Adolescence is second only toinfancy period of rapid growth and development of the child's body. This sudden spurt of growth and other changes is associated with hormonal, cognitive and emotional changes that make a teenager particularly vulnerable during this period of his life. At this time there is an increased demand for calories and nutrients due to a sharp increase in growth and development in a short period of time. And at the same time, the way of life, and with it the nutritional habits of adolescents, changes significantly. They feel grown-up and independent, and begin to choose at their discretion dishes and foods, expanding or, conversely, narrowing healthy options for their diet. Adolescence can be divided into three stages. Early adolescence (11-12 years) is characterized by the onset of puberty and increased cognitive development. The average adolescence (13-15 years) is characterized by an increase in the desire for self-reliance and experiments in relationships with others. Late adolescence - youth (16 - 21 years) - the time of making important decisions in the search for their place in society and the acquisition of a profession. A poor, unbalanced diet at any of these stages can have far-reaching consequences in the teenager's cognitive development, which leads to a decrease in learning ability, poor concentration of attention, and, as a result, a disruption in school performance. But most importantly - an unbalanced diet will lead to a health disorder.
Possible consequences of malnutrition
Improper eating habits and constantlyviolated the rules of healthy eating increase the rice and the incidence of chronic diseases among adolescents. A serious concern is the increase in obesity and obesity-related diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. And, for example, a diet with insufficient intake of iron increases the frequency of iron deficiency anemia. A typical teenager's diet includes sweet fizzy drinks, pizza, chips and the like, and contains inadequate amounts of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Improper nutrition leads to the fact that the growing body is not saturated with the necessary nutrients, and this can cause the following problems:
- Persistent dizziness;
- Increased fatigue;
- Weakening of the immune system;
- Tooth decay;
- Problems with joints;
- Friability of bones, high risk of fractures;
- Low growth;
- Girls have irregularities in the menstrual cycle.
We want to turn to adolescents and tell them about what proper nutrition should be to preserve health and become a full grown man.
General recommendations on nutrition
Dear Teenager! Healthy eating means that you care about getting the right balance of all the nutrients your body needs every day. A balanced diet includes:
- Fruits and vegetables;
- Low-fat or low-fat milk and dairy products;
- Low-fat meat, poultry, fish, legumes, eggs and nuts;
- Products from whole grains.
In addition, it is a diet low in contentsaturated and trans fats, cholesterol, salt and sugar. And what else is needed for your body? Calcium Calcium helps strengthen bones and teeth. This substance is very important, as getting enough calcium now, you can significantly reduce the risk of bone fractures in the future. And calcium affects the contraction and relaxation of muscles, participates in the process of blood clotting, helps the body resist stress and performs many other useful functions. What foods are rich in calcium? This milk and dairy products, hard cheeses, cabbage, beans, a variety of nuts and seeds, rice, lentils, broccoli. Protein Proteins serve to "assemble" and "repair" tissues, such as muscles and internal organs. If the protein is not enough, the muscles become weak and flabby. A teenager's diet containing enough protein will help him to get stronger and maintain a high level of energy. If someone needs to get rid of excess fat and at the same time strengthen muscles, then this person's diet must necessarily include protein foods. With what products can you get protein? This is lean meat, poultry, fish, beans, nuts, eggs, tofu. Here you can include seafood (lobsters, squids, mussels, shrimps, crabs); Milk with any percentage of fat content, bold cottage cheese, yogurt and yogurt. What are the fats Fat is also an important nutrient. It helps the body of adolescents to grow and develop, preserve the health of the skin and hair and is a source of energy. But keep in mind that not all fats are useful. Consumption of fats should be limited from 25 to 35 percent of the total number of calories each day. Unsaturated fats can become part of a healthy diet, but only so long as you do not consume too much (because they carry too many calories with them). The best sources of fat for the body:
- Olive, rapeseed, sunflower, corn and soybean oil;
- Fish such as salmon, trout, tuna and whitefish;
- Nuts: walnuts, almonds, peanuts, cashews and others.
Saturated fats, unlike unsaturated fats,are able to "clog up" the arteries and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Saturated fat is found mainly in foods of animal origin and in some of the vegetable oils:
- Whole milk;
- Fat meat;
- Coconut and palm oil.
Trans fats are especially harmful to health, especially for the heart. Trans fats are most commonly found in:
- Bakery products such as cookies, biscuits, muffins, donuts;
- Dry snacks, such as crackers and chips;
- Fried food.
Replenish your body with iron Foradolescent boys need iron very much to support their rapid growth, because most boys are doubling their lean body mass from the age of ten to seventeen. And for teenage girls, iron is important not only to maintain growth, but also to compensate for blood loss during menstruation. To receive iron, use the following products:
- Fish and seafood;
- Lenten beef;
- Cooked beans: peas, beans, beans;
- White cabbage:
- Potatoes brewed in uniforms;
Whole grain Cereal products help usget more energy. In whole-grain foods - such as whole wheat bread, brown rice, oatmeal - there are usually far more nutrients than in processed grain products. In addition, they give a greater sense of satiety with less quantity consumed in food. Therefore, it will be very correct if in the diet of adolescents the whole-grain products will take a worthy place.
How to organize a diet
And you, and the older members of your familysure enough a busy schedule of employment, which can cause problems in a healthy diet. Therefore, it would be good if you listened to our recommendations. Start your day with breakfast Do you know that eating breakfast will help you learn better in school? After breakfast, you can increase the amount of your attention and memory, you will have more strength and energy and you will not feel so irritable and restless. Breakfast, which is part of a healthy teen diet, will help you maintain proper weight now and in the future. Be sure to have dinner! Whether you eat at school or have dinner at home, but you must dine in any case. This meal should cover one-third of the food requirement for the whole day. If you grab chips, cookies or sweets instead of lunch, then you'll just get a lot of calories, but not too many nutrients. If you do not have time to have lunch, then take a sip with a healthy food - a sandwich of whole grain bread, fruits, low-fat yogurt, nut mixture. Dine with the family. For many teenagers, lunch consists of eating on the run, and dinner replaces snacks with all sorts of things in front of the TV. Try to get rid of the habit of continuously chewing something all evening, and sit down for dinner with your family. Believe it or not, this is how you will have a much higher chance of getting more fruits, vegetables and other products containing vitamins and minerals your body needs so much. In addition, a joint family dinner will help you relax and recover from a stressful day. You can talk with the household, tell them about how your day went, listen to what happened today with them.
How to eat so as not to get better?
Perhaps every teenage girl cares how toto maintain a normal weight and not recover, even if with her figure everything is in order. But here we can help and give a number of recommendations. Restrict fast food Like many other teenagers, you can also like to go to pizzeria and other fast food establishments. If so, then you probably consume a lot of extra calories with sugar and fat. Do you know that one serving of hamburger, French fries and sweetened cola contains more calories, fats and sugar than many other things that you could eat during the day? Think about it! Revise your attitude to beverages Lemonades and other sweetened carbonated drinks today almost completely replaced milk and water for both children and adults. But these drinks are more like dessert than ordinary drink, because they contain a very large amount of sugar and calories. In fact, carbonated sweet drinks contribute to obesity in children and adolescents. Consider this, and try to stick to water and bold or skim milk. Watch out for how much you eat Research scientists have shown that a person eats more than usual, if you give him too much food. How can you control how much you eat? Take advantage of our advice:
- Do not eat in front of the TV. It is easy to lose the account of the one you eat, if you are keen on watching;
- Eat slowly, so that your brain can get a message on time, that the stomach is already full;
- Do not skip meals. This can lead to the fact that you eat more calorie foods during the next meal.
Eat right, and you will always be healthy! We advise you to read: