Sweet pepper is very rich in vitamins andmineral substances, contains proteins and sugars, fatty and essential oils, citric, malic and oxalic acids. One fruit of pepper contains a daily norm of vitamin P, and the content of vitamin C in it makes it a real champion among vegetables. Therefore, sweet pepper has long and firmly entered the list of the most favorite garden crops that are grown on household plots. Pepper belongs to the family of Solanaceae, which are very susceptible to late blight. But this misfortune bypasses the pepper side. Care of it is very simple, and it can even grow up beginners summer residents. But in order to take off in summer a rich crop of this vegetable culture, you need to know how to grow pepper seedlings. When growing seedlings in greenhouses or houses, seeds can be planted in pots or cups with a diameter of 8-10 centimeters, seedlings or standard seedlings. In warm hotbeds, they are planted directly into the ground. Often the seeds are first planted in a box, and after the appearance of the first real leaflets, they are dived into pots.
Before growing pepper seedlings, you need toprepare seeds so that the pepper produces a large and stable crop. It is necessary, above all, to pick up good seeds. Then prepare them for sowing, to grow from them a good seedling. To begin with, you can sort the seeds by eye, rejecting broken, small and empty ones. Then the seeds should be etched in a slightly warm solution of potassium permanganate in a dark purple color. Seeds need to hold in it 20-30min, and then thoroughly rinse them with running water. Then the seeds need to be heated. This can be done by placing them in a thermos for two hours, where the water temperature is 40-50 ° C. You can also warm the seeds in running warm water. This dramatically increases the germination of seeds - after such training they will ascend faster. Now the seeds are ready for sowing.
Sweet pepper, unlike bitter, not verywell tolerates the pick, so expensive varieties of sweet peppers are best immediately planted in a separate bowl. But on the other hand, pepper seedlings change with "tastes" as they grow, and if at first it is good to take a nutrient mixture from garden and humus in equal proportions, then in subsequent stages the seedlings more like "loose" soil with less nitrogen, but enriched with other minerals. For example, a mixture of peat and sawdust in a ratio of 7: 3. To do this, mix low and peat peat in varying amounts, although pure peat-poorly decomposed peat can be used, provided that lime materials that remove excess acidity are added to it. For top dressing, add 30-40 g of superphosphate, 7-10 g of urea, 3 g of magnesium sulphate and 10-15 g of potassium sulfate to the ground mixture on the bucket of soil. If you do not dive the pepper, then it can be left in any of the listed mixtures. Then its yield will be less than when picking, but the loss will not be so significant, so it is not worthwhile experimenting with fruit varieties.
If you are interested in how to grow pepper at home, thenyou should know that before putting the soil mixture in boxes or pots, it is necessary to put good drainage on the bottom, so that the water does not stagnate, and the roots do not rot. In the box you need to pour a layer of earth mixture 7-8 cm thick over the drainage layer. The surface of the ground is leveled, and then on it grooves are spaced from each other by 5-6 cm. In these grooves are laid out at a distance of 1-2 cm from each other in advance prepared seeds. Then the holes in the cup or grooves in the box are covered with a layer of sand or humus 0.5 cm thick. After that, the soil should be slightly compacted. Planted seeds should be well watered from the watering can, keeping it low, so as not to wash out the seeds from the soil with a strong stream of water. Then the containers can be covered with a plastic film or glass. After this, before the emergence of seedlings, the containers are put in a warm place. It is not necessary that it be light. In order to germinate properly, the seeds of pepper need a temperature of 22-28 ° C, so you can put the box near the battery at home, making sure that the earth does not dry out in it.
Care of seedlings
Pepper is a light-loving plant, so he likesgood lighting. When shoots begin to appear, the container with the seedlings should be immediately moved to a lighted place, for example, on a window sill. If there is no such place, then it is necessary to provide illumination with a lamp. The lamp will also be needed to illuminate seedlings during prolonged overcast weather. It is necessary to lighten them as long as a light day continues in clear weather. We must carefully monitor that seedlings do not fall even for a while under drafts. Because of them, it will weaken, it will hurt and even die. This often happens when pepper seedlings are grown on the windowsill at home, so be sure to check for the possibility of drafts of the place where you will put the pepper seedlings. Do not leave open leafs near the seedlings. If the room needs to be ventilated, then place the seedlings under polyethylene caps or mini-greenhouses from glass jars.
Watering of seedlings
Pepper loves a lot of water, and with its lack of itfruits grow curved, small and tasteless. Seedlings also need to be watered well: very often and so that the land is always slightly moist, but not wet. Water for irrigation should be taken warm, not below room temperature, because from cold water seedlings can not only get sick, but also die. In addition, you need to make sure that the air is not too dry. Therefore, if you grow seedlings at home, where heating works, and the air is dry because of this, then the plant needs to be sprayed every day, and the premises should be ventilated, covering the pepper from drafts. After the first real leaves appear in the pepper, the seedlings should be carefully discarded. Then the seedlings should be well watered. Growing seedlings in pots, at first they put them close, and then spread out gradually so that the leaves of the seedlings do not cover each other.
If the seedlings have a dark green color, it growswell, then it can not be fed. But if the seedlings are frail, then they should be fed up. Specialists generally advise for the time of forcing seedlings to feed it twice:
- the first time - when the majority of seedlings will have three or four real leaflets;
- the second time - when the real leaves will be already five or six.
A good fertilizing is a liquid fertilizer"Effect", one cap is diluted in five liters of water. You can feed seedlings and a bird's litter, which must be diluted with hot water in a ratio of 1:20. You do not need to insist that there is no smell. You can use a full mineral fertilizer, for which you need to dilute one teaspoon into five liters of water. In order for the fruits to turn out to be more qualitative, it is necessary to arrange foliar dressing with microfertilizers. This is done by spraying.
Hardening of seedlings
Two weeks before planting in the soil, the seedlings should bebegin to temper, accustoming it to fresh air and a lower temperature. To do this, you can first open the window or window in the room, and in the following days, take out the seedlings on clear days on the balcony or on the veranda, or even on the street. Increase gradually the residence time of seedlings in the fresh air. It should be noted that such hardening is only done when the air has already warmed to 15 ° C. Start hardening from twenty minutes a day, gradually increasing the time. Experts advise tempering the seedlings, rather than warm seeds in warm water. Two or three days before planting pepper seedlings in the ground, it is necessary to make its preventive treatment from phytophthora, for which in three liters of hot water dilute a pinch of copper sulfate and boric acid. Cool the solution and sprinkle the seedlings in the morning or evening before landing. The seedlings are planted only after the soil has warmed up well and its temperature is above 15 ° C. However, you can do this not earlier than two months after emergence. Only in the southern regions seedlings can be planted in a month and a half. Plant pepper on a sunny place, well protected from the wind. Preparedness of seedlings for planting can also be determined by appearance. If the seedling has seven to eight to ten real leaves, and its height is 20-30 cm, then this seedling is ready for planting in the soil. From the age of seedlings, the yield of sweet pepper depends particularly strongly: it grows most of all the fruit in those bushes whose seedlings are planted permanently in 80-90 days after emergence, while in the sixty-day seedlings the yield is sometimes almost twice below.
Planting of seedlings
Before planting the seedlings should be watered so,so that the earth is softened. In the garden you need to make furrows or holes in advance. The seedlings in them are placed at the same depth as the seedlings grew. That is, you do not need to dig in the root neck, and expose the roots. If you grew seedlings in pots or cups, you can put it in the ground right with them, cutting a glass in a hole in several places. Most often seedlings are planted in an ordinary or two-line tape method. When pepper is planted in rows, the distance between them should be about half a meter for bitter pepper, and for a sweet vegetable, even more - 70cm. In a row between plants, the distance should be 10-15cm for bitter and 15-30cm for sweet pepper, depending on the variety. It should be borne in mind that the larger the bush, the greater the distance between them. The belt method implies that the narrower rows, the distance between which is 40cm, alternate with the wider ones - 80-90cm. In the series, the distance between the plants should be the same as in the first method.
If you are interested in how to grow pepper at home, thenyou should be aware that in warm regions and southern regions it can be grown even without pre-growing seedlings. In this case, seeds are sown in the ground only when it warms up to a temperature of at least 8 ° C, usually not earlier than mid-April. Seeds are covered with soil 2-3cm thick, that is, they need to be planted deeper than seeds are planted on seedlings. Another question is whether to grow the pepper in this way, because with late sowing, the crop of such pepper will ripen later, and the fruit-bearing period will be shorter. This means that the total harvest will be less. We advise you to read: