The feelings of man are diverse and depend on ourinteraction with the existing reality. A huge number of emotions we are experiencing is also due to the fact that, close in nature, they differ from each other in the degree of intensity of experience and shades of expressive coloring. The variety of feelings leads to persistent attempts to systematize and classify them. It should be mentioned and often repeated attempts to group feelings from the point of view of emotional tone and intensity of experience, as well as the nature of the relationship of a person to the object of feeling. It's about easy or stormy joy, resentment, hatred, sorrow, sadness, shame, admiration, sympathy, love and so on. This classification makes it possible to make some sort of systematization of human feelings. But it is fundamentally incomplete. In it there is a distraction from the concrete content, which is very important for characterizing the senses. For example, the joy in connection with the victory of a favorite football team and the joy of meeting with a friend or connected with listening to a music piece are very different from each other. There are also some types of anxiety in emotional coloring: for the fate of the hero of a novel or film, when riding a boat in a strong wind, caused by the opinion of people when we do something, and so on. Distraction from the specific content of feelings, taking place in such a classification, led to the creation of groups that took into account their content side.
Principles of classification of feelings
First of all, we must proceed from the principlematerialistic psychology. He says that the human psyche is a reflection of the objective reality that exists independently of it. Therefore, the question can be posed as follows: how is reflected in the sphere of the individual's feelings the reality in which he lives, acts with which he is connected in various ways? Reality is understood by us in the broadest sense. It is nature, human society, individuals, social institutions (state, family, etc.), the process and products of human labor, acting in various forms, morality norms and so on. In the individual consciousness of a person are reflected those features of social consciousness that are inherent in this society, an era with its range of views of the world, life, rules and norms of behavior and relationships between people. Reality in its concrete manifestations is perceived by every person, guided by the social consciousness of its time. We all live in these realities and act according to the needs developed in us, the assessments, the views on things and phenomena, the ideas of the moral and beautiful acquired in the process of our life in society. This reality is reflected in the individual consciousness of each individual, including in the emotional sphere. On this basis, feelings differ: first, according to the object of reality to which they are directed (real, imaginary, present, past and so on, possessing certain properties and qualities from the point of view of social practice); secondly, in its essence and content. Under the maintenance it is necessary to mean an orientation of feeling, character of the emotional relation to object (the object of feeling is accepted or rejected and so on) and features of arising subjective state. The connection of a person with reality, acting in the process of his life and activity in complex diverse combinations, makes to some extent conditional that classification of feelings that can be established. However, some types of feelings should be highlighted. And above all, these are those that are reasonably called higher feelings: moral, aesthetic, intellectual. They are associated with people's perception and awareness of the diverse phenomena of social life and culture. The emotional attitude of a person, manifested in these experiences, can spread both to relatively simple, and to the most complicated forms of relations, to social institutions and the creation of culture. These kinds of emotions and feelings have a number of characteristic features. First, they can achieve a great degree of generalization in their developed forms. Secondly, which is very important, they are always connected with a more or less distinct awareness of social norms relating to this or that side of reality. These higher feelings, due to the fact that they reveal to a certain extent the attitude of man in general to the world and to life, are sometimes called ideological senses. In a concrete experience of the individual, referring to the complex phenomenon of reality, they can act in an integrated complex and in various combinations, but for a more precise explanation of their qualities it is worthwhile to consider them separately.
By this kind of feelings are meant those emotions andthe sensations of a person that he experiences, looking at beauty or, conversely, on her absence - ugliness. The object of perception in this case can be works of art (music, sculpture, poetry and prose, painting, etc.), a variety of natural phenomena, as well as the people themselves, their actions and actions. Indeed, much aroused in a person aesthetic pleasure: the beauty of living landscapes, reading books and poems, listening to music. We get pleasure from the purchased clothes, created interior, modern furniture and even from new kitchen utensils. The same applies to the actions committed by people around us, because we evaluate them from the point of view of those generally accepted norms of morality that exist in society. It must be said that aesthetic types of feelings can be both contemplative and active. In the first case, this is due to a simple observation of the objects that make up the reality of the person, in the second variant such emotions are able to give aesthetic features to our actions. It is therefore peculiar for an individual to enjoy himself in the process of how he himself sings or dances. Especially important is the role of aesthetic sensations for creative natures, seeking to convey their perception of the world through works of art, literature, painting, and much more. If we talk more specifically about this kind of human emotions, then in the variety of sensations that he presents, it is worth highlighting several of the most important. These experiences are familiar to any person, without them it is impossible to imagine the full spiritual life of every individual and society as a whole. So, the most significant feelings of the described species are the following. Aesthetic pleasure It is based on the feeling of pleasure that a person experiences at the moment when he perceives colors, shapes, sounds and other features of objects or phenomena. It is thanks to this feeling that we can prefer some shades of colors to others, to single out those or other individual notes, to admire the particularly liked elements of architectural structures. This is the simplest form of aesthetic pleasure. As for its more complex manifestations, in this case, it will be no longer a matter of individual parts, but of their combinations when perceiving a whole object or phenomenon. For example, if you imagine the image of a purebred trotter, then in him a person can like everything - suit, breed, swift movements and even a proud neigh. Because all these inherent features of the horse are in harmony with each other and create a complete complete image. If we talk about sounds, then we will receive aesthetic pleasure from consonance, but dissonance causes opposite emotions. The same applies to movements, because their rhythm is like more than its absence. The feeling of beauty This feeling is peculiar to experience a person at a time when he perceives the visible and tangible beauty of nature and people. Such sensations and emotions cause in us beautiful flowers, graceful animals, picturesque landscapes and so on. The feeling of beauty we experience also when the noble deeds of a person make us think about the breadth of his soul and the right attitudes. It must be said that the beauty of phenomena and objects exists by itself and does not depend on whether our consciousness perceives it. It combines in itself all the parts from which the whole is composed. For example, the appearance of a person is not just the outline of a figure. We perceive every facial feature, the color of the eyes, skin and hair, the harmony and proportionality of the figure, the timbre of the voice and so on. And, what is especially important, beauty can not consist only of purely external factors. The form must necessarily correspond to the content. It often happens that in the person of a person asymmetry is noticeable and far from the classical canons, but it harmonically corresponds to the soul and expresses the character that is perceived by us as truly beautiful. Sensual perception of the tragic These emotions are associated with strong emotional experiences. For example, a particularly successful acting game in the creation of a certain human image can evoke in us a whole chain of tragic feelings such as compassion, indignation, sympathy. These feelings ennoble people, make you think about high, giving the thoughts a special depth and subtlety of perception. The power of affective states exerts a sort of purifying influence on man. Watching the development of a particularly dramatic story in the theater, cinema or reading a book, we are coming closer to the denouement in our growing sensations. And when she finally comes, then the person embraces a storm of emotions and experiences, after which he finds calm and pacification. But for this, the work itself must be truly beautiful and extraordinarily impressive. The feeling of comic These emotions, perhaps, can be called the most controversial of all kinds of aesthetic feelings. Indeed, we sometimes laugh at absolutely polar things, over what, it would seem, should evoke tears. But this is how a person works - according to the statements of great philosophers, it consists of continuous contradictions. We laugh at all sorts of discrepancies: for example, a tall fat man at the wheel of a tiny car, a three-year-old baby in mother's shoes "on a hairpin" and so on. As for laughter through tears, this often happens with people prone to reflection. It is they who usually expect a lot from reality, tend to idealize the world around them and want to see a high sense where they do not exist. And when it turns out that the promising forms hide a void underneath, then we laugh, sometimes above ourselves. And this is a very good quality, which develops in us exactly sense of common sense, because it allows you to think about the imperfection of the world and direct your efforts in order to somehow influence it. For example, the illustrations that are familiar to all of the magazines, ridiculing those or other human vices (smoking, alcoholism, marital infidelity, laziness, greed, etc.) force them to fight against them in their own real life.
Moral or moral feelings
These kinds of feelings are characterized by experiences,which a person experiences in his relations with other people, with the society, and also in the process of fulfilling certain duties imposed by society. Here moral values and concepts of personality are meaningful - they form in each of us the image of morality and morality. After all, what is conscience, for example? This is a measure of responsibility for a particular act of a person in front of society. To the moral feelings can be attributed all those emotions that we experience in the process of communicating with people: trust, sincere disposition, affection, friendship, love. Do not forget about the sense of duty, national pride, love for the Motherland, solidarity and so on. The role of this kind of feelings is very great, because it is important for a person to be able not only to dissolve in the crowd, that is, to defend his own "I", but also to consolidate with oneself in time, gaining moral "we". Humanism It is with a sense of humanity that our love for the Motherland, for people, patriotism and national identity is connected. In this case, a whole system of life attitudes of the person works, all his moral norms and values are involved. They are expressed in empathy, aimed at communication, assistance, mutual assistance. It is thanks to humanism that we respect the rights and freedoms of others, we try not to damage their honor and not insult our dignity. Feeling of honor and dignity These kinds of high feelings are peculiar to determine a person's attitude to himself and how he is perceived by others. In simple words, honor is the recognition by others of your achievements. It is these feelings that cause us to create a worthy reputation, a certain level of prestige, a good name among our kind. Dignity is a public recognition of the rights of a person to respect and independence from the social environment. But we ourselves must realize all this, assess our actions in terms of morality and morality, and reject what can humiliate or insult us. An unbiased assessment of a person's actions and relationships to other people is yet another definition of conscience. The higher our moral and moral self-awareness, the more responsible and conscientious we act. Feelings of guilt and shame These unpleasant emotions also refer to the moral feelings that form the image of any normal person. They are original guards that protect us from the harmful effects of our vices. Wine is a more mature emotion - it is more vividly expressed than shame. A sense of guilt arises when a person commits anything that runs counter to his moral convictions and principles. It is these feelings that do not allow us to go beyond the bounds of life in society. As for shame, it is often confused with guilt. However, these are different feelings. Common manifestations of shame are discomfort, confusion, regret, experienced by a person in the event that it does not meet the requirements of other people. In this case, he is waiting for contempt or ridicule. This is how an inexperienced stripper feels, experiencing the debut performance on stage in the men's club. After all, she is afraid to deceive the expectations of the crowd and is ashamed of her nakedness and defenselessness.
And, finally, it's time to talk about the third kindhigh human feelings - about the intellectual. Their basis is any cognitive activity that we carry out during study, work and creative research in science or art. It is intellectual senses that are responsible for the search for truth, that is, the only correct answer to many of the most important universal human questions. There is an inextricable link between the processes of cognition and intellectual emotions. The first is impossible without the second. Mental activity of a person that arises in the process of scientific work will bring tangible results only if he is really interested in the object of his study. And those of us who study or work simply out of a sense of necessity, often do not succeed in this and are disappointed. The feeling of surprise This feeling occurs when a person gets to know something new and unknown. We are surprised by extraordinary events, which we could only guess at. A successful process of cognition in general is impossible without this emotion with its joyous tinge. Surprise, which is caused by this or that surprise, makes a person pay close attention to an unknown object or phenomenon, thereby prompting to learn more and more new faces of the world. Feeling of doubt Practical, any person experiences it, if on the way to truth confronts with contradictions. It is doubt that prompts us to seek new proofs of the correctness and correctness of views and theories, comprehensively test them and only then release them into the world. Without these emotions, it is difficult to imagine at least one scientific discovery, and indeed human life in all its manifestations. Feeling of confusion or clarity of thought These feelings are manifested in us by anxiety and dissatisfaction, if the object of our knowledge is seen by us is unclear if we can not orient in its features and connections. Such feelings force a person to deeper understand certain issues related to study or work. As soon as our thoughts turn from clear and uncertain into clear ones, so-called insight begins and self-satisfaction comes, thoughts become ordered and acquire a logical sequence. Feeling of bewilderment Such sensations are connected with impossibility to give a clear explanation to any fact, object or phenomenon. It happens that in our research and research we find ourselves in a situation where existing links and definitions of something do not suit us. Then we again have to start all over again and look for mistakes in our actions. Bewilderment makes a person come back to choose the right direction. Feelings of conjecture and certainty These sensations are based on the construction of scientific hypotheses and their proof. Initially, a person can not yet accurately establish and trace the connections between the objects under investigation, but guesses about their nature. In the process of further mental activity, logical conclusions appear, which are confirmed in practice. That's when we feel confident in the correctness of our actions. The feelings experienced by people, described above, and many others, being a personal "response" to the surrounding reality, are generated in their content, first of all, by the nature of the phenomenon to which they are directed. Then they are determined by the attitude that each of us has developed to this side of reality in the process of long-term social practice. And, finally, they largely depend on the nature of individual human needs, developing and changing in the development of society. We advise you to read: