It would seem that we do not know much aboutindoor flowers. But in fact there are among them such specimens that experienced flower growers are puzzling. There will be some green exot in the house, and we begin to break our brains: and what to do with it, how should we take care of it? Here, for example, we acquired an overseas beauty orchid, learned to take care of this capricious .... But the floricultural excitement pushes us to new feats. Why not do the reproduction of orchids at home? But how to do it right? Let's try to figure it out. Orchids multiply not only by cuttings, as some think. This beauty can be grown and by dividing the bush, and using side shoots and pseudobulbs. In addition, the orchids also multiply seeds. And therefore, dear women, get used to the role of diligent students and learn how to reproduce orchids.
Division of an adult plant
This is the simplest and most suitable wayreproduction of the majority of indoor orchids. The most suitable time for such manipulations is the beginning of spring, when the flowers come out of hibernation and give the first new shoots. The most suitable for division is an adult flower, which has at least four false bulbs. Because each new delenka should consist of at least three onions. An old bulb without leaves can also be separated and planted in a new pot. How to do it? Carefully remove the plant from the pot, trying not to damage the roots. To do this, the soil in the pot must be well moistened, the pot "knocked" and, tilting it, gently shake out the tubers together with the earthen lump. Then the rhizome needs to be cleared from the ground and cut it between the bulbs. Perform this "surgical" operation should only be sharp and disinfected knife. Not forgetting at the same time that each new part should have on less than three bulbs. Places of slices must be sprinkled with charcoal and all new strains planted in clean pots with special soil. Such a mixture you can easily find in almost every specialized store.
Reproduction by apical cuttings
Orchid, whose reproduction occurscuttings, should refer to a monopodial species (eg, vanda, epidendrum, dendrobium). In these plants, the shoots have clear distances on the stem. For these species, the growth method from the apical point is characteristic, without the formation of pseudobulbs. Reproduction by cuttings begins with a cut of the upper shoot. Cut it must also be sharp and disinfected (peroxide, manganese, alcohol) with a knife. Slicers on the mother's flower and on the cuttings must be sprinkled with pounded charcoal, and the already processed stalk is planted in a pot (cut to the ground). Behind the planted cuttings they take care of the same way as for the adult flower. The method of apical cuttings is, of course, simple. However, it is desirable to use it only for fast-growing types of indoor orchids. The rest will take too much time (up to several years!) To develop the cuttings into a flowering plant.
Reproduction by lateral shoots
So all the known phalaenopsis multiply. The flower eventually gives lateral shoots (babies), which are between the peduncles. Separating them from the mother plant, you can grow new copies of the flower. True, "bokovushki" are formed only on plants contained in exceptionally favorable conditions. However, it is also possible to stimulate the active growth of lateral shoots by frequent spraying, fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers and increasing the air temperature in the room. Separate from the orchid mom can only those children who managed to acquire their own air roots. Such side shoots are in fact already small independent flowers, which only need to be planted in a separate pot, separating and processing. Young shoots can even be covered with their own peduncles. In this case, you need to wait until the buds bloom, and only then separate and transplant the processes.
Reproduction by layers or pseudobulbs
Do not confuse lateral shoots with lateral shootslayers. The shoots grow independently, we grow the layers. Reproduction of orchids by layers is used for sympodial orchids. Their pseudobulbs have dormant buds at the nodes of the main stem. To accelerate the "growing up" of babies, leafless stem gently tilt to the ground and lay on the clay under it and the sphagnum moss. Arrange a small hothouse from an inverted plastic container with a side slit (for the stem) over the part of the stem bent to the ground. Moisten the moss and wait patiently for the awakening of the sleeping buds. As soon as new small flowers grow from the buds, separate them, treat them and put them in small pots. An important condition for the awakening of kidney pseudobulbs is the constant moisture in the greenhouse. It should be ensured that the pseudobulbs themselves do not come into contact with water during irrigation. Another condition is good lighting. If there is not enough light in the room, you need to provide artificial lighting, otherwise you will wait for the awakening of the kidneys very, very long, or not at all. Under favorable conditions, the sleeping buds will begin to germinate within three weeks.
Other ways of reproduction
All the methods considered in the previous lessons -vegetative. But besides them there is also a generative (sexual) cultivation and cloning (meristem reproduction). True, at home, such reproduction is quite difficult. Replacement of orchids is a laborious process. Too small seeds of plants do not have a nutrient tissue. In natural conditions, flowers sprout with the help of a root sponge (mycorrhiza mushroom root). This sponge provides nutrition to the seeds. In artificial conditions (during selection) the seeds are placed in a special nutrient medium. However, germination is possible only in the laboratory, but it lasts for several months at most. But after that, another two to three years pass before the germ grows into a full-grown plant. And the first flower-nodules the plant will cover no earlier than 3-4 years. When cloning (which is also impossible at home) from the mother plant extract cells that can share. Placed in a nutrient medium, these cells continue to divide, forming clots. The clumps are separated and moved to another medium where the plants already appear. In this way, a huge number of clones - genetically identical plants - are obtained in the laboratory. It is clear that if it is still possible to propagate a home orchid by seeds (but it is unlikely), then cloning is still beyond the possibilities of indoor floriculture. Therefore, leave laboratory methods for professional breeders. Better master the techniques of vegetative reproduction and successfully multiply your home collection of orchids. We advise you to read: