The person of the person is a basis of allpsychology. People from all over the world have long been interested in the question of what our nature is and how we differ from each other. Types of personality - this is what helps us on the move for a couple of minutes to learn something about another person and somehow predict his actions and behavior. Agree, this is very convenient and significantly saves our mental resources! However, the question of which typology to use has ripened here. Every more or less literate psychologist tried to create his own, resulting in the formation of chaos in science. By now, the number of human types described by scientists exceeds all reasonable limits. There are among the classifications and frankly delusional, and absolutely incomprehensible, and non-working in real life. But the question remains relevant, because when we meet, we still want to know what type of person is in front of us. We offer you classifications that have been tested for years and are known to millions of people around the world. Choose any of them and use!
Types of personality and psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud is the first one to rememberarguments about any psychological issue. Indeed, he expressed his opinion on any occasion and even created a very interesting and unconventional psychological theory, from which came out many other directions - psychoanalysis. Types of personality, of course, also interested him, although there is an opinion that their description is just a joke of Freud. As a basis for classification, he proposed the main stages of human development, or rather, on which of them each of us is stuck. Take, for example, the oral type, or rather one of its two varieties - oral-passive. This character is laid in the very beginning of infancy, when the baby sucks in the chest, and it is either associated with insufficient or excessive stimulation of the mouth zone (this is such an intricate explanation!). Simply put, if you do not give the baby to suck breast or, conversely, too tighten with this case, that is, the probability of becoming an "oral-passive person." He is distinguished by optimism and expectation of maternal warmth from the world, as well as the search for external approval at any cost. Such a person has very characteristic habits: he is trusting, constantly looking for love, smoking or has some other dependence. Another type of character, oral-aggressive, is laid in the second half of the first year of life, when the baby's first teeth break through and biting and chewing occur. If during this period the child's needs are not met, then a stall occurs at this stage. Character traits of such a person are reduced to aggression (as it is easy to guess from the name of the type), pessimism, love of arguments and sarcasm, the desire to dominate all the others. Such a person shows rigidity in communicating with others, because of what he usually has few friends. Another type of human character - anal - is also divided into two varieties. Strange as it may seem, Freud associated the attachment of these traits with the training to a pot. If the child aspired to keep everything within himself, then the same tendency will find expression in later life. He will grow up stingy, stubborn, petty, thorough, punctual - in general, a pedant. If the child, on the contrary, is "stuck" in pushing out, then in the future he will show a tendency to destroy himself and the world, impulsiveness, quick temper, aggression, a tendency to sadism, jealousy and the desire to have everything that you love. Oh, and it will not be easy for people to communicate with this person! The phallic character of a person is also not the limit of dreams. Freud singled out male and female types, which, by the way, do not necessarily coincide on the floor. It is formed at the age of four to six years. The masculine type is people who are distinguished by perseverance, insolence, boastfulness, desire to succeed, which for them is proof of masculinity. The female type is manifested in the tendency to flirt and seduce, full of sexual life (sometimes too much), as well as a desire to show men where crayfish winter. Unfortunately, both these traits are neurotic, which means they do not bring anything to their bearer, except for periodic devastation and depression. Freud also described the fourth type - genital - however, according to Zygmund himself, a person with such a character in nature does not exist. He is in some way an unattainable ideal, which is perfectly arranged in life and in general is happy. This person is able to establish close relations with others and achieve the highest peak in them without unnecessary quarrels and conflicts. He is active and loves to work. He has the ability to postpone the satisfaction of his immediate desires for the sake of achieving something more important in the future.
Types of personality and the most striking features
No less outstanding German psychiatrist KarlLeonhard created his typology of personalities on the basis of his own practice. Surprisingly, the main features that make up the core of psychiatric illnesses also occur in ordinary healthy people, but are less pronounced. They were called "accentuations" - the so-called "pointed" character traits. Carefully look at this classification, because it is very bright and vividly described various types of personality. Hyperthymic nature is characterized by high activity. This person can rightly be called an "eternal energy source" - sometimes it even seems that he never tires at all. He is always busy with something, and if he does not, he is looking for interesting activities for him. He is characterized by optimism and love of life, he is in pursuit of bright and new experiences. However, the hypertensive person also has negative features: in the race for various activities, he sometimes takes several cases at once, and none of them completes. His speech and thinking often resemble jumps from one idea to another, because of what hypertimes often lacks some personal depth. It also happens that because of their excessive gaiety and lightness they miss some really serious and important events. There is also an opposite type of character - dysthymic. It can also be called melancholic, because people of this type are characterized by seriousness and concentration on the sad and gloomy sides of being. These people often have a strong moral and ethical code of life, which, of course, is the plus of such a person. However, in the world they are living very uneasy: slow thinking and passivity in actions are by no means qualities that are widely in demand in the modern world. These people are characterized by isolation, self-centeredness and reasoning about the world. That is why their profession should not be associated with increased motor and mental activity. Cyclotimic individuals are proof that everything in the world is balanced. Two opposite types of personality have been described above, and it must be said that in the cyclothemic they both get along with each other. A distinctive feature of this person is the change in the poles of his moods and attitudes toward the world: in one day he can remain in an active and optimistic mood, and in the other - be sad and indulge in melancholy. The reasons for this variability can be different. Sometimes, like all other people, they are caused by external events, in other cases - by any natural cycles: changing the time of the day, the seasons or something else. Demonstrative personalities are very, very original. It will be difficult for you not to notice them, for brightness and the desire to attract attention are the main features of such a person. They are also distinguished by a high ability to oust from memory everything they do not like, whether it is negative information about themselves or just some unpleasant event. That is why there can be an impression that demonstrative people are constantly lying: they tend to forget what they do not want to know, and to invent what they would like to have in reality. They are overconfident, vain and constantly boast of themselves. Demonstrative women are very attracting the attention of men, because, as a rule, they are very good looking, have refined manners and are able to manipulate the partner with a fine touch. A pedantic type of character is distinguished by thoughtfulness and indecisiveness. Such a person needs to analyze all-all-all the details before making any important decision - that's why they are so tightened this process. He is absolutely unable to displace his doubts - rather, on the contrary, he is stuck on them. Again and again he checks the results of his work: how they are satisfactory, and whether the work can be considered complete. He constantly recycles and remains on overtime. Because of this it happens that the pedant starts to lag behind the work collective. On the other hand, in a work that requires so much attention to detail, such a person will be on top. In everyday life with a pedant it is also not easy: in his apartment must be reigned irreproachable cleanliness. The impulsive or excitable type of person probably met each of you. These are people who can not behave in their hands or somehow manage their own conditions. Their behavior is determined by momentary feelings and desires, with which they can not cope. Such a person has an explosive characteristic: if something goes wrong, as he likes, then he will swear loudly and loudly. They are psychologically "heavy", that is, it is very difficult for them to adapt to any changes in their lives. Just like the pedants, they are attentive to the details, with the only difference being that the former are worried when something is not in its place, and the latter are angry. Exalted people are much more violent than all others, a reaction to life events. Their emotions are bright, and the experiences are incredibly intense. Delight from the joyful events for them is as deep as the sadness of the tragic events is. In the words of the poet, "from passionate rejoicing to deadly longing." At the same time, this type of person is characterized by heightened altruism: he wants everyone to be always good (it's a pity that this does not happen, and this is what upsets the exaltant). They are so strongly attached to relatives and friends that the experiences for their successes and failures can be extremely deep. They are characterized by a love of nature, music, art, psycho-spiritual practices, so that strong emotions are not always connected with personal relationships. Alarming individuals are also often found in nature. As you know, in childhood we are very much afraid: snakes, dogs, spiders - this is normal. However, there are children who initially are more anxious and fearful, and the surrounding people appear to them as something threatening. In an adult, of course, everything is not so pronounced, but in general the picture is similar. The future seems to him unhappy and full of possible misadventures. In addition to multiple fears and anxieties, anxious people are characterized by their inability to defend their opinions in a dispute - on the contrary, they are faded and lost before an energetic adversary. They are distinguished by shyness and inner self-doubt. Such people very often become "scapegoats" in all sorts of conflict situations. And the last one on the list is an emotional type of personality. These people are characterized by sensitivity and profound reactions associated with subtle emotions. They are not worried about rude and animal feelings, but everything that is connected with humanism, soul, humanity and responsiveness. They look like exalted personalities, but do not fall into such extremes - their feelings develop with less speed. They are impressionable and kind-hearted, compassionate and easier to be touched. Just like exaltants, emotive people love nature and works of art. Of course, they are characterized by tearfulness: when they talk about a movie or a story with a sad end, they cry. As easy as an emotive person can tears of joy and delight. Unfortunately, because of their impressionability, they easily fall into depression because of sad events. Colleagues of Karl Leongard added to his classification another type of character - schizoid. Not to be confused with schizophrenia! The schizoid is characterized by closedness and rationality: it is much more interesting for him to be in the world of higher mathematics or quantum physics than in the world of living people. As a rule, he has a high level of intelligence and developed abstract thinking, which help him become a professional in the relevant fields. The schizoids are averse to emotions: they may be left indifferent by the departure of a loved one or receiving a diploma, but they are able to be upset because of the inability to solve a philosophical dilemma. This is the manifestation of the paradox and the uniqueness of their character. Oh yes, in their behavior, sometimes there are many quirks: fancy clothes, strange gestures and phrases or anything else.
Types of personality associated with temperament
It's not a secret for anyone that the temperament is tightis related to the type of character and personality. It is based on the properties of the nervous system and the features of its functioning. Temperament characterizes not what a person does, but how he does it. Since the time of Hippocrates, four types of temperament have been distinguished. True, the basis for the classification is chosen very strange - the prevalence in the body of any fluid: blood, lymph, bile and black. Times have changed, but these types of human temperament persisted in an unchanged form, which indicates their real existence. So, we can distinguish the following main types of personalities: choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic and melancholic. Choleric is characterized by impetuous, fast and at the same time completely unbalanced character. He often changes his mood - from rapture to depression several times a day - which is accompanied by emotional outbursts. The choleric spends a lot of resources on all this, because of what he quickly becomes exhausted. It is easy to see that such a person does not have the equilibrium of nervous processes, which distinguishes him, for example, from a sanguine person. However, the choleric patient has an amazing performance, which he can not always use correctly: he is excessively carried away by something, he can invest in this business much more than necessary, which will lead to fatigue and grief. About sanguine, you can say that he is a living and moving person. He often changes his emotional impressions, which is due to his ability to react quickly to everything that is happening around him. He is distinguished by a somewhat hot temper, despite which he easily reconciles himself with his troubles and failures. Externally, the sanguine manifests itself in expressive facial expressions and sweeping gestures. If he likes his work, then he can be very, very productive, but in the event that it makes him bored, the efficiency of the sanguine activity is significantly reduced. Phlegmatic can be called unperturbed and unhurried. Sometimes it resembles a brick wall that can not be pierced. Phlegmatic possesses steady aspirations and moods, as well as stinginess in the manifestation of external emotions and feelings. His facial expressions are mild, and gestures are very mild. However, do not think that the phlegmatic is a "biscuit", he simply prefers to be emotionally involved only in the most important events. At the same time, he remains calm and calm in his work, showing perseverance and perseverance. The slowness of this person is compensated by diligence, thanks to which the phlegmatic manages to show rather high productivity (especially in clear and measured activities, such as accounting). Well, and finally, melancholic. This type of temperament is notable for its vulnerability and propensity to experience because of a variety of events. Melancholic is very sensitive, and it can upset any, even the most innocuous things. At the same time he has increased fatigue and impressionability. Melancholics can not be idle, because in this situation, it seems to him that they are neglected and nobody needs it. He is somewhat more anxious than other people. However, do not think that melancholic is a sort of unsuccessful loser. Among the representatives of creative professions, there are a lot of people of this type who have managed to fully use all the features of their temperament: Tchaikovsky, Gogol, Chopin, Descartes and others achieved success in their work and could have been very proud of themselves. Speaking of temperament, it is worth remembering the two well-known types of person's personality: extraversion and introversion. These are two poles of the same quality, which in one form or another are represented in all people. Extroversion and introversion is not sociability and attitude towards people. Rather, it is the overall level of human activity: how much it needs to be fed from the environment, how energetic it is, in contact with whom it is interesting to be with itself or with surrounding people. The well-known psychologist Hans Jürgen Eysenck believed that extroverts are sociable and optimistic people. They have a wide circle of acquaintances, with whom they regularly communicate. Such a person is distinguished by some impulsiveness in behavior, which is a consequence of weakened control over ourselves and our emotions. Extraverts prefer to engage in active and quick activities that require high energy inputs and at the same time have high returns. Introverts are the exact opposite of extroverts. They are calm and shy; for them is a serious difficulty acquaintance and communication with new people. They tend to distance themselves from all but their loved ones, which is due to the fact that communication takes away a lot of energy from them (which is so little in the introvert organism). He likes to plan his actions and follow the plan - it also helps to save resources and reduces anxiety, as well as maintaining order in all areas of life. At the same time, it is easy for an introvert to control his feelings and do what is required of him. Do not think that one temperament is bad, and another is good, and get upset if you do not belong to the latter. In every type of person's character one can find both positive and negative sides. The main thing that is necessary for adaptation to life is good upbringing and self-regulation. In this case, the best is manifested in all temperaments: an impressionable melancholic can experience very profound experiences, a staunch phlegmatic - avoid hasty decisions, a sympathetic sanguine person - join in any job, a passionate choleric person - pull on himself crisis and emergency projects. On the other hand, we should not forget about frankly non-adaptive personality traits, which should be taken into account, and avoid situations that they could negatively influence. It's hard for melancholics to communicate with people because of closedness and shyness, phlegmatic is hampered by excessive slowness, sanguine - impermanence, diffuse and superficial, and the choleric is often too hasty, irritable and aggressive. In any case, it is important to understand that the type of personality does not affect the ability and success of a person, because the most important thing is to find your place in life. And it, as everyone knows, has everyone. Try yourself in different roles, get carried away with new and unusual things, and then you can be who you are without harming yourself. We advise you to read: