psychological opportunities for old age Old age is a beautiful time! But not everyone knows about this, and many will even argue. For most people, old age means illness, helplessness, boredom and monotony. Therefore, when a person has a certain number of years, he already feels doomed. However, everything is not so pessimistic. The psychological possibilities of old age, which many people simply do not notice, can be very large and surprising. If for you, for one reason or another, this question is relevant, then after reading this article, you will be able to take an optimistic and new look at the prospects that are opening before you.

At what point does old age come?

Very many people ask themselves the question: "At what point will I become old?" Maybe it will surprise you, but there is no clear and identical border for all. Scientists prefer to build on the physiological causes of the onset of old age, because most of the psychological changes are associated with them. The main reason for this is often the menopause. The duration of menopause may range from one year to ten years, and the peak is on average fifty-fifty-five years. Currently, there is controversy over whether menopause also occurs in men, or it only occurs in women. But even if hormonal changes are, perhaps, the fate of women, then both sexes are subject to psychological changes. These changes go through a number of stages in their development:

  • Preclimate In some people long beforethe emergence of menopause appears the first violations in the work of the body - worsening the work of the cardiovascular system, the production of hormones decreases, and a woman can be harassed by headaches, shortness of breath and fainting. In the state of mind, there are the first "alarming bells" - tearfulness and resentment. Men, by the way, can have melancholy and depression.
  • Actually, the time limits of itsenough blurred - from forty-five to fifty-five years. For some women, it turns into a nightmare. However, changes in the emotional sphere occur even among those who in life were active, purposeful, enduring and self-confident. Instead, uncertainty, anxiety and lack of prospects in the future can come to the fore. In such a situation, a woman must clearly understand that her state of mind is in many ways an echo of that grandiose restructuring that takes place in her body. It may even be of interest to turn to something that used to excite him. Often in the menopause, the most striking features of the character are sharpened even more. The main thing is to remember that sooner or later such emotionality and nervousness will pass, and the general condition will stabilize. In men, these experiences usually correlate with the crisis of the middle of life. They turn back and look at their lives, and if the impression is far from good, then they begin to try to change something. This can manifest itself in the most bizarre behavior: suspiciousness, downshifting, marrying a twenty-year-old girl or buying a gig. Sometimes such acts bring peace into the masculine soul, and sometimes only intensify dissatisfaction with life.
  • Completion It is expressed in the fact that a womancalms down. In her soul, stability, positive self-respect and harmony reign. For men, everything can end well, but there are also less optimistic options. For example, a sort of old-fashioned fussiness or, on the contrary, coarsening - when a man becomes overweight and unwieldy.
  • The above changes occurring in old age,very closely tied to menopause. However, the boundaries of old age do not necessarily have to be based on physiological reconstructions. Old age as a psychological problem depends on the norms accepted in society, based on the age and lifestyle of the elderly person. In particular, you can offer the following boundaries for the elderly:

  • It can occur in the period fromfifty-five to sixty-five years. There is an increase in sensitivity to changes - at this age, changes in life circumstances are perceived much harder, because the psyche becomes less flexible and mobile. People who entered this period, retire, respectively, the changes in any case occur. This can be associated with depression, and maybe with joy - for example, if a person finally takes up ikebana, which he has long dreamed of, or can often go fishing. The need for family contacts is increasing. There are outbursts of egocentrism, which can lead to conflicts later.
  • Actually old age This phase begins in allin different ways, on average - from sixty-five years. The way of life can drastically differ from the previous period, because, as a rule, changes in the state of the organism become pronounced, which leads to the need for special conditions: special diet, day regimen, occupations, etc. ... Dependence on the surrounding people is increasing, so many elderly people need support from relatives and in their help.
  • Sadness Does not come from everyone and is more likely associated withsome serious diseases. For example, a person can not walk or take care of themselves. He may need special medications or devices that support some vital functions. In the event of an offensive, each person manifests this condition individually. That's why now many people are engaged in the prevention of senility - they lead a healthy lifestyle and go in for sports.
  • Obviously, the boundaries of old age are very, veryblurred. Someone feels like a deep old woman at fifty, and for some, seventy is not a hindrance to an active and interesting life. Agree, the secret of happy old age is worth a lot! For example, in the West there is such a thing as "third age" - this is the time after retirement of a person. It is filled with travels, concerts and various hobbies such as collecting or calligraphy. And even when the strength becomes less, the "fourth age" comes - the period is not so active, but also quite successful - it is a more calm and wise old age. So what does our future depend on? psychological features of old age

    What does the future prepare for us ...

    The coming changes are very, very many - somefrom them it is better, any worse, and to some it is just necessary to get used. These are the so-called psychological features of old age. In any case, if they were not, old age would not be a new stage in our life with you. First of all, changes concern the human psyche. Obviously, visual acuity and hearing, attention and memory are reduced. But with memory, in fact, everything is not so simple: mostly long-term memory suffers, i.e. it is easier to forget everything that happened long ago and very long ago. But at the same time, older people remember well everything that they are interested in, as well as all the important events for them. Learning decreases - that's why it's so hard to master a computer in old age. However, someone is able to do it, which means that this process largely depends on the interest and attitude towards it. We should also mention intellect and thinking. To ensure that they remain at the proper level in old age, it is necessary to use special auxiliaries, for example, grouping the material about meaning, using all senses and more time spent on mental activity. However, this is not all: psychologists have compiled a whole list of factors that have a beneficial effect on intelligence:

    • absence of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases;
    • favorable environmental conditions;
    • income level is above average;
    • warm family climate;
    • Participation in cases that promote the development of cognitive abilities;
    • a spouse with a high intellect;
    • satisfaction with life;
    • personal flexibility;

    To psychological features of old age alsothere are also strong changes in the personality and character of a person. The vital energy and tone decrease, the elderly person becomes less active. Many are emotionally depressed, especially those who have previously lived a violent and emotionally-stressful life - they come to calm. The circle of their feelings narrows, sometimes all love is concentrated on someone, for example, on the grandson. Some helplessness, pliability and suggestibility appear. This is especially important in the sense that it is necessary to protect their elderly relatives from the influence of scammers. The circle of interests is narrowed. You yourself have repeatedly heard that older people talk only about their sores, desires and needs or about how to live badly in Russia. All this can be accompanied by increased irritability and emotional reactions. By the way, sometimes there is such a phenomenon as the change of some character trait to the opposite: for example, in the past a generous person suddenly becomes stingy, which, naturally, does not find support among others. In general, the elderly become quite self-centered. It is also necessary to recall the phenomenon of disunity. He describes the features of the communication of older people, and, as the name suggests, means the loss of opportunities for full-fledged interaction with others. Unfortunately, this is a fact, and, perhaps, because of this, many older people have such a complex character. They find it difficult to satisfy their need for communication, and even to the therapist and the mail they come to talk (which irritates the other people very much). This phenomenon has several sources:

  • Loss of ties with the family. This happens very often, for example, when older parents live separately from adult children. It is difficult for them to come to the children often, and in turn, there is no time for that. And it is not always interesting to listen to stories from the life of parents.
  • Loss of work related to retirement. For a person after thirty, the lion's share of his communication with other people is communication at work. Some even manage to build friendly relations with colleagues. But all this ends at the moment when a person stops regularly going to work.
  • The inevitable loss of communication partners. This can happen for various reasons: the death of a spouse or close friends, travel restrictions related to health, lack of own transport or financial difficulties. Exactly the same problems can arise in friends, so social contacts in old age are becoming less intense.
  • However, everything is not so sad and hopeless - there isfactors that impede the unification. This can be a balanced nervous system, and high extroverted, but the most important is the attitude in society towards the elderly. For example, in Abkhazia young people respect the elderly - they are a symbol of wisdom for them - and they pay great attention to communication with them. Thanks to this, most elderly people are satisfied with their lives. This also finds expression in the social sphere: in Abkhazia there are no old criminals and crimes against the elderly. It must also be taken into account that as the aging grows, the role of the family in the life of the elderly person increases. After all, family contact can replace other lost species. The deterioration of health, which grows with the years, puts an aging person in increasing dependence on other family members - he needs their help and care. When an elderly person is inside a family, he is able to feel safe and independent of the problems that he has to face. But an elderly grandfather or grandmother does not necessarily become a burden. They can engage in affordable domestic duties, for example, cook or fiddle with children. This will give him or her a sense of self-worth and self-confidence, and they are very important for good health and full adaptation to the period of old age. In addition, it is the grandparents who are able to truthfully and interestingly tell about the events of the past, than they can draw a young child with a joke. The main thing in all this situation is to treat each other with love and respect. It is impossible not to mention the sad and hard - the approaching death, because for many people it is associated with her old age and associated with aging changes. Interaction with death has several aspects:

    • The meaning of death for a person. For someone, it means the end of everything, and for someone - just a transition to a new level or even some interesting and exciting event. Agree - how a person relates to death, in many ways is able to determine his state of health for a period after sixty years.
    • The meaning of death for loved ones. It is on this occasion that the most caring of us are going through: "And what will become of my husband after my death?", "And what will become of my children after my death?", Etc. ... After all, often death is perceived by us not as a bad event for a departing person, but as a tragedy for his loved ones. And this has its own truth.
    • Practical aspect. It consists of two questions: what can be done with the fear of death and how can it be postponed? People go to psychotherapists, spend a lot of money on doctors and a healthy lifestyle (for this, by the way, whole industrial industries work) - all in order to delay this moment for several years. By the way, he is very closely connected with the meaning of death for a man, since only those for whom it is exclusively negatively colored will be separated from death.

    All these thoughts about death are bad forpsychological features of old age - a person has "be that, what will be" and "nothing depends on me" (many because of thinking about death go to religion and pass responsibility for their lives to god), and the moral principle also grows stronger. The elderly person becomes wise and more and more adheres to moral norms due to the fact that the perception of reality is changing - the desire to compete with others and to enjoy material goods is replaced by a desire for warm relations and stability in society. old age as a psychological problem

    Aijism: cautiously, danger!

    There is another sad phenomenon, which can not benot to mention - it's ageism. This term denotes a negative stereotype in the relationship of people of any age category, but most often implies a stereotype of the elderly. Agree, each of us at least once in my life experienced an acute attack of it, cursing a sluggish grandmother at the post office or a boring grandfather in a savings bank. This relationship is associated with a variety of reasons. Firstly, the elderly often do not follow themselves: they look bad and poorly, exude an unpleasant smell, can begin to loudly blow their nose and cough, etc. ... What motivates them is not always clear (you can not write off everything on the bad social conditions in Russia, because someone still manages to look and behave aesthetically!). All this happens in a modern society, where beauty and harmony have long been important. Secondly, it may be difficult for the elderly to contact and be near - their conversations sometimes look like a little-understood stream of chaotic thoughts close to marasmus. They often wedged intrusive ideas, furiously emanating from the senile, toothless mouth. Indeed, being heirs of not the best Soviet times, the old people are often not adapted to modern realities. This explains their slowness and inability to absorb any new technologies. In their time in fact even a hint of such progress was not! Faced with one or two similar subjects, it seems to us that they are all like that. So stereotypes are born, which later themselves have an impact on our attitude to old age. At first you see such elderly people, be rude to them, and then it seems to you that you will become like that, and you will also be rude, after which you begin to be insanely afraid of old age. So it turns out a vicious circle. You can only break it. Feeling a wave of irritation and anger towards the next strange old man rolling up to his throat, stop and think about why he behaves this way. Perhaps you will experience pity and sympathy instead of anger, maybe you will even want to help him in some way. Well, if his behavior is completely beyond the bounds of decency and seriously offends you, try to protect yourself from communicating with this person. For example, choose to visit such hours at the post office, in which the smallest concentration of older people. And remember that your old age, it is quite possible, will be a reflection of your current actions towards older people, because your children will learn to respect your elders.

    Work and old age

    In connection with the fact that the human psyche is undergoingchanges, the same thing happens with working capacity. It's not a secret for anyone that there is a certain limit, after crossing which a person may have problems with finding and finding a job. Is it justified its existence? For a number of professions - yes. For example, the profession of an athlete, a ballerina, an actress or a soldier suggests a career peak to thirty years and retirement at forty. This is due to the high demands on the physical form, and the person working in these areas, it is necessary to reconcile with early retirement. However, there are occupations in which the career peak falls on the interval from thirty to sixty-seventy years. As a rule, this applies to working specialties, the service sector and other professions that do not require a huge amount of theoretical knowledge - practical skills come to the fore here. And, finally, there are professions in which the competence of a person grows with age. These are administrators, politicians, scientists, lawyers, doctors and other specialties, in which life and professional experience is of great importance. Also, somewhere up to sixty years, the quality of the performing and advisory activities, the quality of the test work, the ability to organize work increase. This can well compensate for the fact that with age, creative imagination, initiative and efficiency in raising the professional level decrease. Thus, your "professional" old age depends entirely on your specialty. Fortunately, some professions generally do not presume retirement, and you can work as long as you want. So you can make a choice based on your own characteristics and the situation on the labor market, and any choice is always wonderful!

    Life after old age

    You probably already realized the simple fact thatold age can be very, very different. As factors influencing its quality, the choice of a profession, health, and even a mental state were mentioned above. Thus, the individual manifestations of aging are very broad: old age can be normal, and can be pathological. In the case of normal old age, people compensate for the losses they incur, for example, by doing special exercises. In this case, the person does not have serious illnesses. Pathological old age comes with various diseases, unpleasant phenomena occurring in the body (all sorts of strokes, heart attacks, paralysis, sclerosis, etc. ...). Undoubtedly, old age is not a flowering of vitality and tone (although some people do it!). But, according to research, it should not be accompanied by serious illnesses at all - this is not the norm. In your power to postpone this moment or even achieve its non-occurrence - for this we must carefully and lovingly treat our body and not be afraid of the state of infirmity (as is known, sometimes our fears materialize). In addition, people can adapt to almost everything. In particular, there are cases when people with disabilities continued to engage in creativity, for example, writing novels lying in bed. There is another interesting type of aging - when the biological age does not correspond to the mental age. Of course, this can be a very sad option when a thirty-year-old woman behaves like a deep old woman: "Oh, nothing shines in my life - it would be better to die!". But there may be a reverse option. All of you probably saw merry and positive old men (unfortunately, this phenomenon is more typical of foreign retirees), who joke about something, go in shorts and actively travel. Psychologists conducted an interesting study: they compared expectations - "what will I be in my old age" - with reality - "what am I on pension". The results were quite inspiring: people expected much greater health problems, financial problems, feelings of social helplessness and loneliness. Many even noted an improvement in well-being, a sense of freedom, an interest in pursuing your favorite deeds. Accordingly, there are no real statistical grounds for expecting a sad and miserable old age. The well-known Russian psychologist Igor Semenovich Kohn has more details about the pathological and normal aging. He described various types of old age, which can be both prosperous and unsuccessful. It is the kind of old age, in his opinion, that determines the person's well-being. Con lists the following types of successful aging:

    • Active creative old age. Such people very late retire, trying as much as possible to delay this moment. But even after parting with difficulty, a person continues to actively participate in public life, educates young people, etc. ... Some psychologists believe that this may be due to poor relations in the family and lack of realism in this area, but the most important is the high satisfaction that this type of old age brings.
    • Old age with a beautiful social andpsychological fitness. In this case, the energy of an aging person is directed towards the organization of one's own life: financial well-being, rest, entertainment and self-development. Such a person in old age is engaged in all those things that did not have time to do in ordinary life. And, of course, he likes it.
    • "Female" type of aging. In this case the elderly person takes on various family troubles: household duties, education of grandchildren, work at the dacha, etc. Since family troubles are usually inexhaustible, it is sometimes time for old men to be bored or moped, respectively, they are, in general, satisfied with their lives. However, this satisfaction is lower than in all other well-off cases, due to the fact that these domestic chores still are not genuine self-realization for most people.
    • "Male" type of aging, or old age in caring forhealth. In this case, a person enjoys filling life with various options for taking care of health. They stimulate the activity of such an old man: he enjoys doing sports, is interested in healthy food systems, goes to some health club. However, in this case, anxiety about your body is often excessive and is accompanied by various fears and anxieties that can force a person to pay too much attention to their real and imaginary ailments and make them go to doctors for a long time. But in general, such an old man is usually quite satisfied with his life.

    Unfortunately, not all people are so relativelygrow old safely - there are also very sad options. Rereading their description, it remains only to hope that you, our dear readers, will never face such a thing. These include:

    • Forever all dissatisfied grumblers. They are completely unhappy with the state of the outside world, criticizing everyone and everything, except for themselves. They possess the desire of all to teach and terrorize with endless claims. Especially often scolded "non-existing youth." Often such a variant comes to people who by nature have always been aggressive, and in their old age their aggression finds a way out in such an unpleasant way. It's like their own version of self-realization.
    • Lonely sad losers. These people are disappointed in themselves and in their own lives. They constantly scold and blame themselves for their real and imaginary missed opportunities, regret the mistakes made in life and are unable to drive away the gloomy memories of an unpleasant past experience. All this makes them deeply unhappy.

    There is one very useful thing that cansignificantly improve the standard of living in old age. These are the skills, skills, occupations and areas of interest that we acquire in adolescence and adolescence, we forget in maturity, and in old age we remember again. An example of such lessons can be drawing or writing poetry: as a teenager, you just indulged in it, but later, in old age, this hobby can be very useful and become for you a source of vitality and inspiration. An interesting fact: very many young parents complain about their spouses - and the child does not help, and pays little time, and does not follow. But if you ask them the same question about the satisfaction with family life after the moment when adult children leave their parents' nest, the answer may surprise you - most people are very positive about their family life. Thus, many people who live together until the old age. evaluate their family life as good, and their partner - as appropriate to them. In general, the evaluation of lived life is one of the most important issues facing an elderly person. He has two ways: he can positively relate to how he lived his life, and thus accept himself, or fall into despair, thinking about how he lived poorly. As a rule, this is expressed in the presence or absence of fear of death and in the fact that a person talks about his life. The ability to learn from a past life is also important. psychological changes in old age

    Old age - in joy?

    So, our article is coming to its end. However, one very important practical question remained unresolved - how to make your old age happy and prosperous? Even if it seems to you that this life period will never come, it is superfluous to do something good for this already now. No, you do not need to turn into a young girl who is preoccupied with the future old age - just live. But read our recommendations - just in case.

  • Try to see and learn as much as possibleTotal. Firstly, then you will not have a feeling that you have lived your life in vain - you have tried so much! Secondly, there will be something to talk about with children and grandchildren, and they will really be interested to hear your stories. Thirdly, as we already mentioned above, this will give you the ground for hobbies and interests in old age - you will not have to learn something radically new, just remember the well-forgotten old.
  • Appreciate the people around you. Relationships - this is a thing that you need to constantly invest something - a sort of emotional pension fund. If you do not work on them and pay attention to them, then many people will gradually leave your life, and you will be left alone. And this is one of the most difficult and unpleasant experiences of the elderly. So try to keep in touch: call friends, congratulate them on birthdays, meet with them and look for former classmates. Who knows with whom of these people you will want to communicate in ... for a year or two?
  • Look after your body. The most popular advice. The hedgehog is understandable if to go in for sports and the health the potential old age will be more pleasant and easier to be transferred. However, many of us postpone it for tomorrow - after all, life is very long! I do not want to disappoint you, but the sooner you begin to follow yourself, the more effect it will bring. You just need to start running in the mornings and go to the dance a couple of times a week, replace the hot dog from the stall with Coca-Cola for a delicious salad with freshly squeezed juice - and that will be your contribution. And then you will get involved, because in fact, a healthy lifestyle (of course, without fanaticism) brings great pleasure!
  • Love yourself. Do you remember the type of people who at the end of life just do that they blame themselves for their mistakes and missed opportunities? This is very stupid! You have lived an interesting and unique life, and you many times had to make a choice. Sometimes it was very complicated, sometimes quite simple, but the choice is always a rejection of something in favor of something else. It was all these elections that made you and your life the way you are. Remember the positive decisions in your life - those who brought you great joy. Think about your good sides. All this can be the basis for the formation of a positive attitude towards yourself, which is important at any age.
  • Learn new things. Mental processes can "rust" and "get stuck" if they are not trained. If to you already in a youth it is not interesting to understand with скайпом and orders through the Internet, that will be in twenty years? The ability to absorb new decreases with age, and if it is not trained, it simply dies. In many respects it is learning ability and interest in something that does not allow negative old age to capture the mind and heart of a person. After all, most of you want to be just such old ladies - fighting and cheerful, traveling ladies instead of boring, dull and limited aunts.
  • Be tolerant of the elderly, helpthem in what you can. First, it is karmically correct: treat other people the way you want to be treated. Secondly, the more such positive examples in society, the less negative stereotypes and manifestations of Ageism you will feel on your own skin. Your children will observe your attitude towards people in general and the elders in particular, and it will be a good example for them.
  • Bring in your life a note of happiness and optimism. Negative emotions aggravate any life periods - though adolescence, at least maturity and, naturally, old age. Of great importance for the duration and quality of life is the philosophy of optimism, which is expressed in the ability to see in the environment something good and beautiful that gives rise to hope and allows you to have fun. It is necessary to understand that the source of positive perception of the world is in ourselves, it is in the ability not to be upset about trifles and to enjoy every positive phenomenon. Remember the good longer than the bad, think about the justice and charms of the world around you.
  • As long as possible, do what you love. If this is a job, then it's very cool, because it will not only bring you joy, but also income. If this hobby is also wonderful, the main thing is that it is a positive charge and energy that you get from it.
  • After reading the above,a very important and interesting conclusion - old age in our head. Certainly, much depends on the state of health and the foundations of society, but our attitude to old age has the greatest weight. If you perceive it as fading, the end of life and the harbinger of death, then so it will be. Old age will not bring you any joy, and you will spend whole days lying on the couch and feeling sad about the past waiting for the end. But, you see, it's a pity to throw a few dozen years into the trash. Therefore, we must do everything you can to ensure that your old age can be said - "the golden age of life." We advise you to read: