Everyone, probably, heard the expression "burn out onwork ". You wake up in the morning in a bad mood, and thoughts about work lead him to a state of disgust. The specificity of professional burnout is that every morning begins with lethargy, and fatigue comes in a couple of hours after the start of the day. Everything is annoying, any work order requires tremendous tension, and all day passes in anticipation of the evening. But he does not bring relief, and you go to bed broken up with the thought that a whole week of hard labor is still ahead. So, most likely, you are faced with the notorious problem of professional burnout. Large companies spend large sums of money on the prevention of this phenomenon - they organize corporate paths in swimming pools, vouchers abroad and other various entertainments for their employees, so long as they do not get tired and keep their tone, and therefore efficiency at work. And this is a sign of the wisdom of the company's management. Psychologists say that professional burnout has become a common occurrence. Working from nine to nine, overtime and trainings for professional development on weekends - this style of life has long been surprising. Especially often in this rhythm there are residents of large cities. In pursuit of a career, we began to forget about all other spheres of life and lose the meaning of their existence. And yet, how to "not burn out" at work?
Syndrome of professional burnout
Ask any person: "Do you want to achieve professional success?", And 99% of people will answer you: "Yes, of course!". However, many, trying to catch the tail of a career bird, forget about the limitations of human resources and earn a syndrome of professional burnout. And in the end, instead of a brilliant future, a person earns a lot of problems. Professional burnout is not just fatigue and lack of strength, but a whole complex of negative experiences related to work: emotional and physical exhaustion, indifference and bad attitude towards work, colleagues and clients, and a sense of own incompetence. A very bright example of a "burned out" worker can be a tired doctor with a "black" medical humor. In response to the patient's phrase: "Doctor, I've been to several doctors, and none confirms your diagnosis," he says: "Well, wait for the autopsy." In general, black professional humor, sarcasm and cynicism often are the satellites of professional burnout . In fact, this is chronic stress, and if it's quite accurate - its third stage, the stage of exhaustion. This stress is caused by a prolonged impact of stress factors of an average severity related to the professional sphere. A person accumulates negative emotions for a long time, without giving them any outlet or discharge. An interesting metaphor for the internal experiences of the "burnt" worker was suggested by the psychologist Morrow - "the smell of burning psychological wiring." But do not be afraid that one day is not a beautiful day, you will wake up with a "burned out psychological wiring." Fortunately, a similar syndrome prof. burnout develops not simultaneously, and an attentive person can easily recognize and prevent the development of this type of chronic stress, because the symptoms of professional burnout are quite specific and the knowledgeable person will notice them. Professional burnout develops gradually and passes through three stages in its formation - three flights of stairs into the depths of professional inconsistency:
- The first stage
Its beginning is marked by a smoothing of the senses andemotions - they become smaller, and they seem to be dulled. Experiences lose their freshness, positive emotions disappear into nowhere. It can not be said that life does not go well, but it becomes boring and empty on the soul. Relations with other family members become detached, there is a desire to be left alone. You are increasingly experiencing dissatisfaction with your activities, and anxiety is gradually becoming your companion. And the alarm, concerning all areas of life, and not only professional activity.
- The second stage
At work there are various frictions with colleagues,and you periodically disdainfully address them, especially about their professional activities. After this, dislike for people grows and manifests itself in communicating with customers: first in the form of simple dislike, and then in frank outbursts of irritation. Thus, in the body of a professional, the instinct of self-preservation works, striving to protect it from communication exceeding the safe level.
- The third stage
At this stage, the notion ofbasic vital values, there is a dangerous indifference to everything - to professional activity, including to one's own life. You can habitually maintain your respectability, but in the depths of your soul there is completely no interest in anything and the desire to work. In fact, there comes a complete indifference and apathy - a syndrome of professional burnout in all its glory! It is interesting, but true: not only individuals, but entire organizations, are exposed to professional burnout. It's like an epidemic: most employees working in the company show the same behavior and signs of a problem. This pessimism, the lack of faith in their own opportunities and positive changes at work, the lack of any interest in their activities. Employees seem to be all "one person". Why is this happening in huge organizations? There may be several reasons. One of the main ones is the contradiction between strategic and tactical goals. For example: we, of course, aspire to become a company with a worldwide reputation and crystal clear reputation, but now the main mechanism of doing business is "kickbacks". It would seem that this is so? Practice everywhere .... And employees understand that not everything in their activities is right - hence the psychological discomfort. The absence of objective criteria for assessing labor is generally a nightmare. When your boss will prove to you that you are doing nothing, you will not be able to argue anything, but the sediment will remain. Impossible requirements to workers can also be the cause of professional burnout of the organization, just as a terrible system of motivating employees. Bends in the direction of the "carrot", and toward the "whip" do not promise anything good. All this leads to the fact that the organization is a huge "turnover" of cadres - sometimes it happens that in a year the staff is completely updated. People are so tired in such a company that they prefer to run away quickly, no matter what, sometimes even changing the type of activity. They absolutely do not want to work - even long before they leave, they prefer to be lazy and make frequent breaks for tea or a cigarette, often frankly at the expense of their professional activities. Many employees either hate their boss or, on the contrary, can not work without him at all. In such companies, terrible conditions prevail and a heavy psychological climate. Every trip to work is like katorga. These signs should alert. At the same time, employees working in the organization find it difficult to assess the situation soberly and come to the conclusion that something is wrong. The eye "zamylivaetsya", the tension is growing, and this prevents finding a constructive way out of the situation. Therefore, in the case of the organization it is sometimes useful to show the company from the inside to some fresh person so that he can objectively assess her condition.
Who is at risk?
But not all specialists are equally affectedrisk of professional burnout. Most likely, you have heard about the burnout of doctors, but there is no reliable information that he is exposed to cleaners. Psychologists analyzed various professions and working conditions and came to the conclusion that there are a number of factors that increase the likelihood of professional burnout in certain types of activities.
- Intensive communication with other people
This is the most important risk factor. Those people, whose activities can not be imagined without communication, "burn out" the fastest. This is due to the fact that each person needs and suffices their own dose of communication, and when it becomes too much, it is bad for him. And if it is too much for a long time, it drains the body. Examples of such professions can be leaders, teachers, social workers, doctors, businessmen, sales managers, journalists, etc. ... And, unfortunately, the first signs are most often ignored and the problem is constantly aggravated. The harmfulness of such work is especially great for introverts - those whose need for communication is less than that of other people. It's like with a tan - it is pleasant and useful, but if you take a sunburn for a day, then you will burn first, and then you will generally cause significant damage to your health. Sunburn is particularly harmful red, they need it quite a bit. Similarly, in introverts with communication: they are closed, modest and do not have the capacity for intensive communication. They do not express their dissatisfaction to anyone, they save it, they work out of their last strength, and then break down. Therefore, introverts should try to reduce the amount of communication in their lives and choose the appropriate field of activity.
- Inadequacy of work with moral attitudes, values and ideals
For example, you are a crystal-clear person, but,being a sales manager, you are forced to sell to people what you do not consider to be a matter of prime necessity or efficiency. There are two variants of the development of events: either you will be a bad sales manager, or you will be constantly in conflict with yourself. Such a problem can also be related to cases when a woman works very hard and is forced to be torn between her family and career - she can not do it in two ways. That is why it is so important to choose the sphere of activity that is right for you.
Scientists have found that women indegrees are subject to "burnout" than men. This is due to our emotionality, gentleness, propensity to empathy and people-oriented (ie with the same qualities that sometimes prevent a woman from getting into big bosses). And it does not matter in which sphere of activity a woman is engaged. But you can not go too far in the opposite direction - cold and stale authoritarian people also perfectly "burn out." Therefore, as often happens in psychology, one must adhere to the "golden mean" and be flexible - change their behavior depending on the situation.
- Life in a city
The conditions of a large city in themselves generatestress in many people - this noise, din, rabid rhythm and lack of sleep. In a metropolis it is necessary to deal with a large number of people, and a significant part of these clashes is very unpleasant. And it is not possible to avoid such communication. That is why the prevention of professional vygaraniya in large cities should pay special attention.
- Fear of losing one's place, unstable working conditions, uncertainty
Most often in this state arefreelancers and people who do not have permanent employment - for example, hired freelancers for a particular project. Despite the fact that for most people instability is very harmful, there are people who treat it tolerantly or even have fun. As a rule, they become good anti-crisis managers and just valuable personnel.
- Fuzzy distribution of roles and functions in the team
Agree, the work will seem hell, if one andThe same duty is performed by several employees, and some other - in general, no one. And everyone responds amicably to several bosses, each of whom has his own opinion about the tasks assigned to the department. This leads to inconsistency of actions and competition, as a result of which both the effectiveness of joint activities and members of the collective suffer.
- Unusual situation with high demands
When a person falls into such conditions, he is sharperexperiences stress and burns faster. An example of such a situation may be an increase in women of pre-retirement age. She worked in the company as an accountant and was promoted to the chief accountant. It is transferred to the head office, where mostly young people sit in top managers and use advanced technologies - Internet conferences, Skype, etc. ... At the same time, she has a huge responsibility, fulfilling the duties of chief accountant. All this can lead to the fact that in six months a woman will feel disgust for their activities and will want to retire as soon as possible.
Signs of professional burnout
It is possible that after reading the article, you said"Yes, I do not want to work at all! And at the beginning of the working week, and at the end. And my colleagues are all bad, and I'm not talking about clients at all! What is it, the syndrome of professional burnout? ". In fact, everything is not so straightforward. That's why we have prepared for you an express test that helps assess the risk of professional burnout. Of course, a full-fledged diagnosis of professional burnout will not replace it, but it will help to understand whether it is worth starting to seriously worry. So, you:
- Periodically, you feel guilty or offended simply for nothing
- You develop or develop some bad habit (smoking, overeating, etc. ...)
- You feel tired not only in the evenings, but also in the mornings, after a dream
- You are physically and emotionally exhausted
- Recently, you often get sick
- Periodically, due to lack of time, you take work home, but at home you do not do it
- You do not care what happens next
- Recently, you have drastically lost weight or grown fat
- You have insomnia
- You often have a headache and / or stomach
- You are constantly afraid that something will not work for you, and you will not be able to cope with the tasks at work
- You always want to sleep
- Recently, you regularly experience indifference, boredom, passivity and depression
- You argue a lot with colleagues and clients
- You feel weak and slow
- It seems to you that your work is getting harder and harder, and performing it is becoming more and more difficult
- You often worry and worry just like that, with no apparent reason
- You would like to change your mode a lot
- You are easily annoyed even at minor events
- Instead of focusing on the main task, you are long "stuck" on the little things
- It seems to you that you are responsible for all and for all
- You are not interested in anything new
If you have found more than 6 signs, this is an excusethink and start some preventive measures, since you are at risk of professional burnout. And more detailed psychological diagnosis of professional burnout will not prevent - contact a psychologist. If from 11 to 17 signs - you need rest and respite; you can already say that you have started a professional burnout. If more than 17 - your condition requires immediate action. You are at the peak of professional burnout, in some cases you may need the help of a psychologist to exit this state.
How to repair wiring
Having determined that you are at riskprofessional burnout, or even finding his first signs, do not despair. By and large, no loss of interest in the once-beloved work is insured. And yet how to protect yourself from professional burnout and keep your love for your cause? What if the problem is already evident and the simple prevention of professional burnout does not help?
- The most obvious and important - never forget about rest!
It sounds trite, but it's a fact. And it is to this fact that we often treat with disdain. Anyone who works a lot and works well knows these thoughts: "I'll work a couple more hours, and I'll go to bed later", "as a break, I'll better figure out the desktop," "what a vacation, when I have so much to do!". Believe me, this approach will affect your activities in the most negative way. So, stress, tension and fatigue accumulate. This is why it is best to begin all restorative procedures with a vacation. And it needs to be fully programmed: it should last at least two weeks and include a change of terrain, delicious food, various attractions, sea and sun. The sun, by the way, is very important for health. Have you noticed how your condition worsens during the fall and winter? This is all due to the lack of sun - even a strong and healthy body without it is bad, what can we say about the depleted. In general, try to go on vacation. Even if there is no possibility to go to another country to the sea, try picnics in nature, walks in the woods, skiing or visiting spa salons with friends - choose the suitable holiday for you.
- Changes in the working environment
Even if you went to a full and richimpressions leave, return to a bored job can become an additional stress factor. To prevent this from happening, try updating it. The easiest way to make a change is to offer to swap places with a colleague. If a colleague does not agree, try to find a new place for your desk and chair - move them or just unfold. Keep clean: wipe the dust, throw out the garbage, get rid of old papers and unnecessary items. Rest the remaining things in their places, arrange the folders. After putting in order, try to give individuality to your work place: lay on the table lovely objects and photos of the heart, add a couple of bright spots, enliven the space with an indoor plant. Here comes into force a very simple principle - make the environment around you a nice eye, and you immediately want to go to work. And these changes will affect your work in the most positive way.
- Go to school
Unfortunately, one variety in the situationprofessional burnout will not eliminate - you need a variety of work. To introduce a note of novelty will help raise the level of education. In addition to combating professional burnout, you will simultaneously achieve another goal - improving your skills. Think in which direction you would like to develop? What knowledge and skills do you lack for more successful activities? If it's hard for you to decide, read the CVs of specialists working in your field, visit the fairs devoted to adult education, go to the websites of educational institutions. For example, you can always improve your knowledge of English, and attending such courses will give you the necessary energy boost. Thus, you will relax, studying, and at the same time and get acquainted with new people. Yes, and your work will benefit - you can move up the career ladder, ask for an increase in salary.
- Enter interest and diversity in your off-work life
First, go in for sports. Scientists have proved that sport, through the development of "happiness hormones," helps to increase mood and reduce stress. All the charm lies in the fact that in the modern world dozens of different types of physical activity are at your service: various kinds of yoga, dance, martial arts and aerobics, gymnastics, swimming, running, bicycle, skis, rollers and much more - choose your type of activity . You can choose for yourself absolutely anyone - just find the time in your schedule and carve a couple of hours a week for sports. Try to change your lifestyle a little to the side of healthy - it increases the body's resistance to stress factors. Secondly, find a hobby. Engaging in something that you are interested in and has nothing to do with work will be very useful for you - you realize the fact that work is not the only meaning in life, you will digress from it and simply rest, having fun. To achieve a greater effect, try to find like-minded people by enrolling in a club of interests - it will be harder for you to quit and be more fun in the process.
- Delegate credentials
The division of labor was coined by the caveman. And this is right, because one person is not able to perform absolutely all functions and take absolutely all decisions. It's not that before the burnout - until the coffin can be worked out. Therefore, it is very important and useful to delegate your rights and responsibilities. In order for your work to be as effective as possible, one should not forget about a number of rules, which must be delegated authority. Firstly, you do not always delegate authority to any particular person, but to the position he occupies. Secondly, delegated rights and duties should be sufficient to achieve the expected results in improving the efficiency of the work of the collective as a whole. Thirdly, it is desirable that all subordinates report to one boss, not several. Fourthly, the decisions falling within the competence of individual leaders should be accepted by them, and not be directed "upwards". Fifth, the chief is responsible for directing subordinates, and subordinates for what they do. These simple, at first sight, delegation rules can significantly ease your life. And no excuses like "I'll do it better" or "I do not trust them" are not accepted!
- Improve communication skills
The main risk factor for professional burnout- a lot of communication with a lot of people. If the communication skills you "limp", then they need to tighten up. A lot of negative experiences arise because of the inability of a person to say "no." As a rule, people who do not refuse anyone can not decide on their priorities - everything seems to them to be important. And almost everyone is worried because they are offended because of the refusal. But, as they say, you are not a hundred-dollar bill to please everyone! So put up with the fact that someone will be upset, and someone is offended because of your "no". Share all the requests that you receive, those that you need to satisfy, you can satisfy, you can postpone and you need to refuse. And safely say no. Sometimes because of this (and because of many other things) there can be conflicts. Learn to react to them correctly: some conflicts can not be avoided, they need to join and defend their point of view. From some you can leave, but in some you can come to a compromise or even a mutually beneficial decision. In general, increase your conflict competence - this will help to avoid many problems in professional activity.
- Use personal growth
You need to take care not only for your body, but forhis soul. Growth should be not only professional, but personal. Psychologists describe a number of qualities, the presence of which significantly reduces the likelihood of a syndrome of professional burnout. These include self-confidence and ability, high self-esteem, ability to adapt to stressful working conditions, stress resistance, successful experience of coping with stress, openness, sociability, independence, high mobility, positive thinking, optimism. You can slowly develop these qualities in yourself - just as you swing your muscles in the gym. For example, train optimism in the following way: in each situation that arises with you, try to find at least three pluses, even the most absurd ones.
- Talk to the supervisor
If it seems to you that, despite everythingyou still do not want to go to work, and fatigue and apathy swallowed you up completely - maybe it was the turn of an honest and open conversation with the boss. An experienced manager has long noticed that in recent times you have become worse work, and your mood does not rise above the average. Try to direct your conversation towards the fact that the current state of affairs does not benefit either you or the company. Describe to him what you are tired of, what tires you and annoys you. Suggest a way out of the situation, for example, changing the job description or transferring to another position. A competent leader is likely to appreciate your initiative, honesty and the desire to benefit the organization. It is in his interest to meet you and find all opportunities for manifesting your abilities and talents, as well as to contribute to the piggy bank of the company.
- Change work
The most radical and at the same time effectivemeans of professional burnout. No old work - no old problems. Of course, deciding on such a drastic change is not so easy. But this option may be your last option if your boss is inadequate, your current company does not suit you at all and you do not see career prospects in it or you are just very tired. And at times it is necessary to change not only work, but also in general the sphere of activity. Remember that no sacrifice is worth it to be disgusted with your work. Report this to the management and start looking for a new job. Maybe it will be a rank higher, with more serious and interesting duties, maybe, on the contrary, downshifting, or maybe you even decide to change the profession. The main thing to remember about - your work should be to you in joy! We advise you to read: