Immediately two smiles to my mother, Two worries gave life, TwoFate, double exam, Two hopes, two wings The news about pregnancy is one of the memorable events in the life of every woman. And imagine the reaction of a woman who learns that she is pregnant with twins? It would seem that a woman should experience joy in a double size. However, often, parents have absolutely opposite feelings: confusion, fear, discouragement. These feelings should not be embarrassed at all - it is absolutely normal reaction of any sane person about the news that he will be entrusted with double responsibility. Very soon you will become accustomed to this fact and take it. After that, you will experience exactly the same feelings as all parents expecting the birth of one child. However, the pregnancy of twins has its own characteristics, which is different from the usual pregnancy. In this article, we specifically described to you the pregnancy for weeks of twins, as well as the features of twin pregnancy and the causes of its occurrence. Possessing detailed information about what happens to her and her body at all stages of pregnancy, the expectant mother will feel much more confident and calmer.
What is the multiple pregnancy?
People often hear the words "twins" and "twins"but very few people know what the difference is between these terms. The first thing to do is to understand the difference. As we all know, from the school course of biology, the formation of the embryo occurs after the sperm fertilizes the egg. In the event that a woman had a simultaneous maturation of two eggs and both were fertilized with two spermatozoa, the conception and subsequent development of twins occur. Once again, we draw your attention to the fact that two different eggs are fertilized with two spermatozoa. Both eggs and spermatozoa have different genetic code. That's why twins can be born completely different from each other - they have different eye color, different physique, different height. Even the sex of children can be different. They are similar to each other no more than ordinary brothers or sisters. A similar pregnancy is called dizygotic. In the same case, if the maturation and fertilization of only one ovule by a single spermatozoon occur in normal cases, one child is born. However, sometimes the body fails and the egg in the process of division is divided into two absolutely identical halves, which continue to develop in an absolutely normal way. However, due to the fact that the ovum and sperm were alone, the genetic code of the children is also the same. Such children are called twins. Twins always give birth to only same-sex, very similar in appearance, they have birthmarks in the same places, a tendency to the same diseases. Even the character in children, as a rule, is very similar. Such pregnancy is called monozygotic. As a rule, doctors easily identify di or monozygotic children.
Causes of multiple pregnancies
The second thing that needs to be told is this, fromwhich determines the birth of twins. Despite the fact that modern science and medicine are at a very high level of development, there is still no exact answer as to why there is a multiple pregnancy. Below are the main causes of the birth of twins, known to date:
- The main reason doctors still believeheredity. The heredity on the maternal line is particularly affected by the possibility of multiple pregnancy. Although the heredity of the father can also cause a multiple pregnancy. Most often, this feature is transmitted through one generation, although exceptions to this rule are not so rare.
- Treatment of secondary infertility is also oftenleads to the onset of multiple pregnancies. For example, taking many hormonal drugs stimulates the maturation and release of several eggs at once. Under favorable circumstances, they are all fertilized, resulting in a multiple pregnancy.
- Pregnancy of twins after eco meetsapproximately 60% of all infertility treatment by artificial insemination. This phenomenon is explained very simply - a woman in the womb sits a few fertilized cells. Some of them die, and two or three embryos survive and continue to develop successfully. In some cases, doctors can remove one or two embryos. However, recently, to reduce the number of multiple pregnancies, doctors began to practice the transfer of just one - two embryos.
However, despite the knowledge of doctors, it is not yet possible to predict the probability of the birth of twins.
Features of the course of multiple pregnancies
The pregnancy calendar for twins is practicallycompletely coincides with the pregnancy calendar of one child. Development of children occurs almost in the same time. However, unfortunately, with multiple pregnancy complications occur more often than in other pregnant women. The most common problems are:
- Iron deficiency anemia. As the kids develops two, the need for iron doubles. In the event that a woman does not take iron supplements in addition, there is a rather high risk of developing iron deficiency anemia.
- Preeclamps, also called the toxicosis of the secondhalf of pregnancy. When gestosis in the urine of a pregnant woman shows a large amount of protein, blood pressure rises to critical high marks.
- Placenta previa. With a complication such as placenta previa, the placenta is located in such a way that it overlaps the entrance to the uterus.
- Placental insufficiency. With this complication, doctors note insufficient blood circulation, as a result of which children do not receive enough nutrients.
- Various anomalies of fetal presentation - pelvic, transverse presentation.
- Retardation of intrauterine development of children.
- Dissociated development of the fetus. With this type of development, one fetus develops normally, and the second lags considerably behind. However, if you are faced with a similar problem, do not despair and be scared - with the timely begun adequate treatment of the life and health of the baby, nothing will be threatened.
- Twins are slightly higher than other children, the risk of developing intrauterine malformations.
- In addition, with multiple pregnancies, there is a much higher risk of premature birth.
In the first 12 weeks of pregnancy (first trimester)in about 20% of cases a woman has a phenomenon called the phenomenon of the death of the fetal egg. That fetal egg, which dies off, ceases to develop and gradually decreases in size. The uterine cavity does not leave the fetal egg - it remains there until the very birth. This dead fetal egg does not cause any harm to the child and does not interfere with normal development. As already mentioned above, in the second and third trimester, the threat of termination of pregnancy and premature delivery in multiple pregnancies is highest. It occurs in about 75% of all cases. This explains the fact that in the case of a woman who is pregnant with twins, almost throughout the entire pregnancy, doctors appoint a woman to the course of drugs that relax the uterus. Often the intake of drugs is insufficient. In this case, the woman is hospitalized to treat and save pregnancy in the maternity ward, where she remains until the birth, if the period is long, or until the condition improves. Also very often women with two or more children complain of various cardiovascular disorders. During pregnancy, the load on the cardiovascular system is doubled. And if the pregnancy is prolific - then three times, or even four. Of course, under such extreme conditions of work, the cardiovascular system can fail. Any violations in the normal functioning of the heart and blood vessels can lead to negative consequences for the health of both the future mother and the baby. At occurrence of the first symptoms of a malaise the pregnant woman necessarily should address in due time for the qualified medical aid. The slightest delay can become an irreparable mistake and lead to unpredictable consequences. As mentioned above, multiple pregnancies at times increase the risk of developing iron deficiency anemia. In the case of multiple pregnancies, the placental tissue significantly increases its mass, correspondingly, the amount of placental factors that are present increases, which also provoke the development of anemia. In addition, during multiple pregnancy, the intravascular volume of blood increases significantly. Accordingly, the level of hemoglobin decreases. In women who have two or more babies, very often birth begins prematurely. Doctors call the main reason for this complication the fact that the muscular fibers of the uterus during a multiple pregnancy significantly overstretch. Women who are going to become mothers of two babies need to be particularly concerned with their health. At the slightest sign of malaise, it is necessary to consult a doctor. Due to the fact that multiple pregnancies are classified as high-risk pregnancies, doctors treat such women with special, heightened attention. Future mothers undergo much more examinations, they visit women's consultation twice as often as other pregnant women. In no case should you try to evade this. After all, the health of your children is much more important than the temporary inconvenience.
Diagnosis of multiple pregnancies
The question that interests almost all women,who have learned that they will become mums, it is "a pregnancy of twins, signs." This question is especially relevant in those cases when in the genus a woman already had cases of twin births or twins. The possibility of having twins is much higher than for other women. However, there is another way how to determine the pregnancy of twins, except as a visit to a gynecologist. And for this you should not wait a long time - in our time, doctors - gynecologists can establish a pregnancy with twins already at the first visit of a woman to a women's consultation. Starting with the fourth obstetric week of pregnancy, the uterus in its size exceeds the size of the uterus at the same time, but with a single pregnancy. Some women try to find the symptoms of twin pregnancy on their own. However, there are no reliable symptoms, and can not be. If before the end of the first trimester the presence of multiple pregnancy can be assumed only by the size of the uterus, then at the beginning of the second trimester, at the first ultrasound study, the doctor can reliably talk about multiple pregnancies, visualizing several fetal eggs. Sometimes there are cases when on the first ultrasound examination the doctor visualizes two fetal eggs, and then one of them dies off. And as a result, only one baby is born. And in some, much more rare cases, the doctor sees only one fetal egg in the study, whereas in reality there are two in the uterine cavity. It's just that sometimes a single egg overlaps the second and can not be seen. But as soon as the little ones grow up, they will not be able to hide from the doctor. There is a misconception that the fact of a multiple pregnancy can be established by making a blood test for the value of a triple test for alpha-fetoprotein, estirol and chorionic gonadotropin. In normal, singleton, pregnancy, this test serves as an indicator of normal fetal development or, on the contrary, the presence of developmental defects and chromosomal abnormalities. However, this study does not always make it possible to detect the presence of multiple pregnancies.
Features of the course of multiple pregnancy and childbirth
As mentioned earlier, in case of multiplepregnancy, a woman is forced more often than usual to attend a woman's consultation. If the pregnancy proceeds safely, without any apparent complications, the expectant mother, starting from the second trimester of pregnancy, should visit the antenatal clinic every ten days. And in the third trimester of pregnancy, visits to the gynecologist are increased to once a week. Doctors pay no less attention to such an indicator as the weight of a pregnant twin woman. If a woman expects the birth of a single baby, her average weight gain will be about 10 to 12 kg. In the same case, if a woman is pregnant with twins, her weight gain will be about 15 kg. In no case should you be allowed to gain excessive weight. This can be a very heavy burden on the body of a future mother and lead to complications of normal pregnancy. During a multiple pregnancy, a woman should be morally ready to go to hospital for treatment at any time. After all, in all cases, even the slightest deterioration in the state of pregnant twin women, doctors prefer not to risk the lives of moms and children, but to send her to a hospital. Before the birth, the mother is also hospitalized in the hospital two weeks before the expected date of delivery. It would be prudent to prepare all the things necessary for hospitalization, so that in the event that such a need really exists, the expectant mother did not need to spend her time on training. The management of labor during a multiple pregnancy still causes a lot of discussions among obstetricians - gynecologists. A unified tactic of conducting such births has not been worked out until now. In addition, in each case, doctors take into account a large number of individual factors, such as:
- The course of pregnancy.
- State of health of women.
- The state of health of children.
- Presentation of the fruits.
Particular attention is paid by doctors toPreposition and weight of the baby, who must leave the birth canal first. That is, it is very risky to lead births naturally, if the first baby is in the pelvic presentation and the second in the headache. In such a case, babies can mate with their heads, which will significantly complicate the course of the birth process, and can even lead to the death of babies. Of course, in such a case, doctors will prefer delivery through caesarean section. Very often, in case of multiple pregnancies, complications arise, such as abnormalities of labor. It may be weak, or vice versa, too violent. In such cases, doctors, in order to avoid the development of all kinds of complications, resort to a medical correction of labor. There are drugs that slow down, or, on the contrary, intensify labor activity. In addition to drugs, other corrective methods are also used. For example, if the labor activity is rather weak, the doctors after the birth of the first baby open the second fetal bladder, which significantly shortens the interval between the birth of the first and second fetus. In the event that children have signs of hypoxia, doctors can take action on emergency surgery. As has been repeatedly mentioned above, with multiple pregnancies, births begin two to three weeks earlier than in single-birth pregnancies. However, nature took care of this feature - the maturation of the lungs in these babies occurs earlier than in a single-child pregnancy. Thus, premature births for twins and twins are much less dangerous than for other premature babies. In addition, scientists have reliably established an interesting fact. In the odnoyaytsovyh twins, the adaptation period after childbirth is not the same as in the bipedal twins. Odnoyaytsovye twins are much worse adapt to the environment. They are more likely to have chronic bronchitis, puffiness and icteric syndrome. The onset of labor with multiple pregnancies, as well as in singleton, often occurs with the discharge of amniotic fluid. The amniotic fluid in multiple pregnancy is greater, it is usual. Therefore, the muscle fibers are significantly stretched, resulting in a woman's weakness of labor. That's why doctors prefer to perform an autopsy of a fetal bladder already with a small opening of the cervix. Given that the birth in multiple pregnancy more often than ordinary accompanied by various complications, doctors prefer even natural births to lead against the background of epidural anesthesia. This measure will, if necessary, immediately conduct a cesarean section or other surgical interventions in the natural course of the birth process. Also, in most cases, after a woman starts contractions, she is given an intravenous catheter. This is necessary to ensure that doctors at any time have the opportunity to quickly enter the necessary pharmacological drugs. If a woman feels unwell, weakened, she can put a dropper with glucose solution, to maintain strength. The period of contractions is similar for any pregnancy, both singleton and multiparticulate. And during the attempt, immediately after the birth of the first baby, doctors open the second fetal bladder, after which they inject medications that stimulate uterine contraction. Pregnant women often ask the question of how much time passes between the birth of the first and second baby. In fact, it is impossible to answer this question unambiguously. The time that will pass between the birth of children depends on how effective attempts are. As a rule, the older baby is born 20 to 30 minutes earlier than the younger, if the children are dizygotic. If we are talking about monozygotic babies, the difference is not more than 10 minutes. Postnatal rehabilitation of a newly mummy of two or more toddlers does not differ in any way from that of a normal, singleton. And even breastfeeding twins is not such a difficult thing. It will not take very long, and you will easily cope with this task. Many parents, who have heard terrible stories about the birth of twins, worry that their babies will be born with extremely low weight. However, all these stories are nothing more than ordinary tales. In the event that the pregnancy is normal and the children are not born much earlier than their term, their body weight will not be critically low. The weight of twins at birth is less than usual on average by 300-400 grams. The development of toddlers also corresponds to the average age norms. No abnormalities in healthy babies are observed.
Payments and benefits
As you know, our state rendersmaterial support for the birth of a child. And if in the case of the birth of one baby, there are no questions, in the case of twins, there are often various misunderstandings and misunderstandings. Often, parents do not know all their rights, and even accounting workers are often confused about what kind of payments are made to the employee whose twins were born. So, what does the law say about this? In the event that two or more children are born simultaneously in the family, a lump-sum allowance for the birth of a child is paid for each of them, regardless of their number. In order to receive the allowance, parents must submit the relevant documents to the local social protection authorities, if the parents at the time of birth do not officially work anywhere and can document their status of the unemployed. If the parents work, the payment of a lump sum on the birth of twins is made in the accounting department of the enterprise where the mother or father of the children works. What documents are needed for this, you need to clarify at the place of receipt of benefits. A one-time benefit at the birth of twins is paid only at the place of work of one of the parents. If parents are students, payments are made at the place of study. Also very often, newly mummies ask a question about how the payment of a childcare allowance up to a year and a half in the case of the birth of twins takes place. This is stated in the law: if a woman cares for two or more children at the same time, the amount of benefits paid increases in proportion to the number of children. However, the total amount of the childcare allowance up to a year and a half, can not exceed 100% of the salary of the mother. It should also be recalled that, in addition to state payments, there are also regional lump sum payments at the time of the birth of the child. The funds for these payments are taken from the regional budgets. The sizes of these payments can vary depending on the region. To receive them, you also need to contact the place of work or the social protection authorities. The accrual of benefits should be made no more than ten days from the date of application and all necessary documents. An exemplary list of documents is given below:
- Application for the assignment of the necessary benefits, written in accordance with the established pattern.
- Information about the birth of children, which you will be given in the registration office along with the certificate of the birth of your baby.
- A certificate stating that the second parent did not receive a birth allowance at work.
If the parents do not work, as already mentionedabove, it is necessary to apply to the social protection authorities at the place of their registration, where payments will be made at the birth of twins. For this it is necessary to prepare the following documents:
- The application for a lump-sum benefit, it is necessary to indicate the account number in the bank to which the allowance will be transferred.
- References from the registry office about the birth of children.
- It is mandatory to provide a copy of the work record card or military ticket.
- A photocopy of the passport or other identification document.
- A photocopy of a personal savings book.
- If a woman has the status of a single mother, sheit is necessary to submit a document confirming this fact. Such a certificate a woman can always get in that registry office, in which she registered the birth of her toddlers.
As you all know, families who were bornthe second and third child, are entitled to receive maternity capital. The mother's capital at the birth of twins is paid to the second child. In order to receive it, the family must apply to the Pension Fund at the place of its registration. You need to submit the following documents:
- Filled in accordance with the established pattern of applicationto receive maternity capital. This application can be taken in the pension fund or downloaded from the official website of the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation.
- A photocopy and original of the applicant's passport.
- A copy and original of the certificate of compulsory pension insurance.
- Copy and original of the birth certificate of children.
- A certificate that the child has Russian citizenship.
No additional benefits at birthtwins are not provided by Russian legislation. However, if the family has other children, at the birth of twins, it automatically becomes large and acquires all the benefits that are put in such cases. To receive benefits for large families, it is also necessary to contact local social protection authorities. Very soon all the excitement and anxiety will abate, all bureaucratic procedures will be completed. The life of your family will go down in the usual way, your children will grow, and make you happy with new and new successes. In the meantime, all this is just ahead, enjoy your new position and let the days of waiting for your crumbs to come to light will not be overshadowed by any troubles. We advise you to read: