A few decades ago, women who gave birthchild outside marriage and educating him alone, were persecuted and condemned by society. Such children were the target for ridicule, teasing and caustic by peers. A kid without a father was considered a disgrace to the family, it is natural that there was no question of any benefit to single mothers at that time. Modern mores have radically changed, but this does not mean that a girl without a husband is now easy to raise a child. In addition to the psychological problems that every small person, who is brought up in an incomplete family, faces, there are financial difficulties. It is quite difficult for a woman to provide herself and her baby. Despite the fact that the law provides for social benefits and benefits, not everyone knows and enjoys their rights. In addition, the amount of such payments is not too large, and sometimes in order to get a scanty amount for raising a child, a single mother has to spend a lot of time and energy. However, every woman should have information about what kind of assistance from the state she should expect and how it can be achieved.
The status of a "single mother" in life and in law
In the modern world, where marriage has long been notis something sacred, women who raise a child without a spouse are often met. However, from a legal point of view, not all of them can rightly be considered a single mother. According to the law, a single mother is recognized as a woman who herself brought into the world and brings up the baby without being married. In the same category are situations where there is no joint statement of both parents on the establishment of paternity when registering a child. In this case, in the book of birth registration crumbs is recorded on the mother's surname, independently and at will, indicating the name and patronymic of the baby. Thus, in his document in the graph, paternity will be either a dash or "information entered from the mother's words." In this case, a woman is issued an official certificate confirming her status. However, if a child has a father, regardless of whether he lives with him or not, the newly mum can not be considered lonely by law. But she has every right to attract a man to participate in the life of crumbs, say, to sue and collect alimony from him. Today there are often other cases. If a woman lost her husband, that is, she became a widow, then she is not recognized as a single mother, accordingly, there is no need to expect a monthly allowance. However, the state provides for other assistance in connection with the loss of the family breadwinner. It is possible and this option: a man leaves the family, as soon as his choice has left the hospital or is still in the situation. In this case, the future mother is entitled only alimony. Experts recommend that when registering a birth certificate, do not indicate the father's last name, first name and patronymic, but simply leave the box unfilled. This is due to the fact that if the pope is inscribed in the document, in certain cases - for example, when leaving Russia - the woman will have to take his permission to take the child. The same situation will arise when registering the baby at the address of the mother's residence - the second parent must give its official consent. However, there is also the reverse side of the coin: if the certificate "the fatherhood" is left blank, then in the future the kid can not become an heir and claim the property that was assigned to him. As you can see, the definition of the very concept of a "single mother" according to the law and in the everyday life of a philistine is two different things. So, many divorced women, who have children, call themselves single mothers. However, this is not so, because one thing is a strict letter of the law, and quite another - a simple speech turn. Therefore, let us once again dwell in greater detail on the cases in which a woman who has given birth and independently brings up a baby can legitimize her status:
- If she produced a child, not at that time in a marriage, and paternity was not properly established, that is, in judicial or voluntary order.
- You can also count on a monthly allowance if she gave birth to a baby 300 days or more after the official dissolution of the union with the father of the crumbs.
- A child was born when a woman wasmarried or by the time the prescribed number of days has not yet passed (indicated above) after the divorce, and the spouse recorded a spouse (ex-husband), however, paternity was contested by him. In addition, the newly mum has a legally binding court ruling that the man is not a parent.
- If she was not officially married to anyone, she adopted or adopted the child herself.
In general, widows, divorced, as well as women,who voluntarily deprived a man of the right of fatherhood, legally accustomed to calling themselves single mothers, in fact, by law, they are not. Hence, despite the fact that they raise one child or several children without a husband, they are not entitled to appropriate payments. According to the legislation of the Federation, a single mother writes a newborn baby to her surname, and a middle name - at will. Unfortunately, in our country many know what duties they are assigned to, but their full rights are not fully informed. A woman with the above-mentioned status, having applied to her home in her residence, receives a corresponding allowance, the amount of which is determined by the state.
Basic rights of a single mother
A single mother is legally entitled to the samebenefits for the birth of a baby, which appoint and all other women who bring up the child with her husband. However, it should be borne in mind that there are two types:
- a one-time federal benefit that all mothers without exception, living in Russia, receive;
- payments at the expense of budgetary funds of the subject of the Russian Federation. The latter, in turn, determine their own size, as well as the procedure for allocating allowances, with their regulatory and legal documents, from their own budget funds.
In order for a woman to be assesseda certain amount, after the appearance of crumbs to light, you should contact the social protection authorities at your place of residence. Let us dwell in more detail on what kind of benefits are put to the newly mum:
- on pregnancy and childbirth;
- lump sum allowance for the birth of a child;
- lonely working mothers are paid monthly leave for caring for the baby until he turns 18 years old;
- a one-time benefit to girls who registered with a medical institution before the twelfth week of pregnancy;
- monthly payments to the baby.
Benefits that pay lone mothers,differ from the usual by their size. In various regions of the Russian Federation, there are additional payments to women who raise a child without a spouse for the purpose of social support. So, in order for a new mother to be assigned a monthly child benefit, it is necessary:
- first, go to the social protection authorities, to which she is assigned in accordance with the place of residence - sobes or RUSZN - and write a statement;
- secondly, to provide a number of documents: a certificate of birth of a baby, a certificate of the composition of the family from the housing office, as well as a work book, a passport and a savings book.
Please note that information about your income in the application should be indicated in writing. In addition, in confirmation of the reliability of the data from you may require a certificate from the accountant at the place of work.
State support for single mothers
About what privileges are laid for single mothers andwhat is their size, you can find out by applying to the law "On State Benefits for Citizens Who Have Children". In the current year, women, raising a child without someone's help, can count on the following:
- compensation for the gradually rising cost of food products, which are intended for children under the age of three;
- Natural assistance and a monthly allowance for the child until he is three years old;
- free linen sets for newborns;
- for children up to two years of age, free dairy and baby food is provided, which is issued strictly by prescription from a doctor in specialized medical institutions;
- when there is an accrual of payment for exportgarbage and solid food wastes, as well as for cleaning entrances and home territory, children under 1.5 years are not included in the total number of people living in the apartment;
- schoolchildren from single-parent families are guaranteed free two meals a day in the dining room;
- children who are brought up by single mothers,receive benefits for training in art schools, in sports, music, art and others. At the same time, the payment is 30% lower than the normal cost that all other students of an institution contribute;
- the state provides assistance in providing free medications for children up to three years old.
According to the current legislation, a mother, independently raising a child, is entitled to such payments and benefits as:
- Monthly allowance for the baby, and its sizesomewhat higher than that which other married women receive. At the same time, the level of material security of a single mother, as well as the living conditions, are not taken into account.
- Payments for the care of the child in case of hisdiseases, the size of which is calculated depending on certain circumstances. So, if the baby is observed in the hospital, the calculation is made taking into account the length of the mother's length of service. In case of outpatient treatment, the allowance is paid in full for the first ten days, and from the eleventh it is charged at a rate of 50% of the salary.
When a baby-preschooler is ill, his motherreceives the same benefit completely for the entire period of forced vacations. For example, if they are from a week to two, then a period of fifteen calendar days is taken for payment, if the doctor's report says that the period of treatment is not necessary to prolong.
- In the event that an enterprise occursany reduction of the staff, single mothers are under the protection of the state, that is, do not fall under the dismissal. Also, they can not be removed even in connection with the inconsistency of the position they occupy, or the change of management of the company.
- A woman raising a child without a spouse hasthe right to an additional annual leave of at least two weeks (wages are not retained). At the same time, she can take it at any time suitable for her.
- In the event of the liquidation of an enterprise, the law stipulates that the incumbent manager must employ single mothers, pregnant women, and women who have children up to three years of age.
No matter how many people are standing in line for housing,The first right to own it belongs to single mothers. In addition, they can unimpededly arrange their minor child in a children's institution to fully ensure the state. As for schools, here the child, who grew up without a father, can be provided free meals and textbooks upon the director's decision. In each children's polyclinic, a single mother has the right to receive from the doctor a list of medicines for which benefits are available, the amount of which may vary. However, for expensive drugs in most cases, the discount is about 50%. In territorial offices of the Russian Federation, mothers raising a child (or children) alone, in turn, are given free or with partial surcharge vouchers to health camps or sanatoriums at least once every two years. In addition, prefectural workers are responsible for organizing the sale of children's things. In each constituent entity of the Federation, single mothers can be provided with additional cash payments, which can be learned by contacting their Sobes. We advise you to read: