1 Methods for assessing the health of the fetus in the uterusare constantly improved and the appearance of new tests is quite common. At the same time, in each clinic and every doctor has some specific instruments and methods for determining the state of the fetus. Below are the most commonly used methods (tests). Evaluation of fetal movements can allow to judge the state of health of the fetus, being thus the simplest way to detect the danger that has arisen. If the pregnant woman does not feel the movement of the fetus, other studies are needed.

Test for absence of pathology

The test for absence of pathology is a non-stress test. This test is completely safe and is the most affordable. It is based on the following observation: in a healthy child, the heart rate increases by approximately 15 strokes within 15 seconds during movement, provided that the oxygen supply is normal. Recording of the heart rate is noted during ultrasound examination. The doctor asks the mother to say when she feels the baby move. From this moment, the change in heart rate is monitored. If the heart rate changes twice within 20 minutes, the result is considered normal. If, within 40 minutes, an increase in heart rate was not noted, the result is considered pathological. A positive result corresponds to the normal condition of the fetus, but with a negative result in 75% of cases, the alarm is false. The child, for example, can sleep during the test. If the test is repeated after a while, the result will be normal. If, however, repeated analysis indicates a stressful condition of the fetus, the doctor can prescribe a test for the pathology of the fights for testing. Acoustic or vibroacoustic stimulation is a non-stress test in which the fetal response to sound or vibration is evaluated.

Test for the pathology of contractions

A test for the pathology of contractions -Used to assess the impact of uterine spasm on the fetal heart. These studies are more complex and require more time (can last up to 3 hours). If spasms do not come on their own often enough, they can be caused by intravenous injection of oxytocin or by stimulating the nipples (using a hot towel or a pregnant hand). The reaction of the fetus to spasms determines the plausible state of the child and the child's place. A negative or soothing result means that the child's heartbeat remains normal during labor. A positive or alarming result means that the pathology of the heartbeat is observed during or after the contractions, that is, there is a risk of finding the child in prolonged bouts. It was found that stimulation of the nipples or injection of oxytocin give the same results. However, stimulating the nipples is much easier, cheaper and faster. A woman herself can periodically stimulate her nipples by rubbing them with her fingertips through her clothes for 2 minutes every 5 minutes. This test has a very high percentage of false results. Therefore, the evaluation of the fetus can be done only on the basis of several tests.

Biophysical profile

Biophysical profile. This forty-minute procedure combines an ultrasound test with the non-pathological state of the fetus, as well as checking the general state of the child: jet heartbeat, breathing, muscle tone of the limbs, body movement and the amount of amniotic fluid. The child receives 0-2 points for each of the five listed points, as when counting points on the Apgar scale. A high score (8-10) means that the child is healthy. A low score (0-2) means that a child's life is in danger. Then the doctor can offer immediate delivery. High and low scores fairly accurately reflect the state of the child. But the intermediate meaning (3-6) is much more difficult to interpret. Although the results of this analysis are not unambiguous, it is one of the safest ways to check a child's prenatal state. "Modified" biophysical profile. This compound is a biophysical profile study and a non-stress test. This allows you to accurately assess the state of the child.

Fetal blood test

Fetal blood test. If hypoxia is suspected (lack of oxygen), the blood of the child is taken for analysis. After opening the fetal bladder, the doctor inserts a thin tube into the cervix and attaches it to the child's skull. A small puncture is made on the scalp and a sample of blood is taken. If the concentration of oxygen in the blood is normal, then the baby is okay. The analysis of the child's blood helps to avoid misinterpreting the monitor's readings during EMF, and also allows the doctor not to make hasty and unreasonable interference. In some maternity homes, the blood test equipment for the baby is next to the birthplace, so that the results can be obtained without delay (otherwise the blood test takes about 20 minutes). The longer the interval between taking blood and getting the results, the less is the significance of the test for deciding on the intervention.

Volume of amniotic fluid

Volume of amniotic fluid. The amniotic water serves as a kind of pillow for the child, allow it to move, help develop lungs, stabilize the child's body temperature and serve as a barrier to infection. This fluid comes from two sources: the mother and child organisms. Part of it comes from the mother's blood serum, part of it is secreted by the kidneys and lungs of the child. Most of the amniotic fluid is the urine of the fetus. In the last month of pregnancy, amniotic fluid is replenished with urine of the fetus in an amount of 30 ml per hour. In the last weeks of pregnancy, the volume of amniotic fluid usually decreases. The volume of amniotic fluid is maintained in equilibrium as a result of constant replenishment and absorption. If the equilibrium is disturbed, too much (polyhydramnios) or too small (low water) amount of water is formed. In both cases, there is a danger to the fetus. For example, water may mean that the baby's kidneys are working poorly and produce too little urine. Especially dangerous is a sharp decrease in the volume of amniotic fluid before birth. If this occurs against the background of other signs of the pathological condition of the fetus, then it becomes an excuse for intervention. But since the ultrasonic determination of the amount of amniotic fluid does not give accurate results and the number of factors can be influenced by many factors, this analysis alone does not give an unambiguous decision about the intervention. There are many other studies evaluating the condition of the fetus: alternate ultrasound studies evaluating the continuous growth of the fetus, sampling of amniotic fluid (by amniopuncture), evaluation of the volume of blood passing through the umbilical cord, a fast test for assessing the fetus when taken to the maternity ward (connection of an acoustic test with an evaluation amount of amniotic fluid), fetal electrocardiography (evaluation of fetal heart function with an electrode located on the fetal head), fetal head stimulation test ( tsenka reaction fetal head compression and injections). However, the need to apply this or that test is determined for many objective reasons. We advise you to read: