Rashes on the skin of a child - a phenomenon sufficientfrequent. Many parents face this problem. Correct and timely diagnosis in the presence of treatment will get rid of the illness that has arisen.
Causes of rash on the face
Do not forget that the rash on his facethe child indicates the general state of the body, so you should find out what is the cause of the rash. Most often, the appearance of a rash reflects the condition of internal organs, such as the intestines, kidneys, liver, pancreas. The cause may be a food allergy, a change in the environment, an infectious disease, an air temperature drop, a violation of the autonomic nervous system. In newborns, the cause of the rash may be malnutrition of the mother during pregnancy or during breastfeeding.
Types of rash on the face of a child
- Toxic erythema of newborns is a rash,which occurs a few days after birth. It is a consequence of the adaptive response of the child's organism to extrauterine conditions of the environment. In addition to the face, this rash occurs on the chest, scalp, limbs. The rash is a dense red pimple with gray bubbles in the center. It is not dangerous and passes in 2-4 days.
- Acne of the newborn. Occurs in the first days of a child's life due to the first hormonal failure. The rash is bright red, shallow, with pustules at the center of the pimple. It covers only the face in the forehead, nose, on the chin. Treatment does not require, it takes 2-3 weeks, in exceptional cases - after a few months.
- Insect bites. They are characterized by pink or reddish spots on the face and other parts of the body. This rash is accompanied by a weak itch, the general condition does not deteriorate, the child continues to run, play. If the bite of an allergic reaction is not observed, then treatment is not required. With severe itching, redness should give an antiallergic agent, for example, suprastin. Bites can be treated with fenistil-gel, which will remove irritation and swelling.
- Sweating - the most harmless and less painfulrash. It appears in the form of small pink acne, which slightly stand out above the skin. The newborn occurs on the back, neck, chest, rarely on the face. At the same time, normal body temperature is observed. Such a rash occurs mainly in infants due to lack of care for the body. To fight with the child's chalk, you need to wash it with soap and put it on clean clothes. You can use talc or powder. In order that henceforth no such problem arises, it is necessary to observe elementary rules of hygiene: to watch that the child does not sweat, do not overheat, take care of the cleanliness of the diapers, bathe, adding chamomile, celandine, mint and string to the water. Pillow is not contagious and does not affect general health.
- Allergic rash. It appears in the child several hours after the allergen has got into the body. There are specks, similar to the traces of a nettle burn, and itch begins. Allergic rash occurs in the form of nodules on the knees, elbows, forearm. There may be swelling of the eyes, lips, internal organs, larynx, Quincke's edema.
Mostly with an allergic rash collidebabies, so nursing mothers need to carefully monitor their diet and changes when introducing new products. An allergic rash may also occur from taking medications and from vaccinations. When spreading the rash, you must immediately abandon the source of the allergen. Special treatment is not needed, the doctor can prescribe antihistamines - suprastin, tavegil. Allergens, as a rule, serve:
- Infection is a more dangerous source of rash on the bodychild. To distinguish the allergic rash from infectious, it is necessary to measure the child's body temperature. At an elevated temperature, one can judge an infectious disease. The presence of pimples from 2 to 10 mm also indicates that the child has an infection. At elevated temperature, the presence of a small red rash on the face of the child and severe itching should immediately consult a doctor.
To diseases of an infectious originrefers to scarlet fever. She is sick mainly children over three years old. Symptoms are: a small-dot rash, similar to semolina, manifested on the face, in the inguinal folds, under the armpits, on the abdomen, ulnar folds, vomiting, headache, fever, sore throat, and the tonsils are very inflamed. The main danger of scarlet fever is complications in the heart and kidneys. This requires strict adherence to the doctor's instructions. Mostly they prescribe antibiotics. Measles is an infectious disease with a distinct rash that rises above the skin. Acne first appear on the face and behind the ears, then spread all over the body. Symptoms of the disease: fever, redness of the eyes, cough, runny nose, photophobia. When the spots appear, the child begins to feel better. After the rash, pigmentation remains, but eventually disappears completely. Measles is dangerous complications: pneumonia, bronchitis, meningoencephalitis. To avoid consequences, you should take regular medications, drink a lot. In this disease, it is necessary to properly ventilate the room and prevent direct sunlight from entering it. Chickenpox (chicken pox) is an infectious disease that causes acne, which is a bubble filled with a clear liquid. They can appear on different parts of the body: arms, legs, neck, abdomen. Bubbles burst very quickly, then a crust is formed, which has not gone away for a long time. The incubation period lasts from one to three weeks. At first acne appears a little, but then they are formed in a geometrical progression. The rash lasts about five days. The main thing - do not allow skin contamination. Otherwise, the place of the burst bubbles can quickly settle into microbes, and then there will be suppuration. Therefore, to avoid unpleasant consequences, 1-2 times a day, lubricate the bubbles with green until the crust disappears completely. Chickenpox is a common infectious disease among children. If a child has chicken pox, then he usually has immunity to her for life. Rubella is an infectious disease, manifested as a rash in scarlet fever and measles. In this case, rashes appear on the entire body and last from two to five days. The main symptoms are: a slightly red throat, low temperature, in rare cases, submaxillary and cervical lymph nodes become inflamed. The rash is similar to scarlet fever (small) and to measles (large), hence the terms "scarlet fever" and "measles rubella". Rashes appear on the body randomly and last two or three days, in rare cases up to five days. Children easily tolerate this disease. When the symptoms appear, the child should consult a doctor for the correct diagnosis and treatment. Meningococcal infection is the most dangerous. This disease is easily treated, but it happens that it leads to infection of the blood and meningitis, which, in turn, can lead to brain damage. The rash appears in the form of stars of irregular shape on the face and elbows. Symptoms: fever, headache, chills. At the slightest suspicion of this disease, you should immediately consult a doctor, as the consequences are very dangerous. Vesiculopustulosis is a purulent-inflammatory skin disease that can be caused by various pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus and others). It manifests itself in the form of pustules, which are small bubbles of white or yellowish color on the neck, chest, back, hands, feet of the child, rarely on the head. Gradually, acne bursts, and from them there are crusts on the skin. After finding these rashes, you should immediately call your doctor. Infection with the liquid from bursting vesicles spreads rapidly throughout the body. It should be very carefully cleaned pustules with cotton wool and alcohol, and princely zanche zelenkoy or a strong solution of potassium permanganate. Treat the skin around the abscesses with alcohol. To bathe a child during illness is forbidden, since the infection is carried by water.
- Dermatitis. In this case, the rash appears around the mouth, then goes over to the entire body. First, bubbles are poured out, and later they burst. Then the skin begins to peel off. In this case, the doctor prescribes an antihistamine.
Self-management methods for rash
When a rash occurs, it is necessary to takethe following measures: ensure abundant drinking to the child, ensure that he does not have constipation, do not overfeed, otherwise the body will spend extra effort on digesting food, which will help to weaken it in the fight against the disease. It is necessary to closely monitor the diet of the child and changes in his state of health. If a rash is found, consult a doctor, as an independent diagnosis is excluded.