree, there are a lot of them in the images of culture: pancakes, sun, planets, etc. ... The cause of various personal problems Jung saw in the violation of the balance between the conscious and the unconscious. For example, a person considers himself white and fluffy and completely refuses to accept the fact that his personality has dark sides. However, "Shadow" still breaks out, and when he encounters with it, it becomes very bad, sad and hard.
The structure of the individual in the writings of humanists
In addition to the psychoanalytic trend,The socio-psychological structure of the personality was also described by humanistic psychologists. They considered each person to be unique and unique, but some general framework exists. The most famous and easy to comprehend are the works of two authors - Abraham Maslow and Gordon Allport. Maslow believed that man is his needs, and his psychological structure of personality included five levels. The first two levels are lower needs: a person can satisfy them and for a while forget about them. The remaining levels are higher needs: a person, from Maslow's point of view, can not begin to satisfy them until the lower ones are realized, and their complete satisfaction is impossible (judge for yourself, if you have a need for love, it is almost inexhaustible, because it happens that you fell in love, fell in love, and you have enough!). So, what are the needs described by Maslow?
Indeed, Maslow created a beautiful and harmonioustheory, but the question arises: what about the examples that get out of it? For example, a hungry artist: he is able to almost nothing to eat for months - most importantly, that he had his favorite paints and an easel. A guy who saves his girlfriend? There are a lot of such examples, and they all confirm that for self-realization or love it is absolutely necessary to be full and in comfort (otherwise we would all be lonely). Another well-known humanist-oriented psychologist G.Olport offers his personality structure. He paid much attention to the relationship between the general and the individual in the person, and, accordingly, described the common and personal traits. Common features are the signs that all people have, but to varying degrees (for example, intellect - all people have it, but its level is different for everyone). Personal traits are individual features of behavior that make a person unique and make up an integral picture of his behavior. They are consistently repeated in this particular person, but practically absent in humanity as a whole. Personal traits are not some words, they are real facts that really manifest themselves in a person's behavior. And they are not just manifested - they determine it. Personal traits are related to each other - there are no clear boundaries between them. Rather, each person is a set of overlapping properties and characteristics. We must not forget that the personality trait is not synonymous with moral or social evaluation (although we have our own attitude to each line, for example, kindness is approved, and temper is blamed). Allport has divided all the personality traits into the following groups:
- Cardinal. These features have a very strong and pervasive influence on human life. They manifest themselves in almost every action or action. For example, a person with vivid authoritarian features in character always behaves rather specific: he speaks in a strict voice, commands, seeks power. This is due to his special perception of the world. As examples of such cardinal traits of character, Allport leads fictional heroes or famous historical figures, such as Joan of Arc, Machiavelli or Don Juan. Throughout the life of these people, it is easy to detect the influence of cardinal traits of character.
- The central ones. They are manifested in many situations, but not in all. On them we determine which type of person a person belongs to, since they are quite clearly manifested in his actions. Such traits include kindness, assertiveness, impulsiveness and others. Allport himself believed that each individual person has relatively few of them - only five to ten of the most important traits.
- Secondary. These are less noticeable features, but are regularly manifested. An example of such a characteristic can be homophobia - because a person rarely shows that he does not like homosexuals. Such features create a lesser image and description of a person: you need to know it thoroughly in order to notice these characteristics.
Allport also held a very important and interestingwork: he described the signs of a psychologically mature person. Some of them amaze with their simplicity, while others make you think about who you really are. In any case, you are probably interested to know if you are a mature person or not yet? Mature personality is original. Such a person is sincere in relation to others and to himself: he does not try to play the role of someone else, but prefers to be himself. He allows himself not to know something and does not depict sympathy for someone he really despises. In short, in his life he does not wear other people's masks, but tries to live his own life. A mature person takes on his own feelings. This does not mean that you are frank with others (although this is also important), but also sincerity with yourself. You do not say to yourself: "I'm happy about this stupid photo album," although in reality you feel anger and irritation. Very often this rejection of their emotions is promoted by others, for example, parents who say to their daughters: "Do not cry! How much can you do ?! "And we are" clamped "from this. But a psychologically mature person will not run from his feelings - he lives them and acquires a new experience. Only in this way can you truly build your life and choose your path. A mature person constantly strives to know himself as best as possible and learn about himself as much as possible new. The more a person knows about himself, the better he understands others, and vice versa. This increases the possibility of choice in your life. It is very important to realistically perceive yourself - then in your life there will be less stress and shocks. A mature person should know about herself what she can become, who she is now, what she wants from life, what is really important to her in life, and what is not very. Such a person constantly tries to find an answer to questions asked by life and tests his values, beliefs and experience for strength. A mature person has his own opinion, which is not a simple reflection of the positions of other people. He does have a certain power of personality. A mature person should be able to withstand a state of uncertainty. Many people, being in similar situations, feel uncomfortable. But due to the fact that one of the steps towards personal maturity is the "farewell" of a person with what has become familiar to him and "the seizure of new territories," one of the first necessities is self-confidence in a situation of uncertainty. After all, by and large, we never know what the future is preparing for us, accordingly, we always remain with some uncertainty about our own future. Reliance and self-reliance, self-confidence and intuition, the feeling that everything is doing right is all capable of helping us to withstand and survive the tension created by uncertainty. A mature person is responsible for his life. Many people tend to attribute blame for what is happening to their circumstances, but this is quite an immature position. An understanding of one's own responsibility contributes to understanding and accepting criticism, the realization of a conscious choice, and this is how real satisfaction with one's life is achieved. At the same time, a mature person does not suffer from perfectionism: it sets goals, but understands that no one is perfect and not omnipotent. Personally mature person, like all of us, evaluates other people - their actions, character traits, emotions and thoughts, but he does not condemn them and does not stick labels on them. He tries to get rid of stereotypes in communication. A mature person understands the whole danger of open and intimate relationships, but still tries to build them. He does not feel any special fears in this regard. A mature person is also able to treat other people with compassion and understanding. This ability varies in him from a light emotional response to a deep immersion in the inner world of a communication partner. For him, this becomes possible due to increased attention to the barely noticeable signals about the emotions that the partner and his body send.
Structure of personality in the works of domestic psychologists
That we are all about the West and about the West! In the end, our psychology has a lot of work and ideas in this area. The psychological structure of the personality was described in the works of many outstanding domestic scientists. Unfortunately, their names are not as well known to the general public as, for example, the names of Freud, Jung and Maslow. But their ideas are in many ways equally interesting, so we suggest you familiarize yourself with them. The most comprehensive and comprehensive is the psychological structure of the personality, proposed by Konstantin Platonov. He grouped psychological traits and described four levels of personality structure and two additional levels that permeate them. The first level is the direction of the person. It includes beliefs, ideals, outlook, interests and inclinations, personal attitudes, desires and inclinations, the attitude of a person to something. In this sphere, there is almost nothing innate - all this is acquired and nurtured by the individual in the process of accumulating life experience. That is why it is possible to influence this level only by upbringing. Agree, the attitudes of the intellectual and the person who grew up in the family of alcoholics will be quite different. The second level is the experience of the individual. It includes various knowledge, skills, habits and habits. It is obvious that the influence of the environment and human experience is still high here, however, the role of the biological factor is somewhat greater than in the previous case. In order to develop their knowledge, skills, it is necessary to learn and reach out to various information. The third level is the characteristics of mental processes. This is our will, feelings and emotions, the style of thinking, perception and characteristics of memory. This level is more and more influenced by innate and biological features of the organism, for example, genes and heredity. The level of development of all these processes varies with the help of various exercises: mnemonics, logical tasks, etc. ... The last level is the biological characteristics of the psyche. This includes temperament, sexual and age-related properties of the nervous system. Some things are amenable to training, but its capabilities are limited. For example, if a person was born with the temperament of a choleric person, then he will die with it, but he can try to somehow restrain mood swings and impulsiveness. All this is permeated by the abilities of man and features of his character. For example, the intellect as an ability is grounded at all levels of the psychological structure of the personality: it determines attitudes and beliefs, and life experience, and influences thinking with perception, and, of course, very much depends on the temperament and features of the activity of the nervous system. Similarly, with features of the characters: no one will argue that malice manifests itself on all four levels. You can not ignore the ability in the psychological structure of the personality. Their study is devoted to the work of the Golubevoi Era (it is especially pleasant to mention in the article from the women's magazine an outstanding female psychologist!). She says that four spheres are central to a person: character, ability, temperament and motivation. Each person has a motivation: it is defined as the needs of our body, and our interests and inclinations on the world outlook level. Through motives, motivation determines our character: depending on life goals and aspirations, we call the person evil or good, stubborn or passive, etc. ... Character through will is related to our abilities. For example, if you do not make efforts and do not do it, then all the makings will wither and abilities will not manifest themselves. On the one hand, they need a neuropsychic basis for their realization, and on the other hand, a person should have a vocation for a particular case. Abilities, in turn, are associated with temperament through the overall activity of a person. If it does not exist, then there will be nothing. That's all the most important thing that you should know about the psychological structure of a person. There are a lot of ideas and assumptions about this, and each theory works to some extent. You can sympathize with Freud with his attention to the unconscious, or, conversely, believe in Allport with his sincere love for man, but we should not forget: we have one reality, including a psychological one. And sometimes the scientists' attempts to talk about it remind us of the parable of the wise men who tried to study the elephant with their eyes closed: each described a certain part of it, but they could not form a more or less realistic idea of who the elephant really is. But, you will agree, it will be pleasant to show off in the intelligent company the knowledge in the field of deep psychology! We advise you to read: