Stroke. This disease has long been a real scourge of modern mankind. Scientists note with alarm the fact that the stroke is rapidly "younger" - in our days it can overtake even quite young people 3-4 years old. Severe headache, nausea, vomiting. Loss of consciousness - this is how the cerebral stroke makes itself felt. And to predict when, where and whom he will overtake once again, is almost impossible. That is why all adults need to know the signs of a stroke, the reasons for its development about how to provide first aid to a sick person. After all, often a person's life depends on the literate and operative actions of those people who happened to be near the stroke.
Causes of Stroke
The development of a stroke is due to a sharpchanges in the normal circulatory process in the human brain. In the event that the vessels of the brain are healthy, the blood does not coagulate in them. However, when a person suffers from a number of certain diseases, for example, cerebral arteriosclerosis, specific plaques form on the walls of the vessels, which lead to the fact that the walls of the vessels become brittle, and the vessels themselves become narrower. As a rule, it is in people with similar pathological changes in cerebral vessels that the normal process of cerebral circulation is disturbed, as a result of which a stroke develops. In the event that the stroke occurs against the background of a dynamic circulatory disturbance in the vessels of the brain, it is the least dangerous. In this case, the violations occur quickly enough, but also quickly disappear and, therefore, are called dynamic. One of the striking examples of such a violation is a short-term sharp narrowing of the cerebral vessels caused by a significant rise in the level of arterial pressure. The second most frequent cause of dynamic disturbance of cerebral circulation is a sharp drop in blood pressure, however, there is no narrowing of the vessels of the brain. This phenomenon often occurs in the case when a sick person is weakened by the activity of the heart, as a result of which the blood flows from the brain to the internal organs of man. Another common cause of stroke is violations such as embolism and thrombosis. So, for example, in the event that a blood clot seals up any vessel, blood on it ceases to flow into that part of the brain, for the blood circulation in which exactly the affected vessel responds. As a result, the death of this part of the brain is very rapid. Thrombosis, as a rule, most often develop in those people who suffer from pathological changes in the walls of blood vessels in the disease of atherosclerosis, changes in blood composition and consistency, slowing blood flow, and constantly low blood pressure. Embolism, too, is a form of blockage of the vessels of the brain. Vessels can be clogged with blood clots that are not formed in the brain, but in the distant organs of the body. Most often in the brain, a thrombus gets from the surface of the heart valves changed by various diseases. In the event that the stroke is caused by a thrombus, its signs do not appear instantaneously, but grow slowly, but systematically. Initially, a sick person can complain about a feeling of numbness in one or another hand or leg, then his speech becomes inarticulate, the person becomes pale, loses the ability to orient in time and space. Particularly attentive in the appearance of such symptoms should be relatives of those sick people who are sick with such a disease as atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels. In no case, when such symptoms appear, one can not apply cold to the head of a sick person, and even more so to raise it. It is permissible to transfer the diseased person only in a horizontal position.
Symptoms of hemorrhage in stroke
Another reason that disrupts blood circulation in thethe brain, is a hemorrhage into the brain itself or its shell. The risk of cerebral hemorrhage is especially great in those people who suffer from hypertension or atherosclerosis. This is due to the fact that because of the disease the walls of the blood vessels become thinner, they become very light. And any increase in blood pressure leads to the fact that the blood vessels are simply ruptured, or blood seeps through the walls of the vessels. In the event that the stroke occurred due to a cerebral hemorrhage, the symptoms of the stroke will be as follows: the sick person suddenly loses consciousness and falls. The face acquires a purple hue, it swells enough, the lips become cyanotic. On the neck clearly appear bulging pulsating veins, and breathing becomes extremely heavy and noisy, clearly audible wheezing. In the event that the work of individual areas of the brain is broken, the patient may develop left-sided or right-sided paralysis of the body. Sometimes, partial or complete loss of skin sensitivity is added to it, as well as partial or complete speech disorder. These processes can be either reversible or irreversible. Depending on the severity of the lesion. First of all, a sick person needs to ensure complete peace and quiet. Try not to move the sick person - if there is such an opportunity, it must be left in the same room where he suffered a stroke. All extraneous people. In addition to those who provide assistance. Must immediately leave the room. Unfasten the collar and waistband of the sick person immediately, free him from all tight clothing. Open the doors and windows to ensure maximum oxygen flow. Be sure to check if he has dental prostheses, and if there is - pull them out of the mouth. Try before the arrival of the brigade of "first aid" as much as possible to dim the light - a bright light creates a strong discomfort for the sick person. The only case of a stroke in which it is necessary to raise the head of a sick person is a cerebral hemorrhage. As already mentioned, it is very easy to recognize even a person who does not have medical education - the face of such a patient blushes and swells. In this case, it is necessary to put a pillow on the shoulders and head of the sick person, and in their absence - folded clothes. If there is ice or cold water within reach, it is necessary to attach them to the head, first for 10 minutes to its left side, then for another 10 minutes to the right. At the feet of the sick person it is desirable to attach either hot water bottles or hot water bottles. In extreme cases, they must be continuously rubbed. This measure will help increase the flow of blood to the legs and, accordingly, reduce the tide to the brain. However, be careful with heaters - the sensitivity of the skin, as a rule, is greatly reduced, so it is necessary to avoid burns. Be careful when providing first aid - as you have already seen for yourself, the disease is caused by various causes, the stroke signs are also different, so the first aid in all cases is different. And those measures that are vital for one sick person, for another can become deadly. And if you are completely at a loss in a stressful situation, it is better to do nothing at all. Limit yourself to common measures: call an ambulance, gently lay the sick person, unbutton the clothes and wait for the ambulance to arrive. During the call of doctors, clearly describe what signs of a stroke a person has - so the dispatcher will send doctors - resuscitators.
The consequences of a stroke
Despite the high level of modern medicine,as well as the level of study, stroke does not cease to present various surprises to doctors in the form of their consequences. It is impossible to predict the consequences of even those strokes that are caused by the same reasons - they will be different for different people. However, there are several common features in all patients who have suffered a stroke. The most easily eliminated those sick people who suffered a stroke, which developed due to dynamic circulatory disorders in the brain - for them the stroke passes without any special consequences. In the same case, if the stroke was the result of embolism or thrombosis, with a very high probability of the patient in the long-term paralyzed movement of the hands and feet. In the event that a hemorrhage occurred in the right hemisphere of the brain, the work of the right arm and leg paralyzes. If the left hemisphere turned out to be affected, in addition to the defeat of the right hands and feet, speech is severely affected. This happens because it is in the left hemisphere of the brain that there are speech centers responsible for the person's ability to talk. And sometimes a person not only loses the ability to pronounce words, but completely ceases to perceive speech, in particular words addressed to him.
Recovery after a stroke
However, a stroke is not a sentence. With the help of doctors and close people, a sick person has every chance to return to a full-fledged lifestyle. The functions of the body lost because of a stroke in most cases can be restored almost in full. The circulation of the brain is restored, albeit not through damaged primary vessels, but through a network of additional lateral vessels. In the event that part of the brain regions is atrophied, their function is usually assumed by neighboring healthy parts of the brain. It is due to this that the body recovers from a stroke. However, the patient's native people need to be patient - it takes time to recover. And it is impossible to say unequivocally how long it will take. The recovery process can take a month, and two, and even a year. Everything depends on the degree of brain damage and individual characteristics of the body. And the help of native people can greatly speed up the recovery of a sick person. First of all, it is necessary to pay close attention to the nutrition of the sick person. Proper nutrition plays a very important role in the recovery of a person. Doctors - nutritionists recommend to include in the diet of a person who has suffered a stroke, the following products:
- Dairy products: cottage cheese, milk, kefir, yoghurts.
- Various cereals: buckwheat, oatmeal, millet.
- Wiped fruit and hair.
- Boiled meat of low-fat varieties.
- Low-fat fish.
Multivitamin complexes -consult with your doctor how to give preference. Pay attention to the amount of food - portions should not be unnecessarily large - because a person keeps lying down all the time, excess weight to him to anything. The same applies to liquid - a day a sick person should drink no more than 5 - 6 glasses of liquid. Make sure that the sick person has a regular chair. If the patient has constipation, remember that products such as prunes, fruit, kefir and yogurt greatly increase intestinal motility. Do not forget about the morale of the sick person. Talk to him, read the newspapers, let me watch TV. All this will allow the sick person not to feel detached from life. And in the event that a sick person gets enough impressions in the daytime, his sleep will be strong.
Prevention of stroke
Approximately half of all cases of strokedevelopment could have been prevented if the necessary measures had been taken in a timely manner. For example, very often the cause of a stroke is excessively dense blood. Virtually none of the sick people is aware of this particular feature. But if they had taken timely preventive examinations with a doctor and had donated blood for analysis, they would have known about this fact. To prevent the development of a stroke with excessively dense blood is quite simple. It is enough to drink half a pill of acetylsalicylic acid before bedtime, which very well dilutes the blood. The tablet should be washed down with milk to prevent irritation of the gastric mucosa. In the event that a person suffers from cerebral atherosclerosis, he must also receive the necessary treatment that will help to avoid the development of a stroke. In addition, a person should be under the constant supervision of doctors. It is also in no case unacceptable to ignore the increase in blood pressure. Of course, a single increase in pressure is not dangerous. However, hypertension is already a very serious signal of danger. And, of course, the most important prevention of stroke, and not just a stroke, is a healthy lifestyle. Liters of coffee, cigarettes, alcoholic drinks and lack of sleep are the right way to say goodbye to health. We advise you to read: